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  • extant
  • All other extant birds have a narrow forked vomer that does not connect with other bones and is then termed as neognathous. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most extant birds have a single seamless rhamphotheca, species in a few families, including the albatrosses and the emu, have compound rhamphothecae that consist of several pieces separated and defined by softer keratinous grooves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The whales comprise eight extant families: Balaenopteridae (the rorquals), Balaenidae (right whales), Cetotheriidae (the pygmy right whale), Eschrichtiidae (the grey whale), Monodontidae (belugas and narwhals), Physeteridae (the sperm whale), Kogiidae (the dwarf and pygmy sperm whale), and Ziphiidae (the beaked whales). (wikipedia.org)
  • The exposed culmen (or the measurement along the top of the upper mandible) is 18.8 to 24 cm (7.4 to 9.4 in), the third longest bill among extant birds after pelicans and large storks, and can outrival the pelicans in bill circumference, especially if the bill is considered as the hard, bony keratin portion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The similarities between Archaeopteryx, known dinosaurs and extant birds were examined and emphasized, with Thomas Huxley championing the idea that Archaeopteryx as well as modern birds had more in common with theropod dinosaurs than any other group of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • teeth
  • Modern birds are depicted by feathers, a beak with no teeth and with capability and skill to fly unlike other animals except Ratites and Penguins. (ukessays.com)
  • Birds also lack teeth or even a true jaw , instead having a beak , which is far more lightweight. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was noted already in the 19th century, with Thomas Huxley writing: We have had to stretch the definition of the class of birds so as to include birds with teeth and birds with paw-like fore limbs and long tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • His reasoning was that the teeth of the lower jaw were weakly connected to the bone and liable to break off if used to consume terrestrial food, and he described the beak as weak as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact classification of therizinosaurs had in the past been hotly debated, since their prosauropod-like teeth and body structure indicate that they were generally herbivorous, unlike typical theropods. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Birds are endothermic and on average, maintain body temperatures in the range of 40°C-44°C (104°F-111°F), though this varies among species and depends on the activity level of the individual bird. (ukessays.com)
  • The number of hollow bones varies among species, though large gliding and soaring birds tend to have the most. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bones of diving birds are often less hollow than those of non-diving species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although beaks vary significantly in size and shape from species to species, their underlying structures have a similar pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rhamphotheca grows continuously in most birds, and in some species, the color varies seasonally. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most birds, these range from rounded to slightly sharp, but some species have evolved structural modifications that allow them to handle their typical food sources better. (wikipedia.org)
  • This glossary makes no attempt to cover them all, concentrating on terms that might be found across descriptions of multiple bird species by bird enthusiasts and ornithologists. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a rule, this glossary does not contain individual entries on any of the approximately 9,700 recognized living individual bird species of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • anisodactylous Descriptive of tetradactyl (four-toed) birds in which the architecture of the foot consists of three toes projecting forward and one toe projecting backward (the hallux), such as in most passerine species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crop (anatomy) Air sacs Gular (disambiguation), gular anatomical formations in other species Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature (2008). (wikipedia.org)
  • With all the details of its jaw and tooth structure, the fossil in the picture is identical to members of the same species living today. (harunyahya.com)
  • Phylogenetically, Aves is usually defined as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of a specific modern bird species (such as the house sparrow, Passer domesticus), and either Archaeopteryx, or some prehistoric species closer to Neornithes (to avoid the problems caused by the unclear relationships of Archaeopteryx to other theropods). (wikipedia.org)
  • Even among birds there are at least two species not found elsewhere, one of which, the Chionis minor of Hartlaub, or White Paddy, sheath-bill, and "sore-eyed pigeon" of sealers and whalers, I propose to give a short account of. (wikisource.org)
  • The common ostrich is the largest living species of bird and lays the largest eggs of any living bird (extinct elephant birds of Madagascar and the giant moa of New Zealand laid larger eggs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Its flapping rate, at an estimated 150 flaps per minute, is one of the slowest of any bird, with the exception of the larger stork species. (wikipedia.org)
