• tissues
  • We provide evidence for functional consequences of PD-associated SNCA gene variants in disease relevant brain tissues, suggesting that genetic regulation of SNCA expression plays an important role in the development of the disease. (jove.com)
  • This observation of complementation of mtDNA mutations in mice suggested that fusion between mitochondria with different genotypes may provide an important mechanism for protecting cells and tissues from expressing disease phenotypes caused by mitochondrial dysfunction based on mutations in the mtDNA. (biologists.org)
  • This failure to create antibodies prevents most SCID mice from rejecting non-self tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Most of these things we don't understand well enough to model them in another setting, so we have the organism do it for us. (eurekalert.org)
  • Unlike traditionally animal and plant breeding, which involves doing multiple crosses and then selecting for the organism with the desired phenotype, genetic engineering takes the gene directly from one organism and inserts it in the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • This line of research has led him to discover a unique function in the worm version of CCM1 and has demonstrated how worms can be a fantastic research tool for learning about the basic biology of a disease system. (angiomaalliance.org)
  • The zebrafish is an established genetic model," Schmid explains, "which means you can bring foreign genes or certain proteins into a fish to test hypotheses about basic biology, disease mechanisms, or potential therapies. (eurekalert.org)
  • molecular
  • To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, a novel in vitro co-culture model system was established, in which medium spiny GABAergic neurons, a highly homogenous population of neurons isolated from the embryonic striatum, were cultured with stably transfected HEK293 cell lines that express different GABA A R subtypes. (jove.com)
  • They include text mining, information management, sequence analysis, analysis of molecular interactions, and mathematical models that enable advanced simulations of immune system and immunological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Although genetic models have most often failed to induce overt degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons, they provide essential tools to explore the multifactorial etiology of this complex neurodegenerative disorder. (currentprotocols.com)
  • The researchers developed a transgenic variety, the "MitoFish," that enables them to see - within individual neurons of living animals - how brain diseases disturb the transport of mitochondria, the power plants of the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • Yet on the level of individual neurons, common mechanisms can be observed that either cause or accompany nerve degeneration in a number of different diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a 2011 research article, Voskuhl published data revealing that the estrogen receptor α (ERα) on astrocytes, not neurons, was responsible for the reduction of clinical EAE symptoms in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a gene knockout system Cre-Lox, the research team was able to remove ERα from neurons and in separate mice, remove ERα from astrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These symptoms were not observed in those mice who had ERα removed from neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a discovery made through CLARITY imaging is a peculiar 'ladder' pattern where neurons connected back to themselves and their neighbors, which has been observed in animals to be connected to autism-like behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutant mice
  • The surprising discovery in a mouse strain known to geneticists since the 1960s is reported in the latest issue of the journal Science (Jan. 31, 2003) by Teresa M. Gunn, Gregory S. Barsh and their collaborators as "Spongiform Degeneration in mahoganoid Mutant Mice. (innovations-report.com)
  • We do see the same kind of tissue degeneration -- with fluid-filled vacuoles, or holes, where the gray matter should be -- in BSE cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy and in these mutant mice. (innovations-report.com)
  • Rather, the mutant mice exhibit little more than a slight tremor when they begin to move, they live a normal life span for their species and are able to reproduce, Gunn says. (innovations-report.com)
  • Among other distinguishing characteristics of the mutant mice are curly whiskers and slightly curly body hair, as well as the habit of clasping their hind feet together when lifted off the ground. (innovations-report.com)
  • As an animal model, the mahoganoid mutant mice probably will not be useful to study spongiform encephalopathies like mad cow disease, Gunn believes, because rogue prions are not the cause of the mouse condition. (innovations-report.com)
  • We have identified and characterized genes that are defective in head-tilt ( het ), head-slant ( hslt ), and neuromutagenesis facility ( nmf ) 333 mutant mice, each of which encodes an NADPH oxidase component. (jax.org)
  • Null mutant mice are hypoactive, show an immature locomotor pattern and display a significant delay in the appearance of the hindlimb mature responses. (jove.com)
  • symptoms
  • Under the realm of applied research, these models can be used to test vaccines to prevent infection or disease progression and to test therapeutics for cure or to mitigate signs and symptoms of the illness. (frontiersin.org)
  • Shoubridge, 2000 ) suggested an important protection mechanism against the onset of disease symptoms. (biologists.org)
  • It was found that the mice with ERα knocked out in astrocytes experienced an increase in clinical disease symptoms, macrophage and T-cell inflammation in the central nervous system, and axonal loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current research directions include determining the exact mechanism of the disease, improving animal models to aid with research, testing of medications to treat symptoms or slow the progression of the disease, and studying procedures such as stem cell therapy with the goal of repairing damage caused by the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media Symptoms of Huntington's disease most commonly become noticeable between the ages of 35 and 44 years, but they can begin at any age from infancy to old age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Almost everyone with Huntington's disease eventually exhibits similar physical symptoms, but the onset, progression and extent of cognitive and behavioral symptoms vary significantly between individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease symptoms and potential drugs or treatments can be tested against these mouse models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • Just don't call them mad mice," pleads Gunn, an assistant professor of genetics in Cornell's College of Veterinary Medicine who began the research in Barsh's laboratory at Stanford. (innovations-report.com)
