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  • novel
  • Differential expression of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 and related novel receptors TRPV3, TRPV4 and TRPM8 in normal human tissues and changes in traumatic and diabetic neuropathy. (springer.com)
  • The Invention describes novel analogues of 14-methoxymetopon(14-MM) a µpioid receptor (MOR) Ligand with a unique pharmacological Profile, for the Treatment of moderate-to-severe acute and chronoc pain. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cebranopadol (developmental code name GRT-6005) is a novel opioid analgesic of the benzenoid class which is currently under development internationally by Grünenthal, a German pharmaceutical company, and its partner Depomed, a pharmaceutical company in the United States, for the treatment of a variety of different acute and chronic pain states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since, the class has been expanded by scientific research into stimulant, analgesic, and neuroprotective agents, and also by clandestine chemists in search of novel recreational drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptides
  • In addition, on account of modifications to the N- and C-terminals, metkefamide is highly stable against proteolytic degradation relative to many other opioid peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • agonists
  • The different, complementary mechanisms of action may additively or even synergistically enhance the analgesic efficacy and/or attenuate the side effects of MOR agonists by reducing the requirement for MOR activation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Lastly, many thermal tests do not distinguish between opioid agonists and mixed agonist-antagonists, and consequently a tail flick test for mice using cold water in place of heat has been developed to allow that distinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, as methylnaltrexone cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, it does not reverse the pain-killing properties of opioid agonists or cause withdrawal symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • knockout mice
  • While relevance to human serotonin toxicity of animal models, including many studies on rat brain synaptosomes, is questionable, important insights have recently been forthcoming from research utilizing 5-HT receptors, serotonin transporter (SERT), and knockout mice. (springer.com)
  • NMDA
  • Normally, the inactivated NMDA receptor possesses a magnesium (Mg2+) block in the channel, blocking the passage of cations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Etoxadrol antagonizes the NMDA receptor by binding to the PCP site, located just above the magnesium block in the ion channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the event that the magnesium block is displaced, etoxadrol blocks the NMDA receptor channel, preventing cations from entering or exiting the channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research thus far has primarily implicated the abnormal activation of NMDA receptors in the CNS, and long-term potentiation of synapses between nociceptive C fibers and neurons in the spinal dorsal horn. (wikipedia.org)
  • Targeting the NMDA receptors in areas of potential pathology (such as the dorsal horn of the spinal cord) is a challenge considering their widespread presence throughout the spinal cord and brain, and the profound psychotomimetic side effects associated with known NMDAR antagonists may limit their clinical potential as adjuvants to the treatment of pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arylcyclohexylamines varyingly possess NMDA receptor antagonistic, dopamine reuptake inhibitory, and μ-opioid receptor agonistic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • given analgesics
  • These rodents are usually given analgesics, which are responsible for weakening the response to pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • These fulfilled criteria include a suitable nervous system and sensory receptors, opioid receptors and reduced responses to noxious stimuli when given analgesics and local anaesthetics, physiological changes to noxious stimuli, displaying protective motor reactions, exhibiting avoidance learning and making trade-offs between noxious stimulus avoidance and other motivational requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • analgesia
  • Methylnaltrexone (MNTX, brand name Relistor), used in form of methylnaltrexone bromide (INN, USAN, BAN), is one of the newer agents of peripherally acting μ-opioid antagonists that act to reverse some of the side effects of opioid drugs such as constipation without affecting analgesia or precipitating withdrawals. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, since a significant fraction (up to 60%) of opioid analgesia can be mediated by opioid receptors on peripheral sensory neurons, particularly in inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, traumatic or surgical pain, MNTX may increase pain under such circumstances. (wikipedia.org)
  • The compound looked promising and passed initial screening in which rodents were given opioids along with charcoal meals to track GI transit, and were tested for analgesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • it was first reported that the GI effects of the opioids could be prevented without affecting centrally mediated analgesia in this model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fentanyl
  • Receptor ligand-binding assays revealed interaction of fentanyl with 5-HT 1A receptors and interaction of meperidine, methadone, and fentanyl with 5-HT 2A receptors. (springer.com)
  • Although the opioids most often associated with serotonin toxicity in humans inhibit human SERT in vitro, fentanyl and oxycodone are not inhibitory even though their clinical involvement has been reported. (springer.com)
  • anesthetic properties
  • Phencyclidine (PCP) is believed to be the first arylcyclohexylamine with recognized anesthetic properties, but several arylcyclohexylamines were described before PCP in the scientific literature, beginning with PCA (1-phenylcyclohexan-1-amine) the synthesis of which was first published in 1907. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • While many studies show adverse effects of nitrous oxide anaesthesia, there is still no general consensus as to whether N 2 O is dangerous enough to warrant discontinuation as an anaesthetic or analgesic [ 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Tapentadol exhibited analgesic effects in a wide range of animal models of acute and chronic pain [hot plate, tail-flick, writhing, Randall-Selitto, mustard oil colitis, chronic constriction injury (CCI), and spinal nerve ligation (SNL)], with ED 50 values ranging from 8.2 to 13 mg/kg after i.p. administration in rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • One goal of this research was to separate the analgesic effect of MOR activation from side effects, such as nausea and emesis, constipation, respiratory depression, addiction, and dependence. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Despite its peptidic nature, upon systemic administration, metkefamide rapidly penetrates the blood-brain-barrier and disperses into the central nervous system where it produces potent, centrally-mediated analgesic effects, of which have been shown to be dependent on activity at both the μ- and δ-opioid receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it has been shown to cause some additional side effects that are considered unusual for standard opioid analgesics like sensations of heaviness in the extremities and nasal congestion-though these were not considered to be particularly distressing-and it has also been shown to raise the seizure threshold in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This discovery greatly improves our understanding of opioid side effects and suggests intriguing therapeutic approaches that could improve both the safety and long-term effectiveness of opioids. (jci.org)