  • lower mandible
  • The muscles that depress the lower mandible are usually weak, except in a few birds such as the starlings and the extinct Huia, which have well-developed digastric muscles that aid in foraging by prying or gaping actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outer surface of the beak consists of a thin horny sheath of keratin called the rhamphotheca, which can be subdivided into the rhinotheca of the upper mandible and the gnathotheca of the lower mandible. (wikipedia.org)
  • skeletal structure
  • The skeletal structure, shell shape, tail and skull, everything right down to the finest detail of this 140-million-year-old turtle can clearly be seen and it possesses exactly the same features as turtles living today. (harunyahya.com)
  • He conducted a study on the skeletal structure of a theropod dinosaur, the Compsognathus , and the Archaeopteryx lithographica , which was the earliest specimen of a bird. (buzzle.com)
  • skull
  • The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation-housing the brain, and several sensory structures such as the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • theropods
  • In fact, a bird-like hip structure also developed a third time among a peculiar group of theropods, the Therizinosauridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, with the discovery of feathered theropod fossils, the acceptance tilted in favor of Huxley's theory of theropods being the ancestry of birds. (buzzle.com)
  • Despite his acknowledgment that some of the smaller Jurassic theropods had many similarities to Archaeopteryx and modern birds, he determined that they were unlikely to be direct bird ancestors and that they were instead closely-related offshoots, and concluded that the similarities were a result of convergent evolution rather than direct ancestry. (wikipedia.org)
  • anatomy
  • The anatomy of bird legs and feet is diverse, encompassing many accommodations to perform a wide variety of functions.Most birds are classified as digitigrade animals, meaning they walk on their toes, rather than the entire foot. (howlingpixel.com)
  • Anatomy (Greek anatomē, "dissection") is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anatomy and physiology, which study (respectively) the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, and they are often studied together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology, and also in the study of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The history of anatomy is characterized by a progressive understanding of the functions of the organs and structures of the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Derived from the Greek ἀνατομή anatomē "dissection" (from ἀνατέμνω anatémnō "I cut up, cut open" from ἀνά aná "up", and τέμνω témnō "I cut"), anatomy is the scientific study of the structure of organisms including their systems, organs and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gross anatomy is the study of structures large enough to be seen with the naked eye, and also includes superficial anatomy or surface anatomy, the study by sight of the external body features. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures on a microscopic scale, including histology (the study of tissues), and embryology (the study of an organism in its immature condition). (wikipedia.org)
  • Anatomy can be studied using both invasive and non-invasive methods with the goal of obtaining information about the structure and organization of organs and systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, substantially the same structures and tissues are found throughout the rest of the animal kingdom and the term also includes the anatomy of other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure and tissues of plants are of a dissimilar nature and they are studied in plant anatomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • feathers
  • The skeleton of all early bird candidates is basically that of a small theropod dinosaur with long, clawed hands, though the exquisite preservation of the Solnhofen Plattenkalk shows Archaeopteryx was covered in feathers and had wings. (wikipedia.org)
  • The feathers lack the tiny hooks that lock together the smooth external feathers of flying birds, and so are soft and fluffy and serve as insulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plumage of adult birds is blue-grey with darker slaty-grey flight feathers. (wikipedia.org)
  • shells
  • 2002). Microscopic analysis of eggshell structure by Konstantin Mikhailov in 1995 found that the eggshells of shoebills closely resembled those of other Pelecaniformes in having a covering of thick microglobular material over the crystalline shells. (wikipedia.org)
  • posture
  • At times it may be used to redirect or sublimate aggression, such as one bird assuming a solicitation posture to indicate its non-aggression and invite allopreening by the aggressive individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a common problem among rabbits as a result of their anatomical posture. (seavs.com)
  • organisms
  • A diagnosis is a statement of the anatomical features of an organism (or group) that collectively distinguish it from all other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • tail
  • Like other hadrosaurids, it was a bulky animal with a long, laterally flattened tail and a head with an expanded, duck-like beak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Length from tail to beak can range from 100 to 140 cm (39 to 55 in) and wingspan is 230 to 260 cm (7 ft 7 in to 8 ft 6 in). (wikipedia.org)