  • His research interests focus on developing and characterizing animal models (mouse) for cardiovascular disease. (angiomaalliance.org)
  • Dr. Kim is a genetic epidemiologist at the University of California San Francisco who specializes in stroke and cardiovascular disease research. (angiomaalliance.org)
  • Tatsuji Nomura (野村 達次, Nomura Tatsuji) M.D., Ph.D. (May 15, 1922 - January 11, 2013) was a pioneer in the development of laboratory animals with the aim of assuring reproducibility of experimental results in medical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was Director of the Central Institute for Experimental Animals (CIEA), Japan His most important achievement to date is the establishment of comprehensive animal experimentation systems using strictly defined laboratory animals to assure reproducibility of experimental results in medical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has completely changed this out-dated paradigm in medical research by establishing comprehensive animal experimentation systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on such systems, he has established international research collaborations to develop three animal models: Transgenic Polio Mice - Widely used in polio vaccine neurovirulence testing as a replacement for monkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • To this end, the 3R (Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research) principle proposed by Russell and Burch in 1959 was adopted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replacement" refers to a "switch to research not using animals" but a "switch to a method not using phylogenetically higher animals such as monkeys" is a method of natural protection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Nomura is currently Director of the Central Institute for Experimental Animals, Japan, that he founded in 1952, to improve the level of medical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Support for current research efforts to develop hookworm vaccines has come from the Schistosomiasis Vaccine Initiative, a program of the Sabin Vaccine Institute in collaboration with George Washington University, the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, the Chinese Institute of Parasitic Diseases, the Queensland Institute of Medical Research, and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Basel Declaration is a call for greater transparency and communication on the use of animals in research. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, they demand that essential animal experiments for obtaining research results remain permitted both now and in the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • (The revised EU Directive provides for the use of fewer laboratory animals for scientific purposes in the future and better reconciles the needs of research with the protection of animals without making research more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal experiments will remain necessary in biomedical research for the foreseeable future, but we are constantly working to refine the methods with animal welfare in mind. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signatories to the Declaration commit, amongst other things, to the use of animal experiments only when the research concerns fundamentally important knowledge and no alternative methods are available. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors of the Basel Declaration acknowledge the need for greater discussion of animal experiment issues in public and also of the risks of research approaches and possible misuse of new technological developments. (wikipedia.org)
  • With regard to the improvement of information for the public on research involving experiments the signatories to the Basel Declaration commit to the following: We communicate openly and with transparency - also with regard to animal experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • We proactively address the problems and openly declare that part of our research involves animal experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial signatories to the Basel Declaration see the tendency to restrict animal experiments, especially in the field of basic research, as a major risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • And they maintain that no stage of research (neither basic nor applied research) must be categorically excluded from those purposes of animal experiments that are deemed permissible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her current research is focused on Huntington's disease, and she is using sheep as a large animal model for the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having undertaken research into Huntington's using transgenic mice, she moved into using transgenic sheep as a large animal model of Huntington's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurodegeneration
  • Furthermore, this form of neurodegeneration is not known to be contagious, Gunn says, noting: "A cat that eats a mahoganoid mutant mouse -- should one escape from the laboratory -- would not get spongiform encephalopathy. (innovations-report.com)
  • But they were surprised to learn that a complete loss of function in that gene produced all-black mice with brain neurodegeneration. (innovations-report.com)
  • interactions
  • pathogenesis and disease, host-pathogen interactions leading to eradication or persistence of Leptospira sp. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interactions between other chronic inflammatory disease and atherosclerosis (i.e., rheumatoid arthritis, etc. (ottawaheart.ca)
  • There are also some computational models which focus on protein-protein interactions and networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproducible
  • CIEA has developed animal experimentation systems based on the concept "scientific animal experiments with reproducible results can not be achieved unless the experiments are performed ethically with the animals maintained in a normal state. (wikipedia.org)
  • null mice
  • RhoE null mice (RhoE gt/gt) are smaller at birth, display growth retardation and early postnatal death since only half of RhoE gt/gt mice survive beyond postnatal day (PD) 15 and 100% are dead by PD 29. (jove.com)
  • phenotypes
  • Here, we present an animal model of PTSD in which both peripheral blood and central brain biomarkers, as well as behavioral phenotype, can be collected and measured, thus providing the needed correlation of the central biomarkers of PTSD, which are mechanistic and pathognomonic but cannot be collected from people, with the peripheral biomarkers and behavioral phenotypes, which can. (jove.com)
  • cardiovascular disease
