• biology
  • In the 80s the x-ray structure of key enzymes was unveiled and molecular biology began to explore the expression and synthesis of the individual proteins. (issx.org)
  • In its modern sense, molecular biology attempts to explain the phenomena of life starting from the macromolecular properties that generate them. (wikipedia.org)
  • One definition of the scope of molecular biology therefore is to characterize the structure, function and relationships between these two types of macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its earliest manifestations, molecular biology-the name was coined by Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation in 1938-was an idea of physical and chemical explanations of life, rather than a coherent discipline. (wikipedia.org)
  • the construction and exploitation of new model organisms would become a recurring theme in the development of molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chief discoveries of molecular biology took place in a period of only about twenty-five years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many imaging techniques can be used to analyze samples of all sizes, from the single molecule to the cellular level in biology and medicine, and to images of planetary systems in astronomy, but different instrumentation is employed for making observations on such widely different systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dark quencher, for use in molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Since then, technological advances have permitted the development of techniques for the measurement of relaxation times covering the entire range of molecular processes and chemical reactivity. (britannica.com)
  • Spectrophotometric techniques based on emission, absorption or scattering processes are frequently used for qualitative and quantitative analyses. (google.com)
  • This molecular-level understanding is critical to designing chemical processes using SCF solvents. (epa.gov)
  • FOS has the following fields of application: surface metrology, precise probe positioning, automatic surface characterization, automatic surface modification/stimulation, automatic manipulation of nanoobjects, nanotechnological processes of "bottom-up" assembly, coordinated control of analytical and technological probes in multiprobe instruments, control of atomic/molecular assemblers, control of probe nanolithographs, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • In metalloneurochemistry, he studies the molecular activity of metal ions in the brain and develops optical and MRI sensors for binding, tracking, and measuring metal ions as they interact with neurotransmitters and other biological signaling agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular oxygen, iodide ions and acrylamide are common chemical quenchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead of using continuously flowing afterglow helium some use interrupted helium flow to conserve gas and Schlieren imaging to maximize the molecular ions produced and the instrument step-up. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the drawbacks of the flowing afterglow technique is the possibility of generating multiple reactant ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • biologist
  • Two categories of macromolecules in particular are the focus of the molecular biologist: 1) nucleic acids, among which the most famous is deoxyribonucleic acid (or DNA), the constituent of genes, and 2) proteins, which are the active agents of living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mostafa Ronaghi (born 1968) is an Iranian molecular biologist, specializing in DNA sequencing methodology. (wikipedia.org)
  • spatial
  • Chemical imaging (as quantitative - chemical mapping) is the analytical capability to create a visual image of components distribution from simultaneous measurement of spectra and spatial, time information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any material that depends on chemical gradients for functionality may be amenable to study by an analytical technique that couples spatial and chemical characterization. (wikipedia.org)
  • It improved the spatial resolution of photothermal AFM-based techniques from microns to circa 100 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Novel extensions of the original AFM-IR technique and earlier techniques have enabled the development of bench-top devices capable of nanometer spatial resolution, that do not require a prism and can work with thicker samples, and thereby greatly improving ease of use and expanding the range of samples that can be analysed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The comparatively large size of these probes also limited spatial resolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • used thermal probes with nanoscale dimensions and demonstrated higher spatial resolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ye et al described a MEM-type thermal probe giving sub-100 nm spatial resolution, which they used for nanothermal analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dexter energy transfer is a short-range phenomenon that falls off exponentially with distance (proportional to e−kR where k is a constant that depends on the inverse of the van der Waals radius of the atom[citation needed]) and depends on spatial overlap of donor and quencher molecular orbitals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibers
  • Where measurements must be made at many different locations, a number of probes may be connected to a single remotely-located measuring instrument by optical fibers, as in the on-line process control monitoring system disclosed in U.S. Pat. (google.com)
  • temperature
  • When an equilibrated nuclear, atomic, or molecular system is subjected to an abrupt physical change, such as a sudden rise in temperature or pressure , it takes time for the system to re-equilibrate under the new conditions. (britannica.com)
  • A moderately detailed description of one relaxation technique, the temperature-jump method, is used to summarize the discussion. (britannica.com)
