• Immunology
  • Immunology research is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying the defense of human body and to develop drugs for immunological diseases and maintain health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequencing of the human and other model organism genomes has produced increasingly large volumes of data relevant to immunology research and at the same time huge amounts of functional and clinical data are being reported in the scientific literature and stored in clinical records. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computational immunology began over 90 years ago with the theoretic modeling of malaria epidemiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Most of these things we don't understand well enough to model them in another setting, so we have the organism do it for us. (eurekalert.org)
  • Unlike traditionally animal and plant breeding, which involves doing multiple crosses and then selecting for the organism with the desired phenotype, genetic engineering takes the gene directly from one organism and inserts it in the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, due to the endangered status of chimps, the cost of maintaining them, and the slight differences between human and chimp interactions with HIV, humanized mice have been accepted as a more effective model organism for the study of this disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCID
  • 2002), "NOD/SCID/γnull mouse: an excellent recipient mouse model for engraftment of human cells", Blood, 100 (9): 3175-3182, doi:10.1182/blood-2001-12-0207, PMID 12384415 Shultz LD, Lyons BL, Burzenski LM, et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some SCID mice are able to produce monocytes, granulocytes, and red blood cells from the hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) present in their bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some SCID mice are shown to reject skin grafts, so it has been proposed that this disease arises from a leaky mutation, meaning that some mice with SCIDs do in fact have a somewhat functional adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many types of SCID mice used by researchers at present. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCID mice can serve many functions in research, particularly in the study of human physiology and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can lead to the development of human adaptive immune cells, such as B and T lymphocytes, within SCID mice, and for subsequent study of human cells in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCID mice have allowed for increased research on a wide range of topics, including the development and pluripotency of human HSC, human-specific diseases and their interactions with the human immune system, vaccination, and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCID mice with human immune cells are able to respond to pathogens such as viruses and create antibodies against them, which has helped scientists better understand how the human immune system protects against pathogen infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to note that the use of SCID mice has been questioned as a model for studying the human immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • While HIV normally cannot infect mice, SCID mice have been used to study HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, a novel in vitro co-culture model system was established, in which medium spiny GABAergic neurons, a highly homogenous population of neurons isolated from the embryonic striatum, were cultured with stably transfected HEK293 cell lines that express different GABA A R subtypes. (jove.com)
  • His research interests primarily focus on using C. elegans (worms) as a model for human disease and studying the molecular mechanisms for the normal process of programmed cell death. (angiomaalliance.org)
  • neurons
  • Although genetic models have most often failed to induce overt degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons, they provide essential tools to explore the multifactorial etiology of this complex neurodegenerative disorder. (currentprotocols.com)
  • The researchers developed a transgenic variety, the "MitoFish," that enables them to see - within individual neurons of living animals - how brain diseases disturb the transport of mitochondria, the power plants of the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • Yet on the level of individual neurons, common mechanisms can be observed that either cause or accompany nerve degeneration in a number of different diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a 2011 research article, Voskuhl published data revealing that the estrogen receptor α (ERα) on astrocytes, not neurons, was responsible for the reduction of clinical EAE symptoms in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a gene knockout system Cre-Lox, the research team was able to remove ERα from neurons and in separate mice, remove ERα from astrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These symptoms were not observed in those mice who had ERα removed from neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a discovery made through CLARITY imaging is a peculiar 'ladder' pattern where neurons connected back to themselves and their neighbors, which has been observed in animals to be connected to autism-like behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurodegeneration
  • Furthermore, this form of neurodegeneration is not known to be contagious, Gunn says, noting: "A cat that eats a mahoganoid mutant mouse -- should one escape from the laboratory -- would not get spongiform encephalopathy. (innovations-report.com)
  • But they were surprised to learn that a complete loss of function in that gene produced all-black mice with brain neurodegeneration. (innovations-report.com)
  • experimental
