• enzyme
  • Delphinidin 3-(6-p-coumaroyl)glucoside is formed by the enzyme anthocyanin 3-O-glucoside 6''-O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from delphinidin 3-O-glucoside and p-coumaroyl-CoA in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthocyanin 5-aromatic acyltransferase is an enzyme that uses hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA and anthocyanidin-3,5-diglucoside to produce CoA and anthocyanidin 3-glucoside-5-hydroxycinnamoylglucoside. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, an anthocyanin 5-aromatic acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.153) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA + anthocyanidin-3,5-diglucoside ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + anthocyanidin 3-glucoside-5-hydroxycinnamoylglucoside Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA and anthocyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, whereas its two products are CoA and anthocyanidin 3-glucoside-5-hydroxycinnamoylglucoside. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase is an enzyme that forms anthocyanin 3,5-O-diglucoside from anthocyanin 3-O-glucoside. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucose:anthocyanin 3'-O-beta-D-glucosyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and isolated procyanidins B2, B5 and C1 from the berries and bark of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. (mdpi.com)
  • Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside possessed the strongest and cyanidin 3-xyloside the weakest radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory activity. (mdpi.com)
  • Barsett, H. Extracts, Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as Radical Scavengers and Enzyme Inhibitors. (mdpi.com)
  • Bräunlich M, Slimestad R, Wangensteen H, Brede C, Malterud KE, Barsett H. Extracts, Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as Radical Scavengers and Enzyme Inhibitors. (mdpi.com)
  • total anthocyanins
  • In order to show how the calculated value of total anthocyanins depends on the predominant anthocyanin used for the calculations, we compared the results of spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis. (docme.ru)
  • Present research demonstrated that different Д° values may influence the results of total anthocyanins even more than cultivar properties. (docme.ru)
  • Such differences in Д° values cause wide fluctuations in reported strawberry total anthocyanins contents and make it problematic to compare results published by different authors. (docme.ru)
  • compounds
  • Anthocyanins, a particular group of compounds, are one of the more than 6,000 members of the flavonoid family of polyphenol phytochemicals found in various plant foods.1 In addition to anthocyanins, the flavonoid group includes flavanols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, and isoflavones. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • the intake of these compounds is estimated to be as much as ninefold higher than that of other dietary flavonoids1-estimated to be between 3 and 215 mg/day.4 The amount of anthocyanins in foods can vary greatly. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • While the answers to how and why anthocyanins may help prevent disease remain undiscovered or unexplained, the literature to date is intriguing, and most researchers are calling for more studies to explore the potential health benefits of these naturally occurring compounds. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • These compounds, or their reduced form flavan-3-ols through the action of leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR), can be further oxidized by anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) for the generation of the unstable flavylium cation anthocyanins, which are then linked to a glucosyl residue at C3 in ring C to form anthocyanin-3- O -glucosides such as cyanidin-3- O -glucoside (C3G). (springer.com)
  • Since anthocyanins exist in plants as mixtures of several compounds with similar chemical properties and the purification process is complicated, therefore the high purity anthocyanins are expensive [Wrolstad et al. (docme.ru)
  • In this review we will update the knowledge on the cardiovascular effects of anthocyanins, catechins and proanthocyanidins, as implied by the in vitro and clinical studies on these compounds. (mdpi.com)
  • Leucoanthocyanidin (flavan-3,4-diols) are colorless chemical compounds related to anthocyanidins and anthocyanins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aronia berries and chokecherries are both high in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins, yet the two plants are distantly related within the Rosaceae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • antioxidants
  • While one could argue that the evidence is inadequate to define a specific dietary recommendation, it's clear that consuming anthocyanin-rich foods should be encouraged," says Jeffrey Blumberg, PhD, director of the antioxidants research laboratory at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University in Boston. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • It is popular for its striking dark blue color because of its anthocyanins and its crown at its head, maybe that's why it remains the queen of antioxidants. (hubpages.com)
  • Extracts
  • Oral consumption of anthocyanin in fruit, extracts or supplements has proved to be effective in preventing or treating such diseases (11-13). (myprotein.com)
  • colorless
  • When the pH was increased from 2.2 to 5.5, the solution of the pigment became progressively more violet (λmax = 560 nm at pH 5.5), whereas similar solutions of the anthocyanin were almost colorless at pH 4.0. (wikipedia.org)
  • cabbage
  • Nature, traditional agriculture methods, and plant breeding have produced various uncommon crops containing anthocyanins, including blue- or red-flesh potatoes and purple or red broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, and corn. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • The absorbance pattern responsible for the red color of anthocyanins may be complementary to that of green chlorophyll in photosynthetically-active tissues such as young Quercus coccifera leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many aspects to anthocyanins' role in the body that remain a mystery, such as bioactivity, uptake, absorption, bioavailability, and distribution in the tissues. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • inhibits
  • Investing tomatoes with high anthocyanin content doubles their shelf-life and inhibits growth of a post-harvest mold pathogen, Botrytis cinerea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthocyanins inhibits the biological activity of some pro-inflammatory proteins called cytokines by suppressing specific cellular signalling pathways (20,25). (myprotein.com)
  • phenolics
  • We wished to quantify levels of total phenolics and anthocyanins in anthocyanin expressing tomato fruit in different production systems and compare to that of normal tomatoes. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Epidermis and pericarp tissue of three advanced breeding lines of anthocyanin-fruit tomatoes and three lines of nonanthocyanin-fruit tomatoes, both grown in organically and conventionally managed systems, were assayed for total phenolics and total anthocyanin content. (oregonstate.edu)
  • However, the detailed effects of malting on sorghum grain anthocyanins, a major class of phenolics that influence the taste and colour of sorghum-based foods, requires further investigation. (mdpi.com)
  • Roberts, T.H. Effects of Sorghum Malting on Colour, Major Classes of Phenolics and Individual Anthocyanins. (mdpi.com)
  • cognitive
  • But laboratory research as well as studies in animals and humans have suggested that anthocyanins may play important roles in helping reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive decline, and cancer. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • It has previously been demonstrated that anthocyanins upregulate tumor suppressor genes, induce apoptosis in cancer cells, repair and protect genomic DNA integrity, which is important in reducing age‑associated oxidative stress, and improve neuronal and cognitive brain function. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Oxidative
  • Anthocyanins are considered to have high radical scavenging properties, preventing oxidative stress and helping to maintain physiological functions [Du and Wang (docme.ru)
  • Regulation
  • This review discusses the interplay between inflammation and obesity, and their subsequent regulation via the use of dietary anthocyanins, suggesting an alternative dietary strategy to ameliorate obesity and obesity associated chronic diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • chlorophyll
  • red Beeches have anthocyanin in their leaves which masks the colours of chlorophyll but obviously does not affect photosynthesis. (bio.net)
  • health
  • This article will discuss Anthocyanin and how it can boost your health and performance. (myprotein.com)
  • However, whilst some studies and media publications concentrate solely on the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits of Anthocyanin, it is apparent in the research that other mechanisms are potentially as responsible for the health benefits described (13,28-30). (myprotein.com)
  • food
  • Although approved to color foods and beverages in the European Union, anthocyanins are not approved for use as a food additive. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Double Mutation in the Anthocyanin 5-O-Glucosyltransferase Gene Disrupts Enzymatic Activity in Vitis vinifera L". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aoki H, Kuze N, Kato Y. 2002 Anthocyanins isolated from purple corn (Zea mays L.) Foods and Food Ingredients J. Japan 199:41-5. (patentgenius.com)