• extant
  • All other extant birds have a narrow forked vomer that does not connect with other bones and is then termed as neognathous. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most extant birds have a single seamless rhamphotheca, species in a few families, including the albatrosses and the emu , have compound rhamphothecae that consist of several pieces separated and defined by softer keratinous grooves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The whales comprise eight extant families: Balaenopteridae (the rorquals), Balaenidae (right whales), Cetotheriidae (the pygmy right whale), Eschrichtiidae (the grey whale), Monodontidae (belugas and narwhals), Physeteridae (the sperm whale), Kogiidae (the dwarf and pygmy sperm whale), and Ziphiidae (the beaked whales). (wikipedia.org)
  • The exposed culmen (or the measurement along the top of the upper mandible) is 18.8 to 24 cm (7.4 to 9.4 in), the third longest bill among extant birds after pelicans and large storks, and can outrival the pelicans in bill circumference, especially if the bill is considered as the hard, bony keratin portion. (wikipedia.org)
  • bony
  • The bony core of the beak is a lightweight framework, like that seen on this barn owl 's skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • The upper, and in some cases the lower, mandibles are strengthened internally by a complex three-dimensional network of bony spicules (or trabeculae ) seated in soft connective tissue and surrounded by the hard outer layers of the beak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the morphological blueprints for individual cartilage and bony structures must somehow be encoded in the genome, we currently know little about the detailed genomic mechanisms that direct precise growth patterns for particular bones. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The human skull is the bony structure that forms the head in the human skeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • lower mandible
  • The muscles that depress the lower mandible are usually weak, except in a few birds such as the starlings and the extinct Huia , which have well-developed digastric muscles that aid in foraging by prying or gaping actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outer surface of the beak consists of a thin horny sheath of keratin called the rhamphotheca , which can be subdivided into the rhinotheca of the upper mandible and the gnathotheca of the lower mandible. (wikipedia.org)
  • teeth
  • Birds also lack teeth or even a true jaw , instead having a beak , which is far more lightweight. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was noted already in the 19th century, with Thomas Huxley writing: We have had to stretch the definition of the class of birds so as to include birds with teeth and birds with paw-like fore limbs and long tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • All birds are bipedal warm-blooded animals with wings, four-chambered hearts, tough beaks instead of teeth and feathers growing from their skin. (reference.com)
  • In addition to their light bones, beaks are also much lighter than the teeth they replace. (reference.com)
  • His reasoning was that the teeth of the lower jaw were weakly connected to the bone and liable to break off if used to consume terrestrial food, and he described the beak as weak as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact classification of therizinosaurs had in the past been hotly debated, since their prosauropod-like teeth and body structure indicate that they were generally herbivorous, unlike typical theropods. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The number of hollow bones varies among species, though large gliding and soaring birds tend to have the most. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bones of diving birds are often less hollow than those of non-diving species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although beaks vary significantly in size and shape from species to species, their underlying structures have a similar pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rhamphotheca grows continuously in most birds, and in some species, the color varies seasonally. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most birds, these range from rounded to slightly sharp, but some species have evolved structural modifications that allow them to handle their typical food sources better. (wikipedia.org)
  • This glossary makes no attempt to cover them all, concentrating on terms that might be found across descriptions of multiple bird species by bird enthusiasts and ornithologists. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a rule, this glossary does not contain individual entries on any of the approximately 9,700 recognized living individual bird species of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • anisodactylous Descriptive of tetradactyl (four-toed) birds in which the architecture of the foot consists of three toes projecting forward and one toe projecting backward (the hallux), such as in most passerine species. (wikipedia.org)
  • With all the details of its jaw and tooth structure, the fossil in the picture is identical to members of the same species living today. (harunyahya.com)
  • Gastornis species were very large birds, and have traditionally been considered to be predators of small mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastornis is known from a large amount of fossil remains, but the clearest picture of the bird comes from a few nearly complete specimens of the species G. gigantea. (wikipedia.org)
  • He considered them to belong to a distinct genus and species of giant ground bird, which, in 1876, he named Diatryma gigantea (/ˌdaɪ.əˈtraɪmə/ DY-ə-TRY-mə), from Ancient Greek διάτρημα, diatrema, meaning "through a hole", referring to the large foramina (perforations) that penetrate some of the foot bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even among birds there are at least two species not found elsewhere, one of which, the Chionis minor of Hartlaub, or White Paddy, sheath-bill, and "sore-eyed pigeon" of sealers and whalers, I propose to give a short account of. (wikisource.org)
  • Phylogenetically, Aves is usually defined as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of a specific modern bird species (such as the house sparrow, Passer domesticus), and either Archaeopteryx, or some prehistoric species closer to Neornithes (to avoid the problems caused by the unclear relationships of Archaeopteryx to other theropods). (wikipedia.org)
  • The common ostrich is the largest living species of bird and lays the largest eggs of any living bird (extinct elephant birds of Madagascar and the giant moa of New Zealand laid larger eggs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Its flapping rate, at an estimated 150 flaps per minute, is one of the slowest of any bird, with the exception of the larger stork species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most birds can fly, and even those that cannot evolved from species that could. (reference.com)
  • The preservation in this fossil was exceptional and allowed us to resolve subtle but important chemical and structural details within this critical early species of bird. (everythingdinosaur.co.uk)
  • skull
