• stimulation
  • Abstract -To determine whether angiotensin type 2 (AT 2 ) receptor stimulation induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes in vivo, we developed transgenic mice overexpressing the AT 2 receptor in a cardiac-specific manner, using the α-myosin heavy-chain promoter. (ahajournals.org)
  • The number of TUNEL-positive nuclei was ≈0 to 10 per 100 000 cardiomyocytes, with no difference between transgenic and wild-type mice, regardless of saline infusion or any stimulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 Recently, it has been reported that cardiac remodeling in various heart diseases involves a loss of cardiomyocytes due to apoptosis 13 14 15 and that Ang II stimulation induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vivo 13 14 16 and in vitro. (ahajournals.org)
  • 20 In the present study, we used these TG mice to examine whether AT 2 R stimulation enhances Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • Stimulation of angiotensin AT2 receptors by the non-peptide agonist, compound 21, evokes vasodepressor effects in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats. (springer.com)
  • Angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation: a novel option of therapeutic interference with the renin-angiotensin system in myocardial infarction? (springer.com)
  • Ang II activation of AT 1 receptors induces vasoconstriction, cellular proliferation, tissue growth, renal sodium retention, sympathetic nervous system stimulation, and aldosterone secretion, the integrated response of which leads to increased blood pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, in the current study, we have examined the potential neuroprotective effect of AT 2 R stimulation initiated after stroke induction to mimic the clinical setting. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, we have demonstrated that AT 2 R stimulation after stroke increased neuronal survival, decreased apoptosis, and caused an increase in the number of activated microglia in the core region of damage. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, the current study has shown for the first time that delayed central AT 2 R stimulation after a cerebral incident is neuroprotective in a conscious rat model of stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • Because AA and its metabolites are powerful modulators of neuronal K + currents, we investigated the involvement of PLA 2 and AA in the AT 2 receptor-mediated stimulation of I K by Ang II. (jneurosci.org)
  • Single-cell reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analyses revealed the presence of PLA 2 mRNA in neurons that responded to Ang II with an increase in I K . The stimulation of neuronal I K by Ang II was attenuated by selective inhibitors of PLA 2 and was mimicked by application of AA to neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Inhibition of lipoxygenase (LO) enzymes significantly reduced both Ang II- and AA-stimulated I K , and the 12-LO metabolite of AA 12 S -hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12 S -HETE) stimulated I K . These data indicate the involvement of a PLA 2 , AA, and LO metabolite intracellular pathway in the AT 2 receptor-mediated stimulation of neuronal I K by Ang II. (jneurosci.org)
  • The data presented here indicate that the AT 2 receptor-mediated stimulation of neuronal I K by Ang II involves an intracellular pathway that includes PLA 2 , AA, and LO metabolites of AA. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, the results suggest that PP-2A may be important for the stimulation of neuronal I K produced by Ang II and AA. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our aim was to assess the effects of local angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation within the RVLM and the PVN on neurotransmitter concentrations and mean arterial pressure (MAP). (frontiersin.org)
  • Selective stimulation of angiotensin II type 2 receptor within the RVLM by local Compound 21 infusion reduces blood pressure and increases local GABA levels in normotensive rats. (frontiersin.org)
  • Angiotensin II, through AT1 receptor stimulation, is a major stress hormone and, because (ARBs) block these receptors, in addition to their eliciting anti-hypertensive effects, may be considered for the treatment of stress-related disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activated receptor in turn couples to Gq/11 and thus activates phospholipase C and increases the cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations, which in turn triggers cellular responses such as stimulation of protein kinase C. Activated receptor also inhibits adenylate cyclase and activates various tyrosine kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stimulation of the PVN by the activation of urotensin II receptor means that it directly affects the hypothalamus pituitary axis (HPA) which is important in the regulation of many important body functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypertension
  • 1,2 AT 2 receptors are upregulated under conditions associated with cardiovascular tissue damage, such as myocardial infarction, heart failure, and hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • These findings may be applicable to the pathophysiology of renovascular hypertension, because aortic cGMP production was increased in 2-kidney, 1-clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats via activation of AT 2 receptors that stimulated endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation and NO production through a bradykinin B 2 receptor-dependent pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • The excess white adipose tissue (WAT) that characterizes obesity is a major risk factor for the development of many diseases, such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, stoke and some types of cancers (for example, colorectal cancer). (nature.com)
  • Therefore, deficits in AT 2 R expression may contribute to pregnancy-induced hypertension and thus represents a potential therapeutic target. (ahajournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS -ACEIs or ARBs may decrease patients' odds of developing new-onset type 2 diabetes but does not reduce the odds of mortality, cardiovascular, or cerebrovascular outcomes over the study follow-up periods among patients with hypertension. (thaiendocrine.org)