  • The Lancaster group obtained spectra by detecting the absorption of infrared radiation using a temperature sensitive thermal probe. (wikipedia.org)
  • including techniques that measure temperature measure thermal expansion use broadband sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • This also uses an "active" SThM probe, which acts as a heater as well as a thermometer, so as to inject evanescent temperature waves into a sample and to allow sub-surface imaging of polymers and other materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ramping the temperature of the probe, and thus the temperature of the small sample region in contact with it, allows localized thermal analysis and/or thermomechanometry to be performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study was done by Eldon Ferguson, Art Schmeltekopf and Fred Fehsenfeld at National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado.Then in the 1970's it was flowing drift tube, flowing afterglow Langmuir probe (FALP), and variable temperature flowing afterglow Langmuir probe (VT-FLAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • Multivariate (multiple variables) calibration techniques (e.g., principal components analysis, partial least squares, or artificial neural networks) are often employed to extract the desired chemical information. (wikipedia.org)
  • This structure, supported in part by X-ray crystallography (considered usually to be a "definitive" analytical technique) of a chemical derivative of MLA performed by Maria Przybylska, was accepted as correct until the early 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially used for novel research in specialized laboratories, chemical imaging became a more commonplace analytical technique used for general R&D, quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) in less than a decade. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical imaging techniques are critical to understanding modern manufactured products and in some cases is a non-destructive technique so that samples are preserved for further testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding energies of the measured electrons are characteristic of the chemical structure and molecular bonding of the material. (wikipedia.org)
  • measurement
  • Their measurement provides information about molecular bonding and structure. (britannica.com)
  • Microdialysis is a minimally-invasive sampling technique that is used for continuous measurement of free, unbound analyte concentrations in the extracellular fluid of virtually any tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feature-oriented scanning (FOS), also object-oriented scanning (OOS), is a method of precision measurement of surface topography with a scanning probe microscope in which surface features (objects) are used as reference points for microscope probe attachment. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • Despite their low volume, the present inventors have discovered that the blood drops may still be accurately analyzed for the presence of an analyte using lateral flow detection techniques. (google.ca)
  • molecule
  • These measurements can be used to infer conformational information about the molecular interactions taking place, as the molecule size (from the layer thickness) and the fold density (from the RI) change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analytical ultracentrifugation is considered to be one of the most accurate methods for determination of molar mass of the molecule. (structuralbiology.eu)
  • Scanning
  • Feature-oriented positioning (FOP) is a method of precise movement of the scanning microscope probe across the surface under investigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • predictive
  • The use of high powered computer programs should allow us to assemble the molecular data into predictive paradigms relating to the individual organism's response to its surroundings. (issx.org)
  • electron
  • The original technique dubbed AFM-IR that induced resonant motion in the probe using a Free Electron Laser has developed by exploiting the foregoing permutations so that it has evolved into various forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the flowing afterglow Langmuir probe the electron density within the reaction region of the drift tube can be studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • One example of these unique uses is that SiNWs can be used as individual wires to be used for intracellular probes or extracellular devices or the SiNWs can be manipulated into larger macro structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • orbitals
  • Because of the high frequency of the light, and the substantial charge and energy of emitted electrons, photoemission is one of the most sensitive and accurate techniques for measuring the energies and shapes of electronic states and molecular and atomic orbitals. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • As part of this effort we realized that metal complexes might also function as templates or structure directing agents for the synthesis of new molecular sieves. (utdallas.edu)
  • technological
  • With multiprobe instruments, FOP approach allows the application of any number of specialized technological and/or analytical probes successively to a surface feature/object or to a specified point of the feature/object neighborhood. (wikipedia.org)
  • tools
  • In Retinoids: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field present the most recent technical tools with diverse techniques for both in vitro and in vivo studies. (springer.com)
  • Local solvent densities measured in SCF's will be used to determine empirically correct intermolecular potential functions, which will enable molecular modeling tools to predict solubilities and reaction dynamics in these fluids. (epa.gov)
  • The direction of the analyte flow is determined by the respective concentration gradient and allows the usage of microdialysis probes as sampling as well as delivery tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blum G, Weimer RM, Edgington LE, Adams W, Bogyo M (2009) Comparative Assessment of Substrates and Activity Based Probes as Tools for Non- Invasive Optical Imaging of Cysteine Protease Activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyte
