• United States Depa
  • In 1956, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) reported that it was "the most important disease problem of the duck industry", with losses of up to 75% of populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • After Bachrach earned a Ph.D. in biochemistry, the United States Department of Agriculture sent him to Europe to study foot-and-mouth disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • outbreaks
  • A new international campaign to control outbreaks of animal diseases has begun with a three-day meeting in Japan. (voanews.com)
  • The frequent and widespread outbreaks of avian influenza, foot-and-mouth disease, and West Nile virus have prompted international agencies such as the World Organization for Animal Health and the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization to team up with donor nations and farmers to combat the outbreaks. (voanews.com)
  • The Chief Veterinary Officer for the Food and Agriculture Organization, Joseph Domenech, says he is worried that vigilance will wane when animal disease outbreaks fade from the headlines. (voanews.com)
  • Globalization, land encroachment and climate change contribute to outbreaks of such animal diseases - some transmissible to humans - as brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, parasitic illnesses, anthrax, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and certain strains of influenza viruses. (fao.org)
  • In response to disease outbreaks in Mexico and Canada in 1954, the Army gave the island to the Agriculture Department to establish a research center dedicated to the study of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plum Island has experienced outbreaks of its own, including one in 1978 in which the disease was released to animals outside the center, and two incidents in 2004 in which foot-and-mouth disease was released within the center. (wikipedia.org)
  • The measles virus emerged from rinderpest as a zoonotic disease between 1000 and 1100 AD, a period that may have been preceded by limited outbreaks involving a virus not yet fully acclimated to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epizootic
  • The bulk of scheduled tests (avian influenza, Newcastle disease, bluetongue, pseudorabies, vesicular stomatitis and epizootic hemorrhagic disease) involve the use of validated test methods on traditional farm animal species and the qualification of these animals or their products for movement into, out of, or within Canada and in support of national sero-surveys required by Canada's trading partners and the OIE to maintain the country's disease-free status. (wikipedia.org)
  • APHIS
  • Each of the links below shows relevant animal health information for that disease, including disease information related to conditions that APHIS is working to manage. (usda.gov)
  • Ames hosts one of two national sites for the United States Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), which comprises the National Veterinary Services Laboratory and the Center for Veterinary Biologics. (wikipedia.org)
  • foot-and-mou
  • High-impact animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease , peste des petits ruminants , classical or African swine fevers , while not directly affecting human health, do affect food and nutrition security and livestock production and trade. (fao.org)
  • Agriculture officials said the exercise is based on a hypothetical case of foot-and-mouth disease, which was last identified in the U.S. in 1929. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Modern scholarship suggests that "gloss-anthrax" was not the same disease as modern-day anthrax, but instead could have been foot-and-mouth disease, or a viral infection with a secondary Fusobacterium necrophorum infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any wild mammal seen on the island is properly managed to prevent the possible transmission of foot and mouth disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Wall Street Journal reported in January 2002 that many scientists and government officials wanted the lab to close, believing that the threat of foot-and-mouth disease was so remote that the center did not merit its $16.5 million annual budget. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facility's research program includes developing diagnostic tools and biologicals for foot-and-mouth disease and other diseases of livestock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because federal law stipulates that live foot-and-mouth disease virus cannot be studied on the mainland, PIADC is unique in that it is currently the only laboratory in the U.S. equipped with research facilities that permit the study of foot-and-mouth disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foot-and-mouth disease was eradicated from the U.S. in 1929 (with the exception of the stocks within the Plum Island center) but is currently endemic to many parts of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lab has diagnostic capabilities for a large number of FADs including, but not limited to: avian influenza, foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, and Nipah and Hendra virus infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vesicular Diseases - This Section provides testing services, technology development and research, training, and scientific consultation services for vesicular diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease, swine vesicular disease and vesicular stomatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Howard Lloyd Bachrach (May 21, 1920 - June 26, 2008) was an American scientist who made research contributions to the understanding of viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease and polio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bachrach was able to purify the virus responsible for foot-and-mouth disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working with biochemist Carleton Schwerdt, and using the principles he learned from foot-and-mouth disease, Bachrach purified laboratory samples of type II (Lansing type) poliovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • At Plum Island, Bachrach and associates spliced a foot-and-mouth disease protein, VP3, into a bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1979, the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee issued a recommendation to the National Institutes of Health that the team be allowed to work with Genentech on the production of a foot-and-mouth disease vaccine that would not contain the actual virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of the foot-and-mouth disease vaccine, which was only effective against a single strain of the illness, taught scientists that immunological principles might not hold true from one subtype of the disease to the next. (wikipedia.org)
