• nodules
  • Iodine-131 scans and CT scans occasionally reveal cold thyroid nodules, requiring a follow-up ultrasonogram and fine-needle aspiration. (medscape.com)
  • Thyroid ultrasonography revealed nodules in 43.4% of individuals evaluated, the majority (88%) of whom had no previously recognised history of thyroid disease. (edu.au)
  • Non-specific neck imaging therefore had the potential to identify clinically inapparent thyroid nodules. (edu.au)
  • Contemporary evaluation protocols for asymptomatic and incidentally discovered thyroid nodules promote the use of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and specimen cytology. (edu.au)
  • As the prevalence of clinically silent PTC ≤1cm diameter ("occult" PTC) is reported to be approximately 5% in thyroid nodules, contemporary patterns of neck imaging and the subsequent FNAB evaluation of subclinical thyroid nodules might explain much of the recently observed rise in incidence of PTC. (edu.au)
  • When the cells change or stop growing altogether, benign conditions including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, thyroid nodules or thyroiditis can occur. (cancertutor.com)
  • However, many adults have small nodules in their thyroids, but typically under 5% of these nodules are found to be cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thyroid nodules are of particular concern when they are found in those under the age of 20. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of all thyroid nodules discovered, only about 5 percent are cancerous, and under 3 percent of those result in fatalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thyroid nodules are a major presentation of thyroid neoplasms, and are diagnosed by ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (USG/FNA) or frequently by thyroidectomy (surgical removal and subsequent histological examination). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thyroid nodules are very common and around 80 percent of adults will have at least one by the time they reach 70 years of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although thyroid nodules are common, thyroid cancer is rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • There's still a risk of hypothyroidism though, as the remaining thyroid tissue may not be able to produce enough hormones in the long-run. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, a carcinoma is a cancer that begins in a tissue that lines the inner or outer surfaces of the body, and that arises from cells originating in the endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal germ layer during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypothyroidism
  • Too much thyroid hormone in your system is called hyperthyroidism, while too little is called hypothyroidism. (oncolink.org)
  • Sometimes only part of the thyroid is removed in an attempt to avoid causing hypothyroidism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, hypothyroidism is a state of insufficient thyroid hormone production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thyroid hormones are important for development, and hypothyroidism secondary to iodine deficiency remains the leading cause of preventable intellectual disability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first is thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is generally below normal in hyperthyroidism and above normal in hypothyroidism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-thyroid autoantibodies can also be used, where elevated anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies are commonly found in hypothyroidism from Hashimoto's thyroiditis and TSH-receptor antibodies are found in hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypothyroidism is a state in which the body is not producing enough thyroid hormones, or is not able to respond to / utilize existing thyroid hormones properly. (wikipedia.org)
  • iodine
  • It is presumed that Tg and thyroid are also an important storage of iodine for all body needs, in particular, for many iodine-concentrating organs such as breast, stomach, salivary glands, thymus, choroid plexus and cerebrospinal fluid, etc. (see iodine in biology). (wikipedia.org)
  • Iodine nutrition may also influence the risk of thyroid malignancy, both by modulating thyroidal radioiodine uptake as well as by directly influencing the pathogenesis of benign and malignant thyroid disease. (edu.au)
  • Environmental exposure to ionizing radiation from both natural background sources and artificial sources is suspected to play a significant role, and there are significant increased rates of thyroid cancer in those exposed to mantlefield radiation for lymphoma, and those exposed to iodine-131 following the Chernobyl, Fukushima, Kyshtym, and Windscale nuclear disasters. (wikipedia.org)
  • As thyroid cancer can take up iodine, radioactive iodine is commonly used to treat thyroid carcinomas, followed by TSH suppression by high-dose thyroxine therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are created from iodine and tyrosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • benign
  • Radiation therapy was also used in the 1940-1960s for benign conditions like acne, and this population has an increased risk for thyroid cancer. (oncolink.org)
  • Measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone and anti-thyroid antibodies will help decide if there is a functional thyroid disease such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis present, a known cause of a benign nodular goiter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pilomatrixoma, malignant Pilomatricoma, malignant Matrical carcinoma M8120/0 Transitional cell papilloma, benign Transitional papilloma M8120/1 Urothelial papilloma, NOS Papilloma of baldder (C67. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoma kinase
  • Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) also known as ALK tyrosine kinase receptor or CD246 (cluster of differentiation 246) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALK gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The translocation creates a fusion gene consisting of the ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) gene and the nucleophosmin (NPM) gene: the 3' half of ALK, derived from chromosome 2 and coding for the catalytic domain, is fused to the 5' portion of NPM from chromosome 5. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ceritinib was approved by the FDA in April 2014 for the treatment of patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have progressed on or are intolerant to crizotinib. (wikipedia.org)
  • variant
  • The thyroid is supplied with arterial blood from the superior thyroid artery, a branch of the external carotid artery, and the inferior thyroid artery, a branch of the thyrocervical trunk, and sometimes by an anatomical variant the thyroid ima artery, which has a variable origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal
  • A 62-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of clear cell renal carcinoma was admitted to our institution for multinodular goiter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The diagnosis of metastatic disease should be taken into account if patients have a history of clear cell renal carcinoma or if there is a multifocal growth pattern and clear cell appearance of the cytoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • neck
  • Nodal Factors Predictive of Recurrence After Thyroidectomy and Neck Dissection for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma. (amedeo.com)
  • Long-term outcomes of lateral neck dissection in patients with recurrent or persistent well-differentiated thyroid cancer. (amedeo.com)
  • It often occurs in young females, and is the most common thyroid cancer in children and patients who have undergone radiation therapy to the head and neck ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • RT to head or neck, the risk of radiation-induced thyroid nodularity and carcinoma increases with radiation dose and decreases the older the person was at the time of irradiation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is a butterfly shaped organ that stretches across the middle of the neck just below the thyroid cartilage, with its "wings" spreading towards the head, on either side of the thyroid cartilage. (oncolink.org)
  • The most firmly established risk factor for the development of thyroid cancer is having had exposure to ionizing radiation to the neck area at a young age (18 years old or younger). (oncolink.org)
  • The thyroid sits near the front of the neck, lying against and around the front of the larynx and trachea. (wikipedia.org)
  • fine-needle asp
  • This led to much confusion among cytopathologists and referring physicians until the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology was developed by the National Cancer Institute to address terminology and other issues related to fine-needle aspiration. (medscape.com)
  • parathyroid
  • Typically four parathyroid glands, two on each side, lie on each side between the two layers of the capsule, at the back of the thyroid lobes. (wikipedia.org)
  • isthmus
  • These "wings" are called the lobes of the thyroid, with the middle section being called the isthmus. (oncolink.org)
  • The thyroid weighs 25 grams in adults, with each lobe being about 5 cm long, 3 cm wide and 2 cm thick, and the isthmus about 1.25 cm in height and width. (wikipedia.org)
  • The isthmus extends from the second to third rings of the trachea, with the uppermost part of the lobes extending to the thyroid cartilage, and the lowermost around the fourth to sixth tracheal rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • When present, this lobe often stretches up the hyoid bone from the thyroid isthmus and may be one to several divided lobes. (wikipedia.org)