  • limbs
  • and the land mammals show a wide variation in the structure of limbs and body that enables some to run swiftly, some to climb, some to swing from tree to tree, some to glide through the air, and others to jump. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • mouth
  • The base of the upper mandible, or the roof when seen from the mouth, is the palate, the structure of which differs greatly in the ratites. (wikipedia.org)
  • dinosaurian
  • Ornithomimosaurs are only one out of several dinosaurian groups that at some point evolved beaks. (uio.no)
  • ancestor
  • Though it is not considered a direct ancestor of modern birds, it gives a fair representation of how flight evolved and how the very first bird might have looked. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may be predated by Protoavis texensis, though the fragmentary nature of this fossil leaves it open to considerable doubt whether this was a bird ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Who would have imagined the high flying bird and the sunbathing reptile to have a common ancestor? (buzzle.com)
  • Jurassic
  • For more than a century, the small theropod dinosaur Archaeopteryx lithographica from the Late Jurassic period was considered to have been the earliest bird. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basal bird Archaeopteryx, from the Jurassic, is well known as one of the first "missing links" to be found in support of evolution in the late 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respiratory
  • Birds have a light skeletal system and light but powerful musculature which, along with circulatory and respiratory systems capable of very high metabolic rates and oxygen supply, permit the bird to fly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaeopteryx
  • Cryptovolans seems to make a better "bird" than Archaeopteryx which lacks some of these modern bird features. (wikipedia.org)
  • When Heilmann began his research in the early 1900s, the early bird Archaeopteryx was only known from three fossils found in the limestone quarries of Solnhofen near Eichstätt, Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was at the time in opposition to the view of anatomist Sir Richard Owen of the British Museum, who viewed Archaeopteryx as no different taxonomically from modern birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Huxley's
  • Huxley's work was controversial, and this climate of uncertainty and contention about bird origins persisted well into the beginning of the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • origin of bi
  • The Origin of Birds is an early synopsis of bird evolution written in 1926 by Gerhard Heilmann, a Danish artist and amateur zoologist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although this conclusion was later shown to be inaccurate, The Origin of Birds was regarded as a masterful piece of scholarship at the time and set the international agenda for research in bird evolution for nearly half a century, and much of its research remains of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1913 and 1916, Gerhard Heilmann published a series of articles in the journal of the Danish Ornithological Society, all heavily illustrated and dealing with the question of the origin of birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • plumage
  • The alternate plumage is commonly brighter than the basic plumage, for the purposes of sexual display, but may also be cryptic, to hide incubating birds that might be vulnerable on the nest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern
  • The taxonomists have found in the modern birds and developed systemic method for looking at the relationship of birds. (ukessays.com)
  • The Neognathae represent the rest of the modern birds. (ukessays.com)
  • Four distinct lineages of bird survived the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event 66 million years ago, giving rise to ostriches and relatives (Paleognathae), ducks and relatives (Anseriformes), ground-living fowl (Galliformes), and "modern birds" (Neoaves). (wikipedia.org)
  • The humerus (upper arm bone) had a fossa (depression) in a position similar to modern birds, but atypical among oviraptorosaurs, and appears to have been 152 mm (6 in) long. (wikipedia.org)
  • archosaurs
  • There are scientists who are of the view that birds have evolved from archosaurs, a group of diapsid amniotes, whose present day descendents include crocodiles. (buzzle.com)
  • Based essentially on a process of elimination, Heilmann arrives at the conclusion that birds must be descended from thecodonts, a group of archosaurs that lived during the Permian and Triassic periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • alula
  • By manipulating the alula structure to create a gap between it and the rest of the wing, a bird can avoid stalling when flying at low speeds or landing. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • allopreening A form of social grooming among birds, in which one bird preens another or a pair does so mutually. (wikipedia.org)
  • This led to the idea that the ancestors of birds must have gradually acquired the ability to fly from leaping among branches in the tops of trees. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • In most birds, these muscles are relatively small as compared to the jaw muscles of similarly sized mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The beaks of birds vary in shape and size according to what they feed on-e.g., on seeds, on insects, on aquatic animals, or on small mammals. (factmonster.com)
