• United States Depa
  • In 1956, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) reported that it was "the most important disease problem of the duck industry", with losses of up to 75% of populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • He worked for the United States Department of Agriculture and was chief scientist at the Plum Island Animal Disease Center. (wikipedia.org)
  • After Bachrach earned a Ph.D. in biochemistry, the United States Department of Agriculture sent him to Europe to study foot-and-mouth disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • outbreaks
  • A new international campaign to control outbreaks of animal diseases has begun with a three-day meeting in Japan. (voanews.com)
  • The frequent and widespread outbreaks of avian influenza, foot-and-mouth disease, and West Nile virus have prompted international agencies such as the World Organization for Animal Health and the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization to team up with donor nations and farmers to combat the outbreaks. (voanews.com)
  • The Chief Veterinary Officer for the Food and Agriculture Organization, Joseph Domenech, says he is worried that vigilance will wane when animal disease outbreaks fade from the headlines. (voanews.com)
  • Globalization, land encroachment and climate change contribute to outbreaks of such animal diseases - some transmissible to humans - as brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, parasitic illnesses, anthrax, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and certain strains of influenza viruses. (fao.org)
  • To keep diseases under control and be able to respond rapidly to any possible outbreaks, we need to be able to do our own diagnoses," said Gerard Mahloane, acting Director General of Veterinary Services at Lesotho's Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security. (iaea.org)
  • To African countries facing the threat of animal disease outbreaks, the help of the IAEA and FAO in equipping their laboratories and training their scientists in the use of these techniques and the corresponding biosafety measures has been critical. (iaea.org)
  • The measles virus emerged from rinderpest as a zoonotic disease between 1000 and 1100 AD, a period that may have been preceded by limited outbreaks involving a virus not yet fully acclimated to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • foot-and-mou
  • High-impact animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease , peste des petits ruminants , classical or African swine fevers , while not directly affecting human health, do affect food and nutrition security and livestock production and trade. (fao.org)
  • Nuclear derived techniques have so far shown that Lesotho is free of foot-and-mouth disease, one of the most infectious diseases that kill livestock. (iaea.org)
  • Modern scholarship suggests that "gloss-anthrax" was not the same disease as modern-day anthrax, but instead could have been foot-and-mouth disease, or a viral infection with a secondary Fusobacterium necrophorum infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vesicular Diseases - This Section provides testing services, technology development and research, training, and scientific consultation services for vesicular diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease, swine vesicular disease and vesicular stomatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Howard Lloyd Bachrach (May 21, 1920 - June 26, 2008) was an American scientist who made research contributions to the understanding of viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease and polio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bachrach was able to purify the virus responsible for foot-and-mouth disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • At Plum Island, Bachrach and associates spliced a foot-and-mouth disease protein, VP3, into a bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1979, the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee issued a recommendation to the National Institutes of Health that the team be allowed to work with Genentech on the production of a foot-and-mouth disease vaccine that would not contain the actual virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of the foot-and-mouth disease vaccine, which was only effective against a single strain of the illness, taught scientists that immunological principles might not hold true from one subtype of the disease to the next. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • The identification and documentation requirements for each kind of animal covered by the Rule are summarized in the USDA's ADT Rule Summary of General Requirements by Species and outlined briefly below. (avma.org)
  • Livestock species kept as pets are held to the same requirements as production animals of the same species. (avma.org)
  • The ADT Rule specifies approved forms of official identification for each species, but also allows covered livestock to be moved interstate with alternative forms of identification when agreed upon by animal health officials in the shipping and receiving states or Tribes. (avma.org)
  • Rinderpest (also cattle plague or steppe murrain) was an infectious viral disease of cattle, domestic buffalo, and many other species of even-toed ungulates, including buffaloes, large antelope and deer, giraffes, wildebeests, and warthogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The law was introduced to meet the standards of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, and prohibits hunting wild animals with traps, snares, nets, and poisons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rinderpest
  • In June 2011, after years of battle against the disease, FAO formally declared rinderpest eradicated. (fao.org)