  • swine
  • The ADT Rule references existing regulations on transporting all swine (including pet swine), and there are no changes in the requirements (9 CFR part 71.19 and, if applicable, part 85 ) for interstate movement of these animals. (avma.org)
  • As a diagnostic facility, PIADC scientists study more than 40 foreign animal diseases, including hog cholera and African swine fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NCFAD has received designations by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)e as a reference laboratory for both highly pathogenic avian influenza and for classical swine fever, in recognition of excellence in diagnostic competency, test method development, validation, research, collaboration and training. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases of primary concern are: classical swine fever, African swine fever, Newcastle disease, and notifiable avian influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to OIE Reference Laboratory status for classical swine fever and avian influenza, this Section is also the National Reference Laboratory and as such aides coordination of the network of provincial/university diagnostic animal health laboratories across Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • The mandate of the NCFAD is to provide scientific and laboratory services for the rapid and accurate identification and reporting of foreign animal diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • NCFAD staff are experts in tests to detect FAD agents, and they perform many of these tests on a routine basis to meet requirements for import, export, and domestic disease control - including surveillance, the provision of confirmatory testing of suspect material, and reference laboratory services. (wikipedia.org)
  • Price worked for three years as a laboratory technician in the Poultry Disease Research Farm in the Veterinary College at Cornell to save for further study. (wikipedia.org)
  • In June 2011, the United Nations FAO confirmed the disease was eradicated, making rinderpest only the second disease in history to be fully wiped out (outside laboratory stocks), following smallpox. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • The identification and documentation requirements for each kind of animal covered by the Rule are summarized in the USDA's ADT Rule Summary of General Requirements by Species and outlined briefly below. (avma.org)
  • Livestock species kept as pets are held to the same requirements as production animals of the same species. (avma.org)
  • The ADT Rule specifies approved forms of official identification for each species, but also allows covered livestock to be moved interstate with alternative forms of identification when agreed upon by animal health officials in the shipping and receiving states or Tribes. (avma.org)
  • Rinderpest (also cattle plague or steppe murrain) was an infectious viral disease of cattle, domestic buffalo, and many other species of even-toed ungulates, including buffaloes, large antelope and deer, giraffes, wildebeests, and warthogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The law was introduced to meet the standards of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, and prohibits hunting wild animals with traps, snares, nets, and poisons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sheep
  • W. C. Spooner's 1888 book The History, Structure, Economy and Diseases of the Sheep also identifies blain as being the same as gloss-anthrax. (wikipedia.org)
  • bird flu
  • One of the goals is to get earlier and more accurate warnings on diseases, such as bird flu, which could trigger a pandemic in humans. (voanews.com)
  • Bernard Vallat, the director general of the World Organization for Animal Health, says that with diseases such as bird flu posing a potential threat to the whole planet, it is vital to ensure early detection and a rapid response. (voanews.com)
  • Rinderpest
  • In June 2011, after years of battle against the disease, FAO formally declared rinderpest eradicated. (fao.org)
  • On 14 October 2010, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) announced that field activities in the decades-long, worldwide campaign to eradicate the disease were ending, paving the way for a formal declaration in June 2011 of the global eradication of rinderpest. (wikipedia.org)
  • health
  • The world's veterinary officers are warning that trans-border animal health crises - which used to occur every two decades or so - have recently been happening every year. (voanews.com)
  • They cause high rates of death and disease in animals , thereby having serious socio-economic and sometimes public health consequences while constituting a constant threat to the livelihoods of livestock farmers. (fao.org)
  • The FAO Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES) Animal Health develops strategies for intervention and improved management. (fao.org)
  • FAO has launched an emergency animal health campaign across Iraq's Mosul area, which was recently retaken from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). (fao.org)
  • Veterinary Services protects and improves the health, quality, and marketability of our nation's animals, animal products and veterinary biologics by preventing, controlling and/or eliminating animal diseases, and monitoring and promoting animal health and productivity. (usda.gov)
  • Together we meet the national needs for animal health research. (usda.gov)
  • She moved to the USGS National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, Wisconsin in 1977, and the study of environmental contaminants and diseases in wildlife, especially water fowl. (wikipedia.org)
  • NADC is the largest federal animal disease center in the United States, conducting research aimed at solving animal health and food safety problems faced by livestock producers and the public. (wikipedia.org)
