• alpha-lino
  • Flaxseed oil contains alpha-linolenic acid, ALA, an omega-3 essential fatty acid, and chemicals called lignans, which have antioxidant properties. (dailyrecord.co.uk)
  • Bio-guided fractionation of spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea) revealed alpha-linolenic acid galactolipids (18:3, n-3) were responsible for inhibitory effects on tumor promoter-induced Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is ingested from oily fish, and algae oil or derived from dietary alpha-linolenic acid found in, for instance, walnuts, hemp oil and flax oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • DGLA production from GLA is enhanced when high levels of alpha-linolenic acid are present, blocking the arachidonic acid pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • PUFAs
  • A high consumption of oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are found in most types of vegetable oil, may increase the likelihood that postmenopausal women will develop breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxylipins are derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) by COX enzymes (cyclooxygenases), by LOX enzymes (lipoxygenases), or by cytochrome P450 epoxygenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • methionine
  • Animal proteins have greater amounts of sulphur containing amino acids such as methionine, which the colonic microflora accrues into hydrogen sulfide, resulting in the pathogenesis of IBD and ulcerative colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitamin
  • 1) Vitamin C - This water-soluble vitamin plays a critical role in aiding our overtaxed immune system, supporting healthy inflammatory levels, increasing antioxidants, and optimizing adrenal function. (prohealth.com)
  • Cod liver oil also provides a good source of vitamin D, an important vitamin that produces anti-inflammatory effects, according to recent research. (livestrong.com)
  • By including omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, vitamin E, β-carotene as well as pre- and pro-biotics, the immune system can be boosted and maintained to help improve overall health. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • L-theanine is an amino acid that forms the inhibitory neurotransmitter called GABA. (prohealth.com)
  • Early work in identifying factors that played a role in the CST-SMG axis lead to the discovery of a seven amino acid peptide, called the submandibular gland peptide-T. SGP-T was demonstrated to have biological activity and thermoregulatory properties related to endotoxin exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • One SGP-T derivative is a three-amino acid sequence shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory molecule with systemic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • This three-amino acid peptide is phenylalanine-glutamine-glycine (FEG) and its D-isomeric form (feG) have become the foundation for the ImSAID category. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice also express an epidermal type 15-lipoxygenase (e-12LO) which has 50.8% amino acid sequence identity to human 15-LOX-2 and 49.3% sequence indetity to mouse Arachidonate 8-lipoxygenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, plant sources generally do not have as complete an amino acid profile, as they are often limiting in one or more essential amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amino acid most affected by this reaction is lysine, which is an essential amino acid and the first limiting amino acid for the dog and most other vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolites
  • Unlike hormones which are secreted by cells, travel in the circulation to alter the behavior of distant cells, and thereby act as Endocrine signalling agents, these arachidonic acid metabolites act locally as Autocrine signalling and/or Paracrine signaling agents to regulate the behavior of their cells of origin or of nearby cells, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipoxins (LXs or Lxs), an acronym for lipoxygenase interaction products, are bioactive autacoid metabolites of arachidonic acid made by various cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structurally, they are defined as arachidonic acid metabolites that contain three hydroxyl residues (also termed hydroxy residues) and four double bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • potent
  • twenty) because of their formation from twenty-carbon essential fatty acids, have potent and often opposing effects on e.g. smooth muscle (vasculature, myometrium) and blood platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Copper is essential for health as it forms a component of a number of proteins that speed up chemical reactions in the body. (dailyrecord.co.uk)
  • this action occurs because EPA and DHA stop white blood cells from producing inflammatory proteins. (livestrong.com)
  • Whole proteins are composed of single amino acids organized into a chain, which then interact in order to fold the protein into its final three-dimensional structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteases act by cleaving or cutting whole proteins at specific amino acids within their structure in order to form multiple small polypeptides from a single whole protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • A good source of protein provides a dog with a balanced and complete profile of amino acids, and is essential for growth, muscle maintenance, and various cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soybeans, one of the most common plant-based protein sources in dog foods, provide a concentrated and complete protein source, meaning that they provide all the essential amino acids in adequate amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • High protein intake, specifically animal protein via meat and fish consumption has been significantly associated with inflammatory bowel disease as well as ulcerative colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different proteases are specific to different amino acids, and as such multiple proteases may be used in order to cut a protein at several different locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • This value describes the percentage of usable amino acids within the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • analgesic
  • Arnica montana is used as an herbal medicine for analgesic and anti-inflammatory purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Amica Montana's main pharmacologically active constituent (helenalin) is safe and beneficial (as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic) in the very small quantities used in herbal medicine, it is extremely toxic and almost always fatal in larger doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditional uses for the plant are similar to those for willow bark, with it generally being employed for analgesic and anti-inflammatory purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • These amides conceptually can be formed from a fatty acid and ethanolamine with the release of a molecule of water, but the known biological synthesis uses a specific phospholipase D to cleave the phospholipid unit from N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines. (wikipedia.org)
  • body's
  • Infection describes the interaction between the action of microbial invasion and the reaction of the body's inflammatory response - the two components are considered together when discussing an infection, and the word is used to imply a microbial invasive cause for the observed inflammatory reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • Anthocyanin isolates and anthocyanin-rich mixtures of bioflavonoids may provide protection from DNA cleavage, estrogenic activity (altering development of hormone-dependent disease symptoms), enzyme inhibition, boosting production of cytokines (thus regulating immune responses), anti-inflammatory activity, lipid peroxidation, decreasing capillary permeability and fragility, and membrane strengthening. (bewellbuzz.com)
  • tissues
  • Fish oil may be fish body oil - made from the tissues of fatty fish - or fish liver oil, which is made by pressing the cooked liver of halibut, shark or, most commonly, cod. (dailyrecord.co.uk)
  • Typically, oxylipins are not stored in tissues but are formed on demand by liberation of precursor fatty acids from esterified forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • colitis
  • The severity of colitis was least in Group II (containing 13.2% of omega-3 fatty acid), and was relatively greater in Group III,I,IV and VI in that order. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the principal types of inflammatory bowel disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • The classic NF-κB signaling pathway is activated by proinflammatory stimuli, bacterial or viral infection, and various forms of stress such as UV radiation and environmental toxins ( 12 ) and is essential for the innate immune system and antiapoptotic signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A series of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, and various cells within the injured tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • Conventionally, these amino acids arev primarily provided through either a singular or a combination of animal meats, meals, and by-products. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Found naturally in the body, glucosamine plays an important role in making essential building blocks of the joints, including the ligaments, tendons and cartilage. (dailyrecord.co.uk)
  • Preliminary studies appear to indicate that the DHA and EPA omega-3 fatty acids found in krill oil may be more bio-available than in fish oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydroxyl
  • 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) is a derivative of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, containing a Hydroxyl residue at carbon 12 and a 5Z,8Z,10E,14Z Cis-trans isomerism configuration (Z=cis, E=trans) in its four double bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphate
  • The plasma membranes of cells contain phospholipids, which are composed of a hydrophilic phosphate head and two hydrophobic fatty acid tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • 3) Confirmation of the effect as a fat nutrient (a) by administering an appropriate mixture of fish oil to animal models, (b) by analyzing the fatty acid in the serum, and (c) by examining the histological findings and the state of the biological function of the intestinal mucous membranes. (nii.ac.jp)