  • The skeletal structure, shell shape, tail and skull, everything right down to the finest detail of this 140-million-year-old turtle can clearly be seen and it possesses exactly the same features as turtles living today. (harunyahya.com)
  • In 1916, an American Museum of Natural History expedition to the Bighorn Basin (Willwood Formation) of Wyoming found the first nearly complete skull and skeleton, which was described in 1917 and gave scientists their first clear picture of the bird. (wikipedia.org)
  • The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation-housing the brain, and several sensory structures such as the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • modern birds
  • Four distinct lineages of bird survived the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event 66 million years ago, giving rise to ostriches and relatives (Paleognathae), ducks and relatives (Anseriformes), ground-living fowl (Galliformes), and "modern birds" (Neoaves). (wikipedia.org)
  • Though it is not considered a direct ancestor of modern birds, it gives a fair representation of how flight evolved and how the very first bird might have looked. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may be seventeen years since the release of the multi-award winning film "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon", but today, we draw similarities between one of director's Ang Lee's most successful movies and a new scientific paper published in the on line journal "Nature Communications" that illuminates how the crouched posture of modern birds evolved from their more straight-limbed dinosaur ancestors. (everythingdinosaur.co.uk)
  • The humerus (upper arm bone) had a fossa (depression) in a position similar to modern birds, but atypical among oviraptorosaurs, and appears to have been 152 mm (6 in) long. (wikipedia.org)
  • posture
  • At times it may be used to redirect or sublimate aggression, such as one bird assuming a solicitation posture to indicate its non-aggression and invite allopreening by the aggressive individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a common problem among rabbits as a result of their anatomical posture. (seavs.com)
  • A joint study between scientists from the Royal Veterinary College, led by Professor John Hutchinson and Professor Baoyu Jiang (Nanjing University, China) and associates have analysed the perfectly preserved soft tissues around the ankle joint of a 125 million-year-old, early bird called Confuciusornis and used this data to work out the evolutionary path the birds took towards their more crouched posture. (everythingdinosaur.co.uk)
  • turtles
  • The terms beak and rostrum are also used to refer to a similar mouth part in some dicynodonts , Ornithischians , cephalopods , cetaceans , billfishes , pufferfishes , turtles , Anuran tadpoles and sirens . (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus remained misclassified until 1867, when Albert Günther of the British Museum noted features similar to birds, turtles, and crocodiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • mouth
  • The base of the upper mandible, or the roof when seen from the mouth, is the palate, the structure of which differs greatly in the ratites . (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • A diagnosis is a statement of the anatomical features of an organism (or group) that collectively distinguish it from all other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • tail
  • Like other hadrosaurids, it was a bulky animal with a long, laterally flattened tail and a head with an expanded, duck-like beak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Length from tail to beak can range from 100 to 140 cm (39 to 55 in) and wingspan is 230 to 260 cm (7 ft 7 in to 8 ft 6 in). (wikipedia.org)
  • crocodiles
  • There are scientists who are of the view that birds have evolved from archosaurs, a group of diapsid amniotes, whose present day descendents include crocodiles. (buzzle.com)
  • fossil
  • Fossil penguins show that these animals have had exactly the same bodily structure for millions of years. (harunyahya.com)
  • It may be predated by Protoavis texensis, though the fragmentary nature of this fossil leaves it open to considerable doubt whether this was a bird ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that the enigmatic African fossil bird Eremopezus was a relative too, but the evidence for that is unconfirmed. (wikipedia.org)
  • He proposed the order Rhynchocephalia (meaning "beak head") for the tuatara and its fossil relatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • dinosaurian
  • Ornithomimosaurs are only one out of several dinosaurian groups that at some point evolved beaks. (uio.no)
  • ancestor
  • Who would have imagined the high flying bird and the sunbathing reptile to have a common ancestor? (buzzle.com)
  • wings
  • With that being said, there are many benefits to trimming a birds wings. (seavs.com)
  • Their wings are stiffened and modified into flippers, allowing them to fly through the water as other birds do through the air. (reference.com)
  • Head
  • However, the head and bill are relatively small for the birds' huge size, with the bill measuring 12 to 14.3 cm (4.7 to 5.6 in). (wikipedia.org)
  • tall
  • The beak was extremely tall and compressed (flattened from side to side). (wikipedia.org)
  • The shoebill is a tall bird, with a typical height range of 110 to 140 cm (43 to 55 in) and some specimens reaching as much as 152 cm (60 in). (wikipedia.org)
  • cranes
  • The neck is relatively shorter and thicker than other long-legged wading birds such as herons and cranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • features
  • The two most notable traits are a "bird-like" hip and beak-like predentary structure though they shared other features as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Penguins, as a group, vary more from the normal features of birds than any other group, although they retain the essential features that define them as birds. (reference.com)
  • plumage
  • The alternate plumage is commonly brighter than the basic plumage, for the purposes of sexual display, but may also be cryptic, to hide incubating birds that might be vulnerable on the nest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plumage of adult birds is blue-grey with darker slaty-grey flight feathers. (wikipedia.org)
  • expel
  • instead they have plates of baleen, a fringe-like structure used to expel water while retaining the krill and plankton which they feed on. (wikipedia.org)
  • alula
  • By manipulating the alula structure to create a gap between it and the rest of the wing, a bird can avoid stalling when flying at low speeds or landing. (wikipedia.org)
  • light
  • Birds have a light skeletal system and light but powerful musculature which, along with circulatory and respiratory systems capable of very high metabolic rates and oxygen supply, permit the bird to fly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bones in the wing are extremely light so that the bird can fly more easily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Light coloring afforded perfect camouflage for the moth from predatory birds, since it blended so well with the similarly colored lichen-covered tree trunks on which it rested. (encyclopedia.com)
  • toes
  • The bird has just two toes on each foot (most birds have four), with the nail on the larger, inner toe resembling a hoof . (wikipedia.org)