  • We seek to identify novel mechanisms by which inflammation and metabolism drive the development of cardiovascular disease (i.e., in the vessel wall and the myocardium), and to translate these into cutting-edge diagnostic (i.e., biomarker, imaging) and personalized (i.e., microRNA, small molecule) therapies. (ottawaheart.ca)
  • researchers
  • And the mutant mouse probably isn't patentable because it has a naturally occurring defect that the researchers did not create and because the mice already are commercially available. (innovations-report.com)
  • The MitoFish is both readily manipulated, enabling researchers to pose specific questions, and literally transparent -- allowing non-invasive in vivo observation of changes relevant to disease processes. (eurekalert.org)
  • We declare our solidarity with all researchers who have to rely on animal experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Myopathies, neuropathies, encephalomyopathies and many other diseases have been associated with mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). (biologists.org)
  • progression
  • Because the glycosylation machinery is particularly susceptible to disease progression and malignant transformation, aberrant glycosylation has been recognized as early detection biomarkers for cancer and other diseases. (jove.com)
  • opens
  • But the MitoFish model opens up new possibilities. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this model, the transporter opens to either the extracellular space or cytoplasm and simultaneously seals the opposing face of the transporter, preventing a continuous pathway across the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The most common type is the knockout mouse, where the activity of a single (or in some cases multiple) genes are removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Transmission occurs when chronically infected animals excrete live bacteria in their urine, contaminating the environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • It exists in animals, fungi and bacteria and likely evolved as a defense mechanism against harmful substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • As part of this commitment, their two-day conference in November 2010 ended with an affirmation of their allegiance to the 3R principle "Reduction, Refinement, Replacement": The participants in the symposium that adopted the Basel Declaration were unanimously agreed that science must not only take a clear stand with regard to the responsible handling of laboratory animals, but also has to show greater transparency toward the public. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorders
  • This is the first model to study the in vivo functions of a member of the Rnd subfamily of proteins, revealing the important role of Rnd3/RhoE in the normal development and suggesting the possible involvement of this protein in neurological disorders. (jove.com)
  • neural
  • Linkages between unusual pigmentation and neural defects are not unheard of in the animal world, Gunn adds, citing predominantly white dogs, such as Dalmatians, that sometimes are deaf. (innovations-report.com)
  • study
  • Study objective was to determine whether kidney stone disease prevalence increased in the United States over a 20-year period and the influence of region, race/ethnicity, and gender on stone disease risk. (labome.org)
  • His is also working in collaboration with Dr. Awad's study team to investigate drug treaments in mouse models of cavernous angioma. (angiomaalliance.org)
  • 2003). "Transgenic mice as an alternative to monkeys for neurovirulence testing of live oral poliovirus vaccine: validation by a WHO collaborative study" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • At that time, the emphasis was on the use of mathematics to guide the study of disease transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, they have been used to study Dengue virus and malaria, as well as to assess the efficacy of drugs that target these diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, she has been funded by NIH-NINDS and Jacob's Cure to study the potential of subpopulations of stem cells to promote remyelination and phenotypic rescue in animal models of white matter disease, including the Canavan mouse model. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Secondly, we are elucidating novel mechanisms that drive coronary disease in patients with chronic conditions such as HIV and arthritis. (ottawaheart.ca)
  • experiments
  • One of the factors that affects the reproducibility of the results of animal experiments is the proximate environment in which the experiment is performed including the temperature and humidity of the animal room, the size of cages and caretakers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Russell and Burch proposed the term "dramatype" in 1959 from the standpoint of animal welfare (Reduction), but Dr. Nomura developed this concept to promote the importance of control of the environment to assure reproducibility of the results of animal experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • By using animals under strict quality control and controlling the environment so that the animals are not subjected to stress, it is possible to reduce the number of animals used in experiments (Reduction among the 3Rs). (wikipedia.org)
  • If the animals are not maintained in a normal state, reproducibility of results of experiments on animals as "living measuring instruments" cannot be assured. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signatories commit to accepting greater responsibility in animal experiments and to intensive cooperation with the public in the form of a dialogue with prejudice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each line of mouse has different functional and nonfunctional cells, making each suited for different experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormalities
  • He has worked to investigate the abnormalities of blood vessel development in CCM mice and he was part of the team that first discovered the effects of statin drugs on CCM blood vessels. (angiomaalliance.org)
  • urine
  • Gal A. Oral administration of migalastat HCl reduces tissue GL-3 in Fabry transgenic mice, and in urine and kidneys of some FD patients. (jove.com)
  • embryo
  • And because the early embryo is transparent, you can label specific nerve cells with a fluorescent protein and then look at them in an intact, living animal. (eurekalert.org)
  • In 1981 the laboratories of Frank Ruddle from Yale University, Frank Costantini and Elizabeth Lacy from Oxford, and Ralph Brinster and Richard Palmiter in collaboration from the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Washington injected purified DNA into a single-cell mouse embryo utilizing techniques developed by Brinster in the 1960s and 1970s, showing transmission of the genetic material to subsequent generations for the first time. (wikipedia.org)