  • establishes
  • Additionally, 9 CFR Part 55 , Control of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), establishes official identification requirement for the CWD Herd Certification Program. (avma.org)
  • The law establishes an Animal Welfare Fund to promote education, information, and aid to animal welfare groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • The Rift Valley fever virus spreads widely in animals and has been detected in humans, causing human death. (fao.org)
  • Studies have historically focused on humans, but there is no evidence that humans are more prone to pathologies than any other animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • interstate
  • The ADT Rule references existing regulations on transporting captive cervids, and there are no changes in the requirements ( 9 CFR part 77 ) for interstate movement of these animals. (avma.org)
  • Interstate animal movement. (usda.gov)
  • concern
  • According to the organization Concern for Helping Animals in Israel, few cases of institutionalized cruelty (e.g. cruelty on farms, laboratories, fur operations) have been brought to court. (wikipedia.org)
  • threat
  • The disease, previously thought to be under control, had reemerged in Mexico and the U.S. government felt that it posed a significant threat to U.S. cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • From the Renaissance to the mid-nineteenth century, there was increasing reference to ancient disease, initially within prehistoric animals although later the importance of studying the antiquity of human disease began to be emphasized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human osteopathology is classified into several general groups: Arthropathy Infection Oral pathology Trauma Tumor Whilst traumatic injuries such as broken and malformed bones can be easy to spot, evidence of other conditions, for example infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and syphilis, can also be found in bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • However the Court's ruling interpreted the Animal Protection Law as stating that human interests (e.g. in animal food) outweigh animal interests. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • One of the methods for providing this training is through a specialized annual course that focuses on FAD recognition, diagnosis and pathogenesis (the origins and development of disease and the mechanisms that cause disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • Bachrach found that the disease could be transmitted by a protein produced by the virus, even in the absence of the virus itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • The disease may be complicated by concurrent infection with viruses such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (bovine herpesvirus 1) or adenovirus, bacteria such as Mycoplasma boviculi or Listeria monocytogenes, or infestation by Thelazia, a nematode. (wikipedia.org)
  • bison
  • The American bison and the European bison (Wisent) are the largest surviving terrestrial animals in North America and Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • foreign animal disease
  • MANHATTAN, Kan. (AP) - State and local officials in four Kansas counties are conducting an exercise to practice the state's plan to respond to a foreign animal disease. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Serology/Immunology - This Section conducts both scheduled and special tests for the detection of antibodies to foreign animal disease agents in addition to assay development, validation, training and scientific consultation services. (wikipedia.org)
  • duck
  • She isolated and reproduced the cause of the most common life-threatening disease in duck farming in the 1950s and developed vaccines for this and other avian diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • For her doctoral dissertation, Price isolated and reproduced the bacterium, Pasteurella anatipestifer, in white pekin ("Long Island") ducklings infected with a disease that was a major killer among duck farmers at that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • Causes include synovitis (inflammation of the lining of the joint capsule), degenerative joint disease, or excessive strain of the joint capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Blain was an animal disease of unknown etiology that was well known in the eighteenth- and nineteenth centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • New techniques in molecular biology also began to add new information to what was already known about ancient disease, as it became possible to retrieve DNA from samples that were centuries or millennia old. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mundoolun's association with investigating the tick borne disease of cattle caused by blood parasites, known as tick fever or red water (babesiosis, anaplasmosis), began with William Collins, the second son of John and Anne. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease is also known as pinkeye, New Forest eye or blight. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Through archaeological evaluation these diseases can be identified and sometimes can explain the cause of death for certain individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can also cause epididymitis in cattle, and reproductive disease such as orchitis, mastitis, and abortions. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • Fort Terry went through a period of activations and deactivations through World War II until the U.S. Army Chemical Corps took over the facility in 1952 for use in anti-animal biological warfare (BW) research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers are also required to take courses in animal care, and surprise visits to research labs are conducted to enforce compliance. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Pound's observations were reported to include: cattle were a host for the disease "germ", and indications that immunity may be acquired in utero or induced by inoculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • spread
  • The disease was mainly spread by direct contact and by drinking contaminated water, although it could also be transmitted by air. (wikipedia.org)