• enzyme
  • Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and isolated procyanidins B2, B5 and C1 from the berries and bark of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. (mdpi.com)
  • Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside possessed the strongest and cyanidin 3-xyloside the weakest radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory activity. (mdpi.com)
  • Barsett, H. Extracts, Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as Radical Scavengers and Enzyme Inhibitors. (mdpi.com)
  • Bräunlich M, Slimestad R, Wangensteen H, Brede C, Malterud KE, Barsett H. Extracts, Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as Radical Scavengers and Enzyme Inhibitors. (mdpi.com)
  • Delphinidin 3-(6-p-coumaroyl)glucoside is formed by the enzyme anthocyanin 3-O-glucoside 6''-O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from delphinidin 3-O-glucoside and p-coumaroyl-CoA in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthocyanin 5-aromatic acyltransferase is an enzyme that uses hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA and anthocyanidin-3,5-diglucoside to produce CoA and anthocyanidin 3-glucoside-5-hydroxycinnamoylglucoside. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, an anthocyanin 5-aromatic acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.153) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA + anthocyanidin-3,5-diglucoside ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + anthocyanidin 3-glucoside-5-hydroxycinnamoylglucoside Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA and anthocyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, whereas its two products are CoA and anthocyanidin 3-glucoside-5-hydroxycinnamoylglucoside. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase is an enzyme that forms anthocyanin 3,5-O-diglucoside from anthocyanin 3-O-glucoside. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucose:anthocyanin 3'-O-beta-D-glucosyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • total anthocyanin
  • Epidermis and pericarp tissue of three advanced breeding lines of anthocyanin-fruit tomatoes and three lines of nonanthocyanin-fruit tomatoes, both grown in organically and conventionally managed systems, were assayed for total phenolics and total anthocyanin content. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Polyphenols
  • Evonik will present its latest findings on anthocyanins at the polyphenols forum at Vitafoods 2017, the trade fair dedicated to nutraceuticals, which is currently underway in Geneva, Switzerland and will conclude on May 11. (fnbnews.com)
  • Vitis
  • The European vine family Vitis vinifera is characterized by anthocyanins that are composed of only one molecule of glucose while non-vinifera vines such as hybrids and the American Vitis labrusca will have anthocyanins with two molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Double Mutation in the Anthocyanin 5-O-Glucosyltransferase Gene Disrupts Enzymatic Activity in Vitis vinifera L". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • It has previously been demonstrated that anthocyanins upregulate tumor suppressor genes, induce apoptosis in cancer cells, repair and protect genomic DNA integrity, which is important in reducing age‑associated oxidative stress, and improve neuronal and cognitive brain function. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • A 2014 study has also indicated that black rice anthocyanins have the potential to stop tumor metastasis in breast cancer cells. (infiniteunknown.net)
  • Tumor Metastasis - the journal Chemico-Biological Interactions published a study which looked at the ability of black rice anthocyanins to stop tumor metastasis (the spread of cancer to other parts of the body) - a significant source of cancer death. (infiniteunknown.net)
  • HPLC
  • These, along with three juice samples supplied from West Germany were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, (HPLC), for nonvolatile acid, sugar, anthocyanin and anthocyanidin composition. (oregonstate.edu)
  • colorless
  • When the pH was increased from 2.2 to 5.5, the solution of the pigment became progressively more violet (λmax = 560 nm at pH 5.5), whereas similar solutions of the anthocyanin were almost colorless at pH 4.0. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • We investigated whether the biosynthesis and secretion of cytotoxin-associated protein A (CagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) could be suppressed by anthocyanin treatment in vitro . (medsci.org)
  • phenolics
  • We wished to quantify levels of total phenolics and anthocyanins in anthocyanin expressing tomato fruit in different production systems and compare to that of normal tomatoes. (oregonstate.edu)
  • However, the detailed effects of malting on sorghum grain anthocyanins, a major class of phenolics that influence the taste and colour of sorghum-based foods, requires further investigation. (mdpi.com)
  • Roberts, T.H. Effects of Sorghum Malting on Colour, Major Classes of Phenolics and Individual Anthocyanins. (mdpi.com)
  • extraction
  • Our advanced extraction process captures a hundred percent of the anthocyanins of the whole berry! (crumcreek.com)
  • A food-grade extraction method was developed using 1% hydrochloric acid and 200 proof ethanol (1% HCl/EtOH) in order to remove the intact anthocyanin. (umd.edu)
  • Due to critical differences in sample origin, preparation, and extraction methods determining anthocyanin content, the values presented in the adjoining table are not directly comparable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grapes
  • There are several types of anthocyanins (as the glycoside) found in wine grapes which are responsible for the vast range of coloring from ruby red through to dark black found in wine grapes. (wikipedia.org)
  • tomatoes
  • Investing tomatoes with high anthocyanin content doubles their shelf-life and inhibits growth of a post-harvest mold pathogen, Botrytis cinerea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some tomatoes also have been modified genetically with transcription factors from snapdragons to produce high levels of anthocyanins in the fruits. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Berry anthocyanins strengthen the small blood vessel walls to make them stronger and tighter so that large protein molecules cannot move out into intercellular spaces. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • plants
  • Anthoxanthins are clear, white to yellow counterparts of anthocyanins occurring in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tomato plants protect against cold stress with anthocyanins countering reactive oxygen species, leading to a lower rate of cell death in leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes bred purposely for high anthocyanin quantities, ornamental plants such as sweet peppers may have unusual culinary and aesthetic appeal. (wikipedia.org)
  • To create the plants the project will utilize the existing anthocyanins in petunia. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • This review discusses the interplay between inflammation and obesity, and their subsequent regulation via the use of dietary anthocyanins, suggesting an alternative dietary strategy to ameliorate obesity and obesity associated chronic diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • chlorophyll
  • red Beeches have anthocyanin in their leaves which masks the colours of chlorophyll but obviously does not affect photosynthesis. (bio.net)
  • The absorbance pattern responsible for the red color of anthocyanins may be complementary to that of green chlorophyll in photosynthetically-active tissues such as young Quercus coccifera leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • color
  • Although approved to color foods and beverages in the European Union, anthocyanins are not approved for use as a food additive. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of compound has a better color stability at pH 5.5 than normal anthocyanins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The color of the anthocyanins will be controlled using circadian rhythms, an internal clock system found in many organisms that works to control gene expression over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • cabbage
  • Nature, traditional agriculture methods, and plant breeding have produced various uncommon crops containing anthocyanins, including blue- or red-flesh potatoes and purple or red broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, and corn. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • In contrast, the foliage of the purple pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L.) contains high concentrations of a single anthocyanin delphinidin-3-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside (Dp-3-p-coumrut-5-glc) in the foliage, making it very unique. (umd.edu)
  • variety
  • Be kind to your liver by eating a wide variety of anthocyanin containing foods. (infiniteunknown.net)
  • In flowers, the coloration that is provided by anthocyanin accumulation may attract a wide variety of animal pollinators, while in fruits, the same coloration may aid in seed dispersal by attracting herbivorous animals to the potentially-edible fruits bearing these red, blue, or purple colors. (wikipedia.org)