• extant
  • All other extant birds have a narrow forked vomer that does not connect with other bones and is then termed as neognathous. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most extant birds have a single seamless rhamphotheca, species in a few families, including the albatrosses and the emu, have compound rhamphothecae that consist of several pieces separated and defined by softer keratinous grooves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The whales comprise eight extant families: Balaenopteridae (the rorquals), Balaenidae (right whales), Cetotheriidae (the pygmy right whale), Eschrichtiidae (the grey whale), Monodontidae (belugas and narwhals), Physeteridae (the sperm whale), Kogiidae (the dwarf and pygmy sperm whale), and Ziphiidae (the beaked whales). (wikipedia.org)
  • The exposed culmen (or the measurement along the top of the upper mandible) is 18.8 to 24 cm (7.4 to 9.4 in), the third longest bill among extant birds after pelicans and large storks, and can outrival the pelicans in bill circumference, especially if the bill is considered as the hard, bony keratin portion. (wikipedia.org)
  • lower mandible
  • The muscles that depress the lower mandible are usually weak, except in a few birds such as the starlings and the extinct Huia, which have well-developed digastric muscles that aid in foraging by prying or gaping actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outer surface of the beak consists of a thin horny sheath of keratin called the rhamphotheca, which can be subdivided into the rhinotheca of the upper mandible and the gnathotheca of the lower mandible. (wikipedia.org)
  • teeth
  • Birds also lack teeth or even a true jaw , instead having a beak , which is far more lightweight. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was noted already in the 19th century, with Thomas Huxley writing: We have had to stretch the definition of the class of birds so as to include birds with teeth and birds with paw-like fore limbs and long tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • His reasoning was that the teeth of the lower jaw were weakly connected to the bone and liable to break off if used to consume terrestrial food, and he described the beak as weak as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • All birds are bipedal warm-blooded animals with wings, four-chambered hearts, tough beaks instead of teeth and feathers growing from their skin. (reference.com)
  • In addition to their light bones, beaks are also much lighter than the teeth they replace. (reference.com)
  • The exact classification of therizinosaurs had in the past been hotly debated, since their prosauropod-like teeth and body structure indicate that they were generally herbivorous, unlike typical theropods. (wikipedia.org)
  • bony
  • The upper, and in some cases the lower, mandibles are strengthened internally by a complex three-dimensional network of bony spicules (or trabeculae) seated in soft connective tissue and surrounded by the hard outer layers of the beak. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bony core of the beak is a lightweight framework, like that seen on this barn owl 's skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the morphological blueprints for individual cartilage and bony structures must somehow be encoded in the genome, we currently know little about the detailed genomic mechanisms that direct precise growth patterns for particular bones. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The human skull is the bony structure that forms the head in the human skeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • skull
  • The skeletal structure, shell shape, tail and skull, everything right down to the finest detail of this 140-million-year-old turtle can clearly be seen and it possesses exactly the same features as turtles living today. (harunyahya.com)
  • The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation-housing the brain, and several sensory structures such as the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • modern birds
  • Four distinct lineages of bird survived the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event 66 million years ago, giving rise to ostriches and relatives (Paleognathae), ducks and relatives (Anseriformes), ground-living fowl (Galliformes), and "modern birds" (Neoaves). (wikipedia.org)
  • Though it is not considered a direct ancestor of modern birds, it gives a fair representation of how flight evolved and how the very first bird might have looked. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may be seventeen years since the release of the multi-award winning film "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon", but today, we draw similarities between one of director's Ang Lee's most successful movies and a new scientific paper published in the on line journal "Nature Communications" that illuminates how the crouched posture of modern birds evolved from their more straight-limbed dinosaur ancestors. (everythingdinosaur.co.uk)
  • The humerus (upper arm bone) had a fossa (depression) in a position similar to modern birds, but atypical among oviraptorosaurs, and appears to have been 152 mm (6 in) long. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • A diagnosis is a statement of the anatomical features of an organism (or group) that collectively distinguish it from all other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anatomy (Greek anatomē, "dissection") is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anatomy and physiology, which study (respectively) the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, and they are often studied together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Derived from the Greek ἀνατομή anatomē "dissection" (from ἀνατέμνω anatémnō "I cut up, cut open" from ἀνά aná "up", and τέμνω témnō "I cut"), anatomy is the scientific study of the structure of organisms including their systems, organs and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • posture
  • At times it may be used to redirect or sublimate aggression, such as one bird assuming a solicitation posture to indicate its non-aggression and invite allopreening by the aggressive individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a common problem among rabbits as a result of their anatomical posture. (seavs.com)
  • A joint study between scientists from the Royal Veterinary College, led by Professor John Hutchinson and Professor Baoyu Jiang (Nanjing University, China) and associates have analysed the perfectly preserved soft tissues around the ankle joint of a 125 million-year-old, early bird called Confuciusornis and used this data to work out the evolutionary path the birds took towards their more crouched posture. (everythingdinosaur.co.uk)
  • turtles
  • The genus remained misclassified until 1867, when Albert Günther of the British Museum noted features similar to birds, turtles, and crocodiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • mouth
  • The base of the upper mandible, or the roof when seen from the mouth, is the palate, the structure of which differs greatly in the ratites. (wikipedia.org)