  • Scientists have long sought to develop new opioid drugs that can drive away pain without these dangerous side effects, but holes in our understanding of exactly how opioids exert their various effects at a biological level has so far kept this dream at bay. (phys.org)
  • But details of how activating these receptors triggers the drugs' positive and negative effects have remained hazy. (phys.org)
  • Etoxadrol, along with another related drug dexoxadrol, were developed as analgesics for use in humans, but development was discontinued in the late 1970s after patients reported side effects such as nightmares and hallucinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite its anesthetic and analgesic effects, etoxadrol does not interact with benzodiazepine, muscarinic acetylcholine, or mu opioid receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Etoxadrol's analgesic effects can last for up to 2 hours or more after patients have regained consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has potent and long-lasting analgesic and diuretic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • This document also states that the article describing its clinical effects (analgesic studies, μ-, δ-, κ-opioid receptor binding, and in vitro measures of drug efficacy, antinociceptive, and narcotic properties) was published in 1987. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research on opioids which would target only the sub-types of receptors associated with pain relief and not with side effects had seen little success outside of in-vitro models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent preclinical studies also demonstrated this separation of central and peripherally mediated opioid effects for other smooth muscles of the GI tract and the cough reflex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In December 2005, Wyeth and Progenics entered into an exclusive, worldwide agreement for the joint development and commercialization of methylnaltrexone for the treatment of opioid-induced side effects, including constipation and post-operative ileus (POI), a prolonged dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract following surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an agonist of the κ-opioid receptor, cebranopadol may have the capacity to produce psychotomimetic effects, dysphoria, and other adverse reactions at sufficiently high doses, a property which could potentially limit its practical clinical dosage range, but would likely reduce the occurrence of patients taking more than their prescribed dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other agents of this type, brompheniramine also has analgesic-sparing (potentiating) effects on opioid analgesics, commonly reducing codeine, dihydrocodeine, and hydrocodone requirements by 10 to 35 percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • and activation of the μ-opioid receptor causes analgesic and euphoriant effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulation of the σ and D2 receptors may also contribute to hallucinogenic and psychomimetic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Drugs may cause serotonin toxicity by a number of different mechanisms including inhibition of serotonin uptake and metabolism, increased serotonin synthesis and release, activation of serotonin receptors, and inhibition of cytochrome P450 oxidases. (springer.com)
  • compounds
  • These new atomic-level images will hopefully enable us to rationally design compounds that target different aspects of opioid signaling in the brain, with hopes of identifying new, safer painkillers. (phys.org)
  • Ciprefadol is an opioid analgesic that is an isoquinoline derivative most closely related to cyclazocine and picenadol, with a number of other related compounds known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Screening these compounds led to the examination of putative antagonists which when modified had properties that suggested they might not readily cross the blood-brain barrier based on their size and charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Menthol
  • Menthol primarily activates the cold-sensitive TRPM8 receptors in the skin. (1mg.com)
  • Menthol, after topical application, causes a feeling of coolness due to stimulation of 'cold' receptors by inhibiting Ca++ currents of neuronal membranes. (1mg.com)
  • Menthol has local anesthetic and counterirritant qualities, and it also acts as a weak kappa (κ) opioid receptor agonist. (drugs.com)
  • Menthol acts to chemically trigger the cold-sensitive TRPM-8 receptors in the skin - responsible for the well-known cooling sensation it stimulates when applied directly to the skin. (drugs.com)
  • tolerance
  • Tolerance, another condition that can arise from prolonged exposure to opioids, can often be mistaken for opioid-induced hyperalgesia and vice-versa, as the clinical presentation can appear similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia both result in a similar need for dose escalation to receive the same level of effect to treat pain, they are nevertheless caused by two distinct mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under chronic opioid treatment, a particular individual's requirement for dose escalation may be due to tolerance, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, or a combination of both. (wikipedia.org)
  • In tolerance, there is a lower sensitivity to opioids, which occurs via two major theories: decreased receptor activation (desensitization of antinociceptive mechanisms), and opioid receptor down-regulation (internalization of membrane receptors). (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas increasing the dose of opioid can be an effective way to overcome tolerance, doing so to compensate for opioid-induced hyperalgesia may worsen the patient's condition by increasing sensitivity to pain while escalating physical dependence. (wikipedia.org)
  • naloxone
  • Naloxone and naltrexone, two opioid antagonists, have been used to study pain sensitivity in relation to exercise in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • alkaloid
  • Oxycodone Oxycodone is a semisynthetic opioid synthesized from thebaine, an opioid alkaloid found in the Persian poppy and one of the many opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy. (ranker.com)
  • inhibitory
  • For example, µ-opioid receptors typically only activate so-called "inhibitory" G-proteins, which have the opposite effect of the stimulatory G protein cascade. (phys.org)
  • pain sensitivity
  • This reflexive response is an indicator of pain sensitivity in an organism and reduction of pain sensitivity produced by analgesics. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is increasing evidence in support of genetics being a key factor in the development of OIH through its influence on both pain sensitivity and analgesic control. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein-coupled
  • The sequence shows homology to G protein-coupled receptors, in particular the receptors for somatostatin, angiotensin, and interleukin-8. (sciencemag.org)
  • The µ-opioid receptor is part of a large family of