• croconate anion C 5O2
  • The croconate anion C 5O2− 5 also has fivefold symmetry, that can be explained as the superposition of five states leading to a charge of − 2⁄5 on each oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the stable croconate anion C 5O2− 5 corresponds to the neutral cyclopentanepentone C5O5, which has been detected only in trace amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typical examples are the anions 2-(Dicyanomethylene)croconate, croconate violet, and croconate blue, derived from the croconate anion C 5O2− 5 by replacing one, two, or three oxygen atoms by dicyanomethylene groups: These anions retain many of the properties of the parent, including the delocalized bond in the ring and the delocalized charge in the atoms attached to the ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxocarbon anion
  • In chemistry, an oxocarbon anion is a negative ion consisting solely of carbon and oxygen atoms, and therefore having the general formula C xOn− y for some integers x, y, and n. (wikipedia.org)
  • An oxocarbon anion C xOn− y can be seen as the result of removing all protons from a corresponding acid CxHnOy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Every oxocarbon anion C xOn− y can be matched in principle to the electrically neutral (or oxidized) variant CxOy, an oxocarbon (oxide of carbon) with the same composition and structure except for the negative charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • An oxocarbon anion C xOn− y can also be associated with the anhydride of the corresponding acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike neutralization, this formal dehydration sometimes yields fairly stable oxocarbons, such as mellitic anhydride C12O9 from mellitate C 12O6− 12 via mellitic acid C12H6O12 For each oxocarbon anion C xOn− y there are in principle n−1 partially hydrogenated anions with formulas H kC xO(n−k)− y, where k ranges from 1 to n−1. (wikipedia.org)
  • In chemistry, the term pseudo-oxocarbon anion is used to refer to a negative ion that is conceptually derived from an oxocarbon anion through replacement of one or more of the basic oxygen atoms by chemically similar elements or functional groups, such as sulfur (S), selenium (Se), or dicyanomethylene (=C(CN)2). (wikipedia.org)
  • transporter
  • Comparing this structure with a substrate-bound structure of the uracil transporter UraA in an inward-facing conformation allowed identification of the likely anion-binding position in the AE1 (CTD), and led to proposal of a possible transport mechanism that could explain why selected mutations lead to disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbonic
  • Carbonate CO2− 3, for example, can be seen as the anion of carbonic acid H2CO3. (wikipedia.org)
  • SLC4A1 SLC4A2 SLC4A3 SLC4A4 SLC4A5 SLC4A7 SLC4A8 SLC4A9 SLC4A10 SLC4A11 The human anion exchanger 1 (AE1 or Band 3) binds carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) forming a "transport metabolon" as CAII binding activates AE1 transport activity about 10 fold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commonly
  • The cations calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) are also commonly measured, but they aren't used to calculate the anion gap. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commonly 'unmeasured' anions include sulfates and a number of serum proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anion exchange chromatography is commonly used to purify proteins, amino acids, sugars/carbohydrates and other acidic substances with a negative charge at higher pH levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • bases
  • Strong bases like lithium monoxide anion (LiO−) is made in an aprotic solvent such as tetrahydrofuran. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • This chapter will discuss the efforts of our group and our collaborators in the areas of recognition and sensing of anionic species and of the roles of anions in assembly processes in solut ion and in the solid state. (springer.com)
  • Similarly
  • Similarly, tests do often measure the anion phosphate (PO3− 4) specifically, but it isn't used to calculate that "gap," even if it is measured. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • 3) Electron-poor aromatic compounds undergo nucleophilic aromatic substitution in the presence of nitrile anions. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as expression in the liver, OATPs are expressed in many other tissues on basolateral and apical membranes, transporting anions, as well as neutral and even cationic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • atoms
  • In many oxocarbon anions each of the extra electrons responsible for the negative electric charges behaves as if it were distributed over several atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • stable
  • There is however a large number of stable anions in this class, including several ones that have research or industrial use. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a rule, however, these neutral oxocarbons are less stable than the corresponding anions. (wikipedia.org)
  • If it is stable at pH values above the pI then the anion exchange column can be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The neutral molecules that represent the parents to the non-coordinating anions are strong Lewis acids, e.g. boron trifluoride, BF3 and phosphorus pentafluoride, PF5. (wikipedia.org)
  • This major protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes forms a voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) that behaves as a general diffusion pore for small hydrophilic molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Due to their high light sensitivity, activation of anion-conducting channelrhodopsins does not interfere with visual stimulation, even in very small animals like the fruit fly Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • Aryl phosphates and ammoniums react through the SRN1 pathway, which involves the generation of an aryl radical anion, fragmentation, and bond formation with a nucleophile. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • 2) Arylation of nitrile anions is also possible and can take place through different mechanisms depending on the substrates and reaction conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • The mechanisms of reactions involving nitrile anions depend primarily on the nature of the electrophile involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrile anions can also be involved in Michael-type additions to activated double bonds and vinylation reactions with a limited number of polarized, unhindered acetylene derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major problem associated with alkylation reactions employing nitrile anions is over-alkylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These intermediates almost always react with α selectitivity in alkylation reactions, the exception to the rule being anions of ortho-tolyl nitriles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary difficulty for alkylation reactions employing nitrile anions is over-alkylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • AE1 preferentially catalyzes anion exchange (antiport) reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus rhodizonate C 6O2− 6 can be reduced to the tetrahydroxybenzoquinone (THBQ) anion C 6O4− 6 and then to benzenehexolate C 6O6− 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • The anion exchanger family (TC# 2.A.31) is a member of the large APC superfamily of secondary carriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the AE family are generally responsible for the transport of anions across cellular barriers, although their functions may vary. (wikipedia.org)
  • neutral
  • The total number of cations (positive ions) should be equal to the total number of anions (negative ions), so that the overall electrical charge is neutral. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract
  • Tetrafluoroborate and hexafluorophosphate anions are coordinating toward highly electrophilic metal ions, such as cations containing Zr(IV) centers, which can abstract fluoride from these anions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally
  • Additionally, deprotonated cyanohydrins can act as masked acyl anions, giving products impossible to access with enolates alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • citation needed] Polar solvents, such as acetonitrile, THF, and water tend to bind to electrophilic centers, in which cases, the use of a noncoordinating anion is pointless. (wikipedia.org)
  • formal
  • The correspondence is not always well-defined since there may be several ways of performing this formal dehydration, including joining two or more anions to make an oligomer or polymer. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • An example of a hydride is the borohydride anion (BH− 4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this anion, the first example of a three-coordinate silicon compound, the salt [(mesityl)3Si][HCB11Me5Brcontains a noncoordinating anion derived from a carborane. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • This anion is far less coordinating than tetrafluoroborate, hexafluorophosphate, and perchlorate, and consequently has enabled the study of still more electrophilic cations. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Alternative methods to produce nitrile anions include conjugate addition to α,β-unsaturated nitriles, reduction of α-thioalkoxynitriles, and transmetallation from α-stannylnitriles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although
  • Although nitrile anions are functionally similar to enolates, the extra pi bond in nitrile anions provides them with a unique ketene-like geometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although intermolecular arylations using nitrile anions result in modest yields, the intramolecular procedure efficiently gives four-, five-, and six-membered benzo-fused rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • result
  • Noncoordinating anions are important components of many superacids, which result from the combination of Bronsted acids and Lewis acids. (wikipedia.org)