  • Tatsuji Nomura (野村 達次, Nomura Tatsuji) M.D., Ph.D. (May 15, 1922 - January 11, 2013) was a pioneer in the development of laboratory animals with the aim of assuring reproducibility of experimental results in medical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was Director of the Central Institute for Experimental Animals (CIEA), Japan His most important achievement to date is the establishment of comprehensive animal experimentation systems using strictly defined laboratory animals to assure reproducibility of experimental results in medical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Nomura is currently Director of the Central Institute for Experimental Animals, Japan, that he founded in 1952, to improve the level of medical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, experimental vaccination efforts have been successful in animal models of schistosomiasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA alone, recombinant protein and prime boost) in two very different experimental animal models (mouse and baboon) of infection and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • Some mice with a genetic mutation for mahogany-colored coats also develop spongiform degeneration of brain tissue, similar to mad cow disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • To create a coisogenic strain through breeding, a mouse with the specific mutation on a locus is mated to an inbred strain (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • The offspring of the mutated mouse with the inbred strain has a 50% chance of carrying the mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the specific mutation cannot be passed on, heterozygous animals should be used to breed with the original inbred strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Targeting vectors that utilize homologous recombination are the tools or techniques that are used to knock-in or knock-out the desired disease-causing mutation or SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) to be studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although disease mutations can be harvested directly from cancer patients, these cells usually contain many background mutations in addition to the specific mutation of interest, and a matched normal cell line is typically not obtained. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease is caused by an autosomal dominant mutation in either of an individual's two copies of a gene called Huntingtin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mutation causing SCIDs in mice was discovered by Melvin and Gayle Bosma in 1983 in the CB/17 mouse line. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCIDs occurs in these mice due to a mutation in the gene for protein kinase, DNA activated, catalytic polypeptide (PRKDC), which plays a role in repairing double-stranded DNA breaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • One of the factors that affects the reproducibility of the results of animal experiments is the proximate environment in which the experiment is performed including the temperature and humidity of the animal room, the size of cages and caretakers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Russell and Burch proposed the term "dramatype" in 1959 from the standpoint of animal welfare (Reduction), but Dr. Nomura developed this concept to promote the importance of control of the environment to assure reproducibility of the results of animal experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • CIEA has developed animal experimentation systems based on the concept "scientific animal experiments with reproducible results can not be achieved unless the experiments are performed ethically with the animals maintained in a normal state. (wikipedia.org)
  • By using animals under strict quality control and controlling the environment so that the animals are not subjected to stress, it is possible to reduce the number of animals used in experiments (Reduction among the 3Rs). (wikipedia.org)
  • If the animals are not maintained in a normal state, reproducibility of results of experiments on animals as "living measuring instruments" cannot be assured. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signatories commit to accepting greater responsibility in animal experiments and to intensive cooperation with the public in the form of a dialogue with prejudice. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, they demand that essential animal experiments for obtaining research results remain permitted both now and in the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal experiments will remain necessary in biomedical research for the foreseeable future, but we are constantly working to refine the methods with animal welfare in mind. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signatories to the Declaration commit, amongst other things, to the use of animal experiments only when the research concerns fundamentally important knowledge and no alternative methods are available. (wikipedia.org)
  • With regard to the improvement of information for the public on research involving experiments the signatories to the Basel Declaration commit to the following: We communicate openly and with transparency - also with regard to animal experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • We proactively address the problems and openly declare that part of our research involves animal experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • We declare our solidarity with all researchers who have to rely on animal experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial signatories to the Basel Declaration see the tendency to restrict animal experiments, especially in the field of basic research, as a major risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each line of mouse has different functional and nonfunctional cells, making each suited for different experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Humanized mice are commonly used as small animal models in biological and medical research for human therapeutics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media Symptoms of Huntington's disease most commonly become noticeable between the ages of 35 and 44 years, but they can begin at any age from infancy to old age. (wikipedia.org)
  • null mice
  • RhoE null mice (RhoE gt/gt) are smaller at birth, display growth retardation and early postnatal death since only half of RhoE gt/gt mice survive beyond postnatal day (PD) 15 and 100% are dead by PD 29. (jove.com)
  • phenotypes
  • Here, we present an animal model of PTSD in which both peripheral blood and central brain biomarkers, as well as behavioral phenotype, can be collected and measured, thus providing the needed correlation of the central biomarkers of PTSD, which are mechanistic and pathognomonic but cannot be collected from people, with the peripheral biomarkers and behavioral phenotypes, which can. (jove.com)
  • cardiovascular disease
  • His research interests focus on developing and characterizing animal models (mouse) for cardiovascular disease. (angiomaalliance.org)
  • Dr. Kim is a genetic epidemiologist at the University of California San Francisco who specializes in stroke and cardiovascular disease research. (angiomaalliance.org)
  • We seek to identify novel mechanisms by which inflammation and metabolism drive the development of cardiovascular disease (i.e., in the vessel wall and the myocardium), and to translate these into cutting-edge diagnostic (i.e., biomarker, imaging) and personalized (i.e., microRNA, small molecule) therapies. (ottawaheart.ca)
  • symptoms
  • Shoubridge, 2000 ) suggested an important protection mechanism against the onset of disease symptoms. (biologists.org)