  • Which type of medication to use initially for hypertension has been the subject of several large studies and resulting national guidelines. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may also delay progression of diabetic nephropathy and is also indicated for the reduction of renal disease progression in patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension and microalbuminuria (>30 mg/24 h) or proteinuria (>900 mg/24 h). (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • An extreme way of cell growth inhibition directs cells into programmed cell death, and its process initiated by withdrawal of growth factors is also enhanced by AT2-R.Cardiac myocyte- or vascular smooth muscle-specific overexpression mice of AT2-R display an inhibitory effect on Ang II-induced chronotropic or pressor actions, suggesting the role of AT2-R on the activity of cardiac pacemaker cells or maintenance of vascular resistance. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The present study has identified a potential retinoprotective role for AT2 receptor inhibition possibly mediated via interactions with VEGF and angiopoietin dependent pathways. (arvojournals.org)
  • This effect of Ang II was blocked by inhibition of phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) and by PTX. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, the demonstration that inhibition of PP-2A abolished the stimulatory effects of Ang II, AA, and 12 S -HETE on neuronal I K but did not alter Ang II-stimulated [ 3 H]-AA release suggests that PP-2A is a distal event in this pathway. (jneurosci.org)
  • Pressor inhibition at trough level - this relates to the degree of blockade or inhibition of the blood pressure-raising ("pressor") effect of angiotensin II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects mediated by the AT2 receptor are suggested to include inhibition of cell growth, fetal tissue development, modulation of extracellular matrix, neuronal regeneration, apoptosis, cellular differentiation, and maybe vasodilation and left ventricular hypertrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • 5 AT 2 R has been shown to mediate induction of apoptosis in the PC12 cell line, 6 vascular smooth muscle cells, 7 vascular endothelium, 8 fibroblasts, 9 granulose cells in the rat ovary, 10 neurons from the rat brain, 11 and human fetal adrenal cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4,5 AT 2 receptor-mediated vasodilation has now been demonstrated in a large variety of resistance vessels including the mesenteric, uterine, renal, coronary, and cerebral vascular beds. (ahajournals.org)
  • In failing hearts or neointima formation after vascular injury, AT2-R is re-expressed in cells proliferating in interstitial regions or neointima and exerts an inhibitory effect on Ang II-induced mitogen signals or synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins, resulting in attenuation of the tissue remodeling. (nii.ac.jp)
  • There is evidence that angiotensin II, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietins and their cognate receptors participate in retinal angiogenesis. (arvojournals.org)
  • We demonstrated that angiotensin II type 2 (AT 2 ) receptor-interacting protein (ATIP) 1 ameliorates inflammation-mediated vascular remodeling independent of the AT 2 receptor, leading us to explore the possibility of whether ATIP1 could exert anti-inflammatory effects and play a role in other pathophysiological conditions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The AT2 receptor remains enigmatic and controversial - is probably involved in vascular growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • vasoconstriction
  • Ang II binding to AT 2 receptors activates a counterregulatory pathway whereby vasoconstriction mediated by AT 1 receptors is opposed by AT 2 receptor-induced vasodilation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Of importance, Ang II activation of AT 1 receptors was required for the upregulation of AT 2 receptors in the pressure-overloaded aorta, 19 suggesting the possibility of a counterregulatory positive feedback loop in which AT 1 receptor-mediated vasoconstriction is opposed by AT 1 receptor-induced AT 2 receptor upregulation, engendering counterregulatory vasodilation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The receptor quickly rose to prominence when it was found that when activated by urotensin II it induced the most potent vasoconstriction effect ever seen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Short term effects of the activation of the urotensin II receptor is the burst intercellular calcium in the aorta which causes vasoconstriction of the vessel. (wikipedia.org)
  • corticotropin-releas
  • When the urotensin II receptor is activated through an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of urotensin II it causes an increase of corticotropin releasing factor through the activation of the hypothalamic paraventricular neurons (PVN) which lead to increased plasma levels of adrencorticotropic hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Angiotensin II (Ang II) elicits an Ang II type 2 (AT 2 ) receptor-mediated increase in delayed-rectifier K + current ( I K ) in neurons cultured from newborn rat hypothalamus and brainstem. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we determined that Ang II stimulates [ 3 H]arachidonic acid (AA) release from cultured neurons via AT 2 receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • This hypotensive response requires functional GABA-A receptors, suggesting that GABAergic neurons are involved in the sympatho-inhibitory action underlying this hypotensive response. (frontiersin.org)