  • On 14 October 2010, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) announced that field activities in the decades-long, worldwide campaign to eradicate the disease were ending, paving the way for a formal declaration in June 2011 of the global eradication of rinderpest. (wikipedia.org)
  • veterinary
  • The law prohibits working an unfit animal or working an animal to exhaustion, as well as poisoning an animal with certain poisons (unless granted a permit by the Director of the Veterinary Service), with a penalty of imprisonment for one year. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • The disease may be complicated by concurrent infection with viruses such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (bovine herpesvirus 1) or adenovirus, bacteria such as Mycoplasma boviculi or Listeria monocytogenes, or infestation by Thelazia, a nematode. (wikipedia.org)
  • establishes
  • Additionally, 9 CFR Part 55 , Control of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), establishes official identification requirement for the CWD Herd Certification Program. (avma.org)
  • The law establishes an Animal Welfare Fund to promote education, information, and aid to animal welfare groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • The Rift Valley fever virus spreads widely in animals and has been detected in humans, causing human death. (fao.org)
  • Studies have historically focused on humans, but there is no evidence that humans are more prone to pathologies than any other animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • swine
  • The ADT Rule references existing regulations on transporting all swine (including pet swine), and there are no changes in the requirements (9 CFR part 71.19 and, if applicable, part 85 ) for interstate movement of these animals. (avma.org)
  • interstate
  • The ADT Rule references existing regulations on transporting captive cervids, and there are no changes in the requirements ( 9 CFR part 77 ) for interstate movement of these animals. (avma.org)
  • Interstate animal movement. (usda.gov)
  • spread
  • Early diagnosis helps curtail the spread of a disease by making it possible to rapidly isolate and treat infected animals and patients earlier. (iaea.org)
  • The disease was mainly spread by direct contact and by drinking contaminated water, although it could also be transmitted by air. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early identification of the disease also helps prevent spread throughout the herd. (wikipedia.org)
  • concern
  • According to the organization Concern for Helping Animals in Israel, few cases of institutionalized cruelty (e.g. cruelty on farms, laboratories, fur operations) have been brought to court. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • From the Renaissance to the mid-nineteenth century, there was increasing reference to ancient disease, initially within prehistoric animals although later the importance of studying the antiquity of human disease began to be emphasized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human osteopathology is classified into several general groups: Arthropathy Infection Oral pathology Trauma Tumor Whilst traumatic injuries such as broken and malformed bones can be easy to spot, evidence of other conditions, for example infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and syphilis, can also be found in bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • However the Court's ruling interpreted the Animal Protection Law as stating that human interests (e.g. in animal food) outweigh animal interests. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • One of the methods for providing this training is through a specialized annual course that focuses on FAD recognition, diagnosis and pathogenesis (the origins and development of disease and the mechanisms that cause disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • Bachrach found that the disease could be transmitted by a protein produced by the virus, even in the absence of the virus itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratories
  • Diagnosing animal diseases early and rapidly is now possible in Lesotho, a country of two million in southern Africa that up until recently relied on foreign laboratories for analysis. (iaea.org)
  • bison
  • The American bison and the European bison (Wisent) are the largest surviving terrestrial animals in North America and Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • Causes include synovitis (inflammation of the lining of the joint capsule), degenerative joint disease, or excessive strain of the joint capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Blain was an animal disease of unknown etiology that was well known in the eighteenth- and nineteenth centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • New techniques in molecular biology also began to add new information to what was already known about ancient disease, as it became possible to retrieve DNA from samples that were centuries or millennia old. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mundoolun's association with investigating the tick borne disease of cattle caused by blood parasites, known as tick fever or red water (babesiosis, anaplasmosis), began with William Collins, the second son of John and Anne. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease is also known as pinkeye, New Forest eye or blight. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Through archaeological evaluation these diseases can be identified and sometimes can explain the cause of death for certain individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can also cause epididymitis in cattle, and reproductive disease such as orchitis, mastitis, and abortions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Farmers
  • For her doctoral dissertation, Price isolated and reproduced the bacterium, Pasteurella anatipestifer, in white pekin ("Long Island") ducklings infected with a disease that was a major killer among duck farmers at that time. (wikipedia.org)