  • Head
  • However, the head and bill are relatively small for the birds' huge size, with the bill measuring 12 to 14.3 cm (4.7 to 5.6 in). (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolution
  • The development of a beak has led to evolution of a specially adapted digestive system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether the mystery of bird evolution gets revealed or not needs to be seen. (buzzle.com)
  • It was considered the last word on the subject of bird evolution for several decades after its publication. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the dinosaur-bird connection (or lack thereof) was being pursued in paleontology, the problem of the evolution of flight was under scrutiny as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • He first proposed the idea of a popular treatise on bird evolution in 1912 to Otto Helms, the editor of the journal of the Danish Ornithological Society. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Birds are best known for their ability to fly and are unrivaled in their environment such as the skies. (ukessays.com)
  • Penguins, certainly the most well-known marine birds, represent the most numerous community living on the polar ice. (harunyahya.com)
  • While the known fossil remains are very incomplete, enough has been found to reasonably estimate that the body length of this bird was between 7-8 inches (18-20 cm).The type specimen of A. celer, YPM 1451, was reportedly discovered by Othniel Charles Marsh in October 1872 at Butte Creek in Logan County, Kansas. (howlingpixel.com)
  • The shoebill (Balaeniceps rex) also known as whalehead or shoe-billed stork, is a very large stork-like bird. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • Methods used include dissection, in which a body is opened and its organs studied, and endoscopy, in which a video camera-equipped instrument is inserted through a small incision in the body wall and used to explore the internal organs and other structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those simpler invertebrates which are formed from two germ layers of ectoderm and endoderm are called diploblastic and the more developed animals whose structures and organs are formed from three germ layers are called triploblastic. (wikipedia.org)
  • toes
  • The bird has just two toes on each foot (most birds have four), with the nail on the larger, inner toe resembling a hoof. (wikipedia.org)
  • similarly
  • Light coloring afforded perfect camouflage for the moth from predatory birds, since it blended so well with the similarly colored lichen-covered tree trunks on which it rested. (encyclopedia.com)
  • earliest
  • The earliest reference to a talking bird comes from Ctesias in the 5th century BC. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest fossils of the short-beaked echidna date back around 15 million years ago to the Pleistocene era, and the oldest specimens were found in caves in South Australia, often with fossils of the long-beaked echidna from the same period. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaeopteryx The evolution of birds began in the Jurassic Period, with the earliest birds derived from a clade of theropoda dinosaurs named Paraves. (wikipedia.org)
  • For more than a century, the small theropod dinosaur Archaeopteryx lithographica from the Late Jurassic period was considered to have been the earliest bird. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dinosaur
  • Btw the paleogenomics field has moved a long way in retroengineering ancient transitions, such as dinosaur/archosaur skulls from bird beaks, or a hundred million years of mammalian tooth morphology (pushing well back into later therapsids), which is where current genetics work directly intersects with the fossil evidence (I went into a lot of that work in 'Evolution Slam Dunk' by the way). (blogspot.com.br)
  • Modern phylogenies place birds in the dinosaur clade Theropoda. (wikipedia.org)
  • bones
  • Since birds have no teeth, the digestive system must grind up food so that the energy stored in it can be used.The leg bones of birds are the heaviest, contributing to a low center of gravity, which aids in flight. (libremail.info)
  • The last bones of the toes resembled small hooves, rather than claws as in most birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shape of these bones varies across the bird families. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a vascular layer between the rhamphotheca and the deeper layers of the dermis, which is attached directly to the periosteum of the bones of the beak. (wikipedia.org)
  • reptiles
  • Birds are susceptible to tumours, immune deficiency and autoimmune diseases.The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and.The hind limb has an intra-tarsal joint found also in some reptiles. (libremail.info)
  • This has contributed to this ambiguity of where to draw the line between birds and reptiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • Differences in structure, shape, orientation, and presence versus absence are frequently discrete and appear to be governed by one or two genes. (uconn.edu)
  • Accurate estimates of the number of genes responsible for character divergence require knowledge of the ontogenetic and anatomical details of character development and these must be coordinated with genetic analyses. (uconn.edu)
  • commonly
  • The short-beaked echidna was commonly called the spiny anteater in older books, though this term has fallen out of fashion since the echidna bears no relation to the true anteaters. (wikipedia.org)