  • However, the recovery of water-soluble compounds usually decreases rapidly if the molecular weight of the analyte exceeds 25% of the membrane's molecular weight cutoff. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extraction efficiency is defined as the ratio between the loss/gain of analyte during its passage through the probe (Cin−Cout) and the difference in concentration between perfusate and distant sampling site (Cin−Csample). (wikipedia.org)
  • Microdialysis probes can consequently be calibrated by either measuring the loss of analyte using drug-containing perfusate or the gain of analyte using drug-containing sample solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • solvent
  • Each of these different types has a different extent of molecular ordering within the solvent matrix, from spherical micelles to larger cylinders, aligned cylinders and even bilayered and multiwalled aggregates. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9. The method of claim 7 , wherein the microfabrication technique includes applying a solvent treatment to the membrane. (google.ca)
  • transitions
  • Its atomic transitions were characterized by a single color (1 + 1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) technique in the one-photon energy range of 38 466-46 075 cm −1 . (rsc.org)
  • precision
  • FOP method may be used in bottom-up nanofabrication to implement high-precision movement of the nanolithograph/nanoassembler probe along the substrate surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • A method used to identify multilocus DNA banding patterns that are specific to an individual by exposing a sample of the person's DNA to molecular probes and various analytical techniques such as Southern blot analysis. (dictionary.com)
  • Clear examples of data analysis feature, designed to assist the reader in their choice of analytical method. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • An optical probe for conducting light scattering analysis is disclosed. (google.com)
  • The solution leaving the probe (dialysate) is collected at certain time intervals for analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, the first thermal probes were Wollaston wire devices that were developed originally for Microthermal analysis (in fact PTMS was originally considered to be one of a family of microthermal techniques). (wikipedia.org)
  • thermal
  • Both groups used a conventional Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) equipped with a broadband thermal source, the radiation was focused near the tip of a probe that was in contact with a sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anderson took the different approach of using a conventional AFM probe to detect the thermal expansion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thanks to a number of techniques embedded in FOS, the distortions caused by thermal drifts and creeps are practically eliminated. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • This technique gives the researcher the ability to observe the differences in the phosphorylation states of any given protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • There are a variety of probes with different membrane and shaft length combinations available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, the sample is transferred to a different polyacrylamide gel (the affinity-trap gel) where affinity probes are immobilized. (wikipedia.org)
  • method
  • 7. The method of claim 1 , wherein the metering channel is formed using a microfabrication technique. (google.ca)
  • 8. The method of claim 7 , wherein the microfabrication technique includes laser ablation. (google.ca)
  • An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples contained within a sample holder (46). (google.com)
  • This method utilizes the inter-molecular interactions found in a free solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • With this method, surface features (objects) are used as reference points for microscope probe attachment. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The microdialysis technique requires the insertion of a small microdialysis catheter (also referred to as microdialysis probe) into the tissue of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The probe is continuously perfused with an aqueous solution (perfusate) that closely resembles the (ionic) composition of the surrounding tissue fluid at a low flow rate of approximately 0.1-5μL/min. (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • The term refers to various techniques, depending on whether the ionization energy is provided by an X-ray photon, an EUV photon, or an ultraviolet photon. (wikipedia.org)
  • sample
  • A technique by which the DNA of an individual can be compared with that found in a sample or another individual. (dictionary.com)
  • Later, Richard Smalley modified the technique and used a UV laser to excite the sample, in order to measure the binding energy of electrons in gaseous molecular clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study
  • The great variety of relaxation phenomena and of the techniques developed for their study precludes a comprehensive survey. (britannica.com)
  • It is a valuable technique for the study of samples in solution providing fast and accurate determination of the transition midpoint Tm - when 50 % of the biomolecule are unfolded. (structuralbiology.eu)
  • Also in addition to being able to detect volatile organic compounds, the flowing afterglow technique has also been used to study chronic kidney disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • The microdialysis probe is designed to mimic a blood capillary and consists of a shaft with a semipermeable hollow fiber membrane at its tip, which is connected to inlet and outlet tubing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today's most prevalent shape, the needle probe, consists of a shaft with a hollow fiber at its tip and can be inserted by means of a guide cannula into the brain and other tissues. (wikipedia.org)