  • It was found that the mice with ERα knocked out in astrocytes experienced an increase in clinical disease symptoms, macrophage and T-cell inflammation in the central nervous system, and axonal loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current research directions include determining the exact mechanism of the disease, improving animal models to aid with research, testing of medications to treat symptoms or slow the progression of the disease, and studying procedures such as stem cell therapy with the goal of repairing damage caused by the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease symptoms and potential drugs or treatments can be tested against these mouse models. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Myopathies, neuropathies, encephalomyopathies and many other diseases have been associated with mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). (biologists.org)
  • Approaches
  • In all these different approaches, and in contrast to control mice, HDL from 11.1 transgenic mice failed to protect LDL from oxidative modification. (ahajournals.org)
  • The authors of the Basel Declaration acknowledge the need for greater discussion of animal experiment issues in public and also of the risks of research approaches and possible misuse of new technological developments. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • And the mutant mouse probably isn't patentable because it has a naturally occurring defect that the researchers did not create and because the mice already are commercially available. (innovations-report.com)
  • The MitoFish is both readily manipulated, enabling researchers to pose specific questions, and literally transparent -- allowing non-invasive in vivo observation of changes relevant to disease processes. (eurekalert.org)
  • These mice allow researchers to study the human immune system and human disease in a small animal model. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • Because the glycosylation machinery is particularly susceptible to disease progression and malignant transformation, aberrant glycosylation has been recognized as early detection biomarkers for cancer and other diseases. (jove.com)
  • opens
  • In this model, the transporter opens to either the extracellular space or cytoplasm and simultaneously seals the opposing face of the transporter, preventing a continuous pathway across the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • But the MitoFish model opens up new possibilities. (eurekalert.org)
  • Degeneration
  • The surprising discovery in a mouse strain known to geneticists since the 1960s is reported in the latest issue of the journal Science (Jan. 31, 2003) by Teresa M. Gunn, Gregory S. Barsh and their collaborators as "Spongiform Degeneration in mahoganoid Mutant Mice. (innovations-report.com)
  • We do see the same kind of tissue degeneration -- with fluid-filled vacuoles, or holes, where the gray matter should be -- in BSE cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy and in these mutant mice. (innovations-report.com)
  • bacteria
  • Transmission occurs when chronically infected animals excrete live bacteria in their urine, contaminating the environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • It exists in animals, fungi and bacteria and likely evolved as a defense mechanism against harmful substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • Just don't call them mad mice," pleads Gunn, an assistant professor of genetics in Cornell's College of Veterinary Medicine who began the research in Barsh's laboratory at Stanford. (innovations-report.com)
  • (The revised EU Directive provides for the use of fewer laboratory animals for scientific purposes in the future and better reconciles the needs of research with the protection of animals without making research more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • As part of this commitment, their two-day conference in November 2010 ended with an affirmation of their allegiance to the 3R principle "Reduction, Refinement, Replacement": The participants in the symposium that adopted the Basel Declaration were unanimously agreed that science must not only take a clear stand with regard to the responsible handling of laboratory animals, but also has to show greater transparency toward the public. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • Linkages between unusual pigmentation and neural defects are not unheard of in the animal world, Gunn adds, citing predominantly white dogs, such as Dalmatians, that sometimes are deaf. (innovations-report.com)
  • study
  • As an animal model, the mahoganoid mutant mice probably will not be useful to study spongiform encephalopathies like mad cow disease, Gunn believes, because rogue prions are not the cause of the mouse condition. (innovations-report.com)
  • This is the first model to study the in vivo functions of a member of the Rnd subfamily of proteins, revealing the important role of Rnd3/RhoE in the normal development and suggesting the possible involvement of this protein in neurological disorders. (jove.com)
  • Study objective was to determine whether kidney stone disease prevalence increased in the United States over a 20-year period and the influence of region, race/ethnicity, and gender on stone disease risk. (labome.org)
  • His is also working in collaboration with Dr. Awad's study team to investigate drug treaments in mouse models of cavernous angioma. (angiomaalliance.org)
  • 2003). "Transgenic mice as an alternative to monkeys for neurovirulence testing of live oral poliovirus vaccine: validation by a WHO collaborative study" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • At that time, the emphasis was on the use of mathematics to guide the study of disease transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of human physiology in human models is often made impossible due to ethical limitations, high financial expense, and low availability of model environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, they have been used to study Dengue virus and malaria, as well as to assess the efficacy of drugs that target these diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, she has been funded by NIH-NINDS and Jacob's Cure to study the potential of subpopulations of stem cells to promote remyelination and phenotypic rescue in animal models of white matter disease, including the Canavan mouse model. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • Support for current research efforts to develop hookworm vaccines has come from the Schistosomiasis Vaccine Initiative, a program of the Sabin Vaccine Institute in collaboration with George Washington University, the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, the Chinese Institute of Parasitic Diseases, the Queensland Institute of Medical Research, and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormalities
  • He has worked to investigate the abnormalities of blood vessel development in CCM mice and he was part of the team that first discovered the effects of statin drugs on CCM blood vessels. (angiomaalliance.org)