  • nose
  • 53 Seckel syndromeis a genetic disorder characterized by growth retardation, very small head (microcephaly( with intellectual disability , and unique facial features such as large eyes, beak-like nose, narrow face, and receding lower jaw. (malacards.org)
  • display structures
  • In the summer of 1989, graduate student Scott D. Sampson joined the team, wanting to study the function of the frill display structures in horned dinosaurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the late 1980s Buffrenil and others revived the idea that stegosaur plates were display structures, an interpretation that would continue to find favor from researchers like Main and colleagues into the 21st century. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscles
  • The keel of the sternum serves as an attachment site for the muscles used for flight or, similarly, for swimming, in penguins.There are three general ways in which birds drink: using gravity itself, sucking, and by using the tongue.These anatomical specializations have earned birds their own class in the vertebrate phylum.How Is the Owl's Digestive System Based Upon Pellets? (libremail.info)
  • Lacking vocal cords, birds are thought to make tones and sounds using throat muscles and membranes - the syrinx in particular. (wikipedia.org)
  • The muscles that depress the lower mandible are usually weak, except in a few birds such as the starlings and the extinct Huia, which have well-developed digastric muscles that aid in foraging by prying or gaping actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • modern
  • Four distinct lineages of bird survived the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event 66 million years ago, giving rise to ostriches and relatives (Paleognathae), ducks and relatives (Anseriformes), ground-living fowl (Galliformes), and "modern birds" (Neoaves). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptovolans seems to make a better "bird" than Archaeopteryx which lacks some of these modern bird features. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though it is not considered a direct ancestor of modern birds, it gives a fair representation of how flight evolved and how the very first bird might have looked. (wikipedia.org)
  • These birds ranged from about the size of a modern cassowary 1.5 to 1.8 m (4.9 to 5.9 ft) up to 3 m (9.8 ft) in the case of Dromornis stirtoni, possibly the largest bird that ever lived. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the word beak was, in the past, generally restricted to the sharpened bills of birds of prey, in modern ornithology, the terms beak and bill are generally considered to be synonymous. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • It was a very pretty white bird, of about the size and much the appearance of a large pigeon, which came flying over from the shore, and alighted on the keel of a boat that had been secured bottom-up at the stern-davits. (wikisource.org)
  • ducks
  • Poultry farming is the process of raising domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although
  • Although ornithischian (bird-hipped) dinosaurs share the same hip structure as birds, birds actually originated from the saurischian (lizard-hipped) dinosaurs if the dinosaurian origin theory is correct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cannibalism, feather pecking and vent pecking can be common, prompting some farmers to use beak trimming as a preventative measure, although reducing stocking rates would eliminate these problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The five subspecies of the short-beaked echidna are each found in different geographical locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basal bird Archaeopteryx, from the Jurassic, is well known as one of the first "missing links" to be found in support of evolution in the late 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barn systems have been found to have the worst bird welfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • Of birds digestive system diagram further bone diagrams hand labeled 8858 along with exotic animal medicine for the veterinary technician further bird. (libremail.info)
  • evidence
  • Use argument based on empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support an explanation for how characteristic animal behaviors and specialized plant structures affect the probability of successful reproduction of animals and plants respectively. (explorelearning.com)
  • There is significant evidence that birds emerged within theropod dinosaurs, specifically, that birds are members of Maniraptora, a group of theropods which includes dromaeosaurs and oviraptorids, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • ancient
  • The ancient short-beaked echidnas are considered to be identical to their contemporary descendants except the ancestors are around 10% smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • young
  • The young of some birds learn to communicate vocally by social learning, imitating their parents, as well as the dominant birds of their flock. (wikipedia.org)
  • The beak, bill, or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds that is used for eating and for preening, manipulating objects, killing prey, fighting, probing for food, courtship and feeding young. (wikipedia.org)
  • upper
  • The base of the upper mandible, or the roof when seen from the mouth, is the palate, the structure of which differs greatly in the ratites. (wikipedia.org)