  • tail
  • Like other hadrosaurids, it was a bulky animal with a long, laterally flattened tail and a head with an expanded, duck-like beak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Length from tail to beak can range from 100 to 140 cm (39 to 55 in) and wingspan is 230 to 260 cm (7 ft 7 in to 8 ft 6 in). (wikipedia.org)
  • crocodiles
  • There are scientists who are of the view that birds have evolved from archosaurs, a group of diapsid amniotes, whose present day descendents include crocodiles. (buzzle.com)
  • dinosaurian
  • Ornithomimosaurs are only one out of several dinosaurian groups that at some point evolved beaks. (uio.no)
  • ancestor
  • It may be predated by Protoavis texensis, though the fragmentary nature of this fossil leaves it open to considerable doubt whether this was a bird ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Who would have imagined the high flying bird and the sunbathing reptile to have a common ancestor? (buzzle.com)
  • wings
  • With that being said, there are many benefits to trimming a birds wings. (seavs.com)
  • Their wings are stiffened and modified into flippers, allowing them to fly through the water as other birds do through the air. (reference.com)
  • fossil
  • Fossil penguins show that these animals have had exactly the same bodily structure for millions of years. (harunyahya.com)
  • With all the details of its jaw and tooth structure, the fossil in the picture is identical to members of the same species living today. (harunyahya.com)
  • It has been suggested that the enigmatic African fossil bird Eremopezus was a relative too, but the evidence for that is unconfirmed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The preservation in this fossil was exceptional and allowed us to resolve subtle but important chemical and structural details within this critical early species of bird. (everythingdinosaur.co.uk)
  • He proposed the order Rhynchocephalia (meaning "beak head") for the tuatara and its fossil relatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Head
  • However, the head and bill are relatively small for the birds' huge size, with the bill measuring 12 to 14.3 cm (4.7 to 5.6 in). (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopic
  • 2002). Microscopic analysis of eggshell structure by Konstantin Mikhailov in 1995 found that the eggshells of shoebills closely resembled those of other Pelecaniformes in having a covering of thick microglobular material over the crystalline shells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather, the cellular and fibrous structure of the tissues was preserved at a microscopic level. (everythingdinosaur.co.uk)
  • Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology, and also in the study of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures on a microscopic scale, including histology (the study of tissues), and embryology (the study of an organism in its immature condition). (wikipedia.org)
  • Respiratory
  • Birds have a light skeletal system and light but powerful musculature which, along with circulatory and respiratory systems capable of very high metabolic rates and oxygen supply, permit the bird to fly. (wikipedia.org)
  • anatomy
  • The history of anatomy is characterized by a progressive understanding of the functions of the organs and structures of the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gross anatomy is the study of structures large enough to be seen with the naked eye, and also includes superficial anatomy or surface anatomy, the study by sight of the external body features. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anatomy can be studied using both invasive and non-invasive methods with the goal of obtaining information about the structure and organization of organs and systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, substantially the same structures and tissues are found throughout the rest of the animal kingdom and the term also includes the anatomy of other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure and tissues of plants are of a dissimilar nature and they are studied in plant anatomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • anisodactylous Descriptive of tetradactyl (four-toed) birds in which the architecture of the foot consists of three toes projecting forward and one toe projecting backward (the hallux), such as in most passerine species. (wikipedia.org)
  • features
  • The two most notable traits are a "bird-like" hip and beak-like predentary structure though they shared other features as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Penguins, as a group, vary more from the normal features of birds than any other group, although they retain the essential features that define them as birds. (reference.com)
  • plumage
  • The alternate plumage is commonly brighter than the basic plumage, for the purposes of sexual display, but may also be cryptic, to hide incubating birds that might be vulnerable on the nest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plumage of adult birds is blue-grey with darker slaty-grey flight feathers. (wikipedia.org)
  • expel
  • instead they have plates of baleen, a fringe-like structure used to expel water while retaining the krill and plankton which they feed on. (wikipedia.org)
  • alula
  • By manipulating the alula structure to create a gap between it and the rest of the wing, a bird can avoid stalling when flying at low speeds or landing. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • The number of hollow bones varies among species, though large gliding and soaring birds tend to have the most. (wikipedia.org)
  • allopreening A form of social grooming among birds, in which one bird preens another or a pair does so mutually. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, a bird-like hip structure also developed a third time among a peculiar group of theropods, the Therizinosauridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even among birds there are at least two species not found elsewhere, one of which, the Chionis minor of Hartlaub, or White Paddy, sheath-bill, and "sore-eyed pigeon" of sealers and whalers, I propose to give a short account of. (wikisource.org)
  • basal
  • The cerebrum contains the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb. (lumenlearning.com)
  • outer
  • Granivorous (seed-eating) birds, for example, have ridges in their tomia, which help the bird to slice through a seed's outer hull. (wikipedia.org)
  • toes
  • The bird has just two toes on each foot (most birds have four), with the nail on the larger, inner toe resembling a hoof . (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Penguins, certainly the most well-known marine birds, represent the most numerous community living on the polar ice. (harunyahya.com)
  • Notice the folded structure of the cortex: the "valleys" of the cortex are known as sulci. (lumenlearning.com)
  • The shoebill (Balaeniceps rex) also known as whalehead or shoe-billed stork, is a very large stork-like bird. (wikipedia.org)