  • On the other hand, when using in situ hybridization technique which is less sensitive but provides more information of the anatomical location urotensin II receptor mRNA was shown to be restricted to the brainstem cholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) and the pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (PPT) both of which are important for REM sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urotensin II receptors are also found in the cholinergic neurons of the spinal cord indicating some type of motor function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Local injection of urotensin II into the PPT to leads to increased REM sleep episodes where the firing of the cholinergic neurons was observed through electrophysiological studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypertrophy
  • There is also evidence that there are long term effects of the activation of the urotensin II receptor which could play a role in cardiomyocitic hypertrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Ten- to 12-week-old male homozygous transgenic mice (n=44) and wild-type mice (n=44) were used. (ahajournals.org)
  • We have recently developed transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing AT 2 R selectively in cardiomyocytes by using the α-myosin heavy chain promoter. (ahajournals.org)
  • TG mice overexpressing AT 2 R selectively in cardiomyocytes were generated using the α-myosin heavy chain promoter. (ahajournals.org)
  • Northern blot analysis of total RNA from various tissues of adult homozygous TG mice revealed that AT 2 R was exclusively and abundantly expressed in both atria and ventricles but not in other tissues. (ahajournals.org)
  • Ohinata K, Fujiwara Y, Fukumoto S, Iwai M, Horiuchi M, Yoshikawa M. Angiotensin II and III suppress food intake via angiotensin AT(2) receptor and prostaglandin EP(4) receptor in mice. (springer.com)
  • Mean arterial pressure was measured via telemetry, and flow cytometry was used to enumerate immune cell infiltration in 14-week-old wild-type and AT 2 R knockout mice during gestation. (ahajournals.org)
  • In wild-type mice, mean arterial pressure decreased during gestation, reaching a nadir at gestational day 9 (-6±2 mm Hg) and returned to near preconception levels during late gestation. (ahajournals.org)
  • In AT 2 R-deficient mice, the midgestational decrease in mean arterial pressure was absent. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, mean arterial pressure was significantly increased during late gestation compared with wild-type mice (≈10 mm Hg). (ahajournals.org)
  • However, this response was absent in AT 2 R-deficient mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • While renal immune cell infiltration was similar between the genotypes, there was a significant T cell phenotypic switch toward a proinflammatory T-helper 1 phenotype in AT 2 R-deficient mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • In mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration and M1-to-M2 ratio were decreased in ATIP1 transgenic mice (ATIP1-Tg) compared with wild-type mice (WT), with decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in white adipose tissue (WAT), but an increase in interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Next, we examined the roles of ATIP1 in BM-derived hematopoietic cells, employing chimeric mice produced by BM transplantation into irradiated type 2 diabetic mice with obesity, KKAy, as recipients. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • vasodilation
  • Ste20-related kinase SLK phosphorylates ser188 of rhoA to induce vasodilation in response to angiotensin II type 2 receptor activation. (springer.com)
  • 11,12 Through a multitude of studies, it is now generally accepted that AT 2 receptor-induced vasodilation is mediated by activation of a bradykinin, NO, and cGMP cell signaling cascade. (ahajournals.org)
  • Interestingly, van Esch et al 20 demonstrated recently that AT 1A receptor activation is also required for AT 2 receptor-mediated vasodilation in the mouse coronary circulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • pathway
  • Cathepsin F contains five potential N-glycosylation sites, and it may be targeted to the endosomal/lysosomal compartment via the mannose 6-phosphate receptor pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor cannot activate the PKC but it can still activate the ERK1/2 pathway although it is a little bit slower. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulates
  • Angiotensin II stimulates Na+ /H+ exchangers located on the apical membranes (faces the tubular lumen) of cells in the proximal tubule and thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in addition to Na+ channels in the collecting ducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligands
  • Although their activating ligands vary widely in structure and character, the amino acid sequences of the receptors are very similar and are believed to adopt a common structural framework comprising 7 transmembrane (TM) helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Exons 1 and 2 encode for 5' untranslated mRNA sequence and exon 3 harbors the entire uninterrupted open reading frame. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein's mRNA has been reported to interact with Mir-132 microRNA as part of an RNA silencing mechanism that reduces receptor expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • One is urotensin II whose mRNA is found in a variety of tissues including the brain and also blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal
  • These data indicate that the AT 2 R plays an important role in arterial pressure regulation and may modulate T cell activation and renal cytokine production during pregnancy. (ahajournals.org)
  • regulation
  • Our aim was to determine the role of the angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT 2 R) in the regulation of arterial pressure, natriuresis, and immune cell infiltration during pregnancy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Angiotensin II, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interact within the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) modulating the central regulation of blood pressure and sympathetic tone. (frontiersin.org)
  • AngII
  • Adipose tissue is a major source of AngII and expresses both types of its receptors, implying the autocrine and paracrine role of AngII in regulating adipose functions and self-remodeling. (nature.com)