• enzyme
  • Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and isolated procyanidins B2, B5 and C1 from the berries and bark of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. (mdpi.com)
  • Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside possessed the strongest and cyanidin 3-xyloside the weakest radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory activity. (mdpi.com)
  • Barsett, H. Extracts, Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as Radical Scavengers and Enzyme Inhibitors. (mdpi.com)
  • Bräunlich M, Slimestad R, Wangensteen H, Brede C, Malterud KE, Barsett H. Extracts, Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as Radical Scavengers and Enzyme Inhibitors. (mdpi.com)
  • Delphinidin 3-(6-p-coumaroyl)glucoside is formed by the enzyme anthocyanin 3-O-glucoside 6''-O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from delphinidin 3-O-glucoside and p-coumaroyl-CoA in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthocyanin 5-aromatic acyltransferase is an enzyme that uses hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA and anthocyanidin-3,5-diglucoside to produce CoA and anthocyanidin 3-glucoside-5-hydroxycinnamoylglucoside. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, an anthocyanin 5-aromatic acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.153) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA + anthocyanidin-3,5-diglucoside ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + anthocyanidin 3-glucoside-5-hydroxycinnamoylglucoside Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA and anthocyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, whereas its two products are CoA and anthocyanidin 3-glucoside-5-hydroxycinnamoylglucoside. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase is an enzyme that forms anthocyanin 3,5-O-diglucoside from anthocyanin 3-O-glucoside. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucose:anthocyanin 3'-O-beta-D-glucosyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • total anthocyanin
  • Epidermis and pericarp tissue of three advanced breeding lines of anthocyanin-fruit tomatoes and three lines of nonanthocyanin-fruit tomatoes, both grown in organically and conventionally managed systems, were assayed for total phenolics and total anthocyanin content. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Vitis
  • The European vine family Vitis vinifera is characterized by anthocyanins that are composed of only one molecule of glucose while non-vinifera vines such as hybrids and the American Vitis labrusca will have anthocyanins with two molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Double Mutation in the Anthocyanin 5-O-Glucosyltransferase Gene Disrupts Enzymatic Activity in Vitis vinifera L". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • It has previously been demonstrated that anthocyanins upregulate tumor suppressor genes, induce apoptosis in cancer cells, repair and protect genomic DNA integrity, which is important in reducing age‑associated oxidative stress, and improve neuronal and cognitive brain function. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • A 2014 study has also indicated that black rice anthocyanins have the potential to stop tumor metastasis in breast cancer cells. (infiniteunknown.net)
  • Tumor Metastasis - the journal Chemico-Biological Interactions published a study which looked at the ability of black rice anthocyanins to stop tumor metastasis (the spread of cancer to other parts of the body) - a significant source of cancer death. (infiniteunknown.net)
  • colorless
  • When the pH was increased from 2.2 to 5.5, the solution of the pigment became progressively more violet (λmax = 560 nm at pH 5.5), whereas similar solutions of the anthocyanin were almost colorless at pH 4.0. (wikipedia.org)
  • cabbage
  • Nature, traditional agriculture methods, and plant breeding have produced various uncommon crops containing anthocyanins, including blue- or red-flesh potatoes and purple or red broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, and corn. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • We investigated whether the biosynthesis and secretion of cytotoxin-associated protein A (CagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) could be suppressed by anthocyanin treatment in vitro . (medsci.org)
  • diseases
  • There is no conclusive evidence anthocyanins have any effect on human biology or diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review discusses the interplay between inflammation and obesity, and their subsequent regulation via the use of dietary anthocyanins, suggesting an alternative dietary strategy to ameliorate obesity and obesity associated chronic diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • phenolics
  • We wished to quantify levels of total phenolics and anthocyanins in anthocyanin expressing tomato fruit in different production systems and compare to that of normal tomatoes. (oregonstate.edu)
  • However, the detailed effects of malting on sorghum grain anthocyanins, a major class of phenolics that influence the taste and colour of sorghum-based foods, requires further investigation. (mdpi.com)
  • Roberts, T.H. Effects of Sorghum Malting on Colour, Major Classes of Phenolics and Individual Anthocyanins. (mdpi.com)
  • tissues
  • The absorbance pattern responsible for the red color of anthocyanins may be complementary to that of green chlorophyll in photosynthetically-active tissues such as young Quercus coccifera leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many aspects to anthocyanins' role in the body that remain a mystery, such as bioactivity, uptake, absorption, bioavailability, and distribution in the tissues. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • molecules
  • Berry anthocyanins strengthen the small blood vessel walls to make them stronger and tighter so that large protein molecules cannot move out into intercellular spaces. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • extraction
  • Our advanced extraction process captures a hundred percent of the anthocyanins of the whole berry! (crumcreek.com)
  • Due to critical differences in sample origin, preparation, and extraction methods determining anthocyanin content, the values presented in the adjoining table are not directly comparable. (wikipedia.org)
  • chlorophyll
  • red Beeches have anthocyanin in their leaves which masks the colours of chlorophyll but obviously does not affect photosynthesis. (bio.net)
  • cognitive decline
  • But laboratory research as well as studies in animals and humans have suggested that anthocyanins may play important roles in helping reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive decline, and cancer. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • effects
  • When a 2010 study looked at the effects of anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice on rats with chronic alcohol-induced liver damage, the results were promising. (infiniteunknown.net)
  • wine
  • There are several types of anthocyanins (as the glycoside) found in wine grapes which are responsible for the vast range of coloring from ruby red through to dark black found in wine grapes. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Anthocyanins and betalains have never been found in the same plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several studies have found an association between the consumption of anthocyanin-rich foods and CVD protection. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • Anthocyanins also may be found in naturally ripened olives, and are partly responsible for the red and purple colors of some olives. (wikipedia.org)
  • The color of the anthocyanins will be controlled using circadian rhythms, an internal clock system found in many organisms that works to control gene expression over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • color
  • Although approved to color foods and beverages in the European Union, anthocyanins are not approved for use as a food additive because they have not been verified as safe when used as food or supplement ingredients. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of compound has a better color stability at pH 5.5 than normal anthocyanins. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • These, along with three juice samples supplied from West Germany were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, (HPLC), for nonvolatile acid, sugar, anthocyanin and anthocyanidin composition. (oregonstate.edu)