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  • spindle
  • These observations have led to the proposal that animal cells have a 'spindle assembly' checkpoint for the metaphase-anaphase transition that monitors bipolar spindle organization. (biologists.org)
  • We conclude that animal cells do not have a checkpoint for the metaphase-anaphase transition that monitors defects in spindle architecture independent of the checkpoint that monitors kinetochore attachment to the spindle. (biologists.org)
  • For dividing cells in which spindle microtubule assembly is not experimentally compromised, we propose that the completion of kinetochore attachment is the event which limits the time of the metaphase-anaphase transition. (biologists.org)
  • structure
  • Dana Branzei's is a PI at the Institute of Molecular Oncology Foundation (IFOM) in Milan, Italy, where her lab investigate mechanistic interplay of DNA damage response and regulatory pathways of chromosome structure during replication. (biologists.org)
  • Genetic
  • The data obtained demonstrate that the rye and wheat chromosomes studied are involved in genetic regulation of centromere division in meiotic anaphase I (AI). (deepdyve.com)
  • This activity promotes directional synchrony between translocating sister chromosomes and assists in the preservation of genetic fidelity. (rupress.org)
  • These chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the equator of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Second, the changes in chromosomal genetic structure increase the divergence of the homoeologous chromosomes (similar chromosomes from inter-species hybrid) and promotes homologous chromosome pairing (2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Homoeologous chromosomes with similar genetic content may pair with each other resulting in trivalent or tetravalent interactions (4). (wikipedia.org)
  • When homeologous chromosomes pair up though bivalents or multivalents, illegitimate genetic crossovers may occur (4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the chromosomes may differ in genetic structure and content, segments of the chromosome may be shuffled around resulting in massive gene loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • movements
  • Chromosome segregation in most animal cells is brought about through two events: the movement of the chromosomes to the poles (anaphase A) and the movement of the poles away from each other (anaphase B). Essential to an understanding of the mechanism of mitosis is information on the relative movements of components of the spindle and identification of sites of subunit loss from shortening microtubules. (rupress.org)
  • Through use of tubulin derivatized with X-rhodamine, photobleaching, and digital imaging microscopy of living cells, we directly determined the relative movements of poles, chromosomes, and a marked domain on kinetochore fibers during anaphase. (rupress.org)
  • meiotic
  • C-banding was used to study the segregation pattern of each of two univalent chromosomes during the first meiotic division. (deepdyve.com)
  • In addition, sexual reproduction provides the benefit of meiotic recombination between non-sister chromosomes, a process associated with repair of DNA double-strand breaks and other DNA damages that may be induced by stressful conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • Begg DA, Ellis GW (1979) Micromanipulation studies of chromosome movement I. Chromosome-spindle attachment and the mechanical properties of chromosomal spindle fibers. (springer.com)
  • Inspection of the stained metaphase chromosomes allows the determination of numerical and structural changes in the tumor cell genome, for example, losses of chromosomal segments or translocations, which may lead to chimeric oncogenes, such as bcr-abl in chronic myelogenous leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • separation
  • Aist JR, Berns MW (1981) Mechanics of chromosome separation during mitosis in Fusarium (Fungi imperfecti): new evidence from ultrastructural and laser microbeam experiments. (springer.com)
  • During chromosome movement and pole-pole separation, the marked domain did not move significantly with respect to the near pole. (rupress.org)
  • Mechanics of chromosome separation during mitosis in Fusarium (Fungi imperfecti): new evidence from ultrastructural and laser microbeam experiments. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To the best of current knowledge its most important function is to activate the anaphase promoting complex (APC/C), a large 11-13 subunit complex that initiates chromatid separation and entrance into anaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is required for two microtubule-dependent processes: nuclear movement prior to anaphase, and chromosome separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The giemsa G-banding technique is commonly used to identify mammalian chromosomes, utilizing the technology on plant cells was difficult due to the high degree of chromosome compaction in plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tethers
  • Recent work has demonstrated the existence of elastic connections, or tethers, between the telomeres of separating partner chromosomes in anaphase. (springer.com)
  • Here, we review what is currently known about connections between separating partner chromosomes in anaphase, and we speculate on possible functions of tethers, and on what they are made of and how one might determine their composition. (springer.com)
  • Forer A, Duquette M, Paliulis LV, Fegaras E, Ono M, Preece D, Berns M (2017) Elastic 'tethers' connect separating anaphase chromosomes in a broad range of animal cells. (springer.com)
  • telomeres
  • Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that protect the integrity of the chromosome ends ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This work resulted from following the fate of fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) telomeres after introdroducing fission yeast chromosomes into mouse cell in collaoration with Peter Fantes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • An examination of the literature on cell division from the nineteenth century to the present reveals that connections between separating partner chromosomes in anaphase have been described in some of the earliest observations of cell division. (springer.com)
  • Cell Chromosome 6(1):1. (springer.com)
  • Chromosome segregation is one of the most important acts in the life of the cell. (springer.com)
  • Because MCAK is localized broadly and dynamically throughout the inner and outer centromere during cell division, we set out to determine precisely what MCAK's MT-destabilizing activity contributes to chromosome segregation. (rupress.org)
  • Proper segregation of progeny nuclei requires that the spindle translocate to the neck separating the mother and bud cell bodies and orient along the long mother-bud cell axis before anaphase. (rupress.org)
  • Interestingly, the mar del (10) and bisatellited chromosomes were present in every cell examined, but the ring chromosome was only present in 4-8% of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase). (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaphase (from the Greek ἀνά, "up" and φάσις, "stage"), is the stage of mitosis after the metaphase when replicated chromosomes are split and the daughter chromatids are moved to opposite poles of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the chromosomes are drawn to each side of the cell, the non-kinetochore spindle fibers push against each other, in a ratcheting action, that stretches the cell into an oval. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaphase accounts for approximately 1% of the cell cycle's duration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Micronucleus is the name given to the small nucleus that forms whenever a chromosome or a fragment of a chromosome is not incorporated into one of the daughter nuclei during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • If DNA damage exceeds the repair capacity of the cell, unrepaired double-stranded DNA breaks may also result in acentric chromosome fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another way eccentric chromosome fragments may arise is when defects in genes related to homologous recombinational repair (ex: ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, and RAD51) result in a dysfunctional error-free homologous recombinational DNA repair pathway and causes the cell to resort to the error-prone non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair pathway, increasing the likelihood of incorrect repair of DNA breaks, formation of dicentric chromosomes, and acentric chromosome fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the error is corrected, the cell will proceed to anaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • condense
  • For example, spermatozoa and avian red blood cells have more tightly packed chromatin than most eukaryotic cells, and trypanosomatid protozoa do not condense their chromatin into visible chromosomes for mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin
  • Cdc14 antagonizes Cdk1 by stimulating proteolysis of its cyclin partner (cyclin B), through the dephosphorylation of Cdh1, a regulator of the anaphase-promoting complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • A decade after the initial observation of neocentromeres, 60 more cases of human neocentromeres from across the genome, not just chromosome 10, were documented by 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome shock can be defined as a stage in which the genome experiences massive reorganization and structural changes to deal with the external stress (X-ray damage, chromosome duplication, etc.) imposed upon the genome (3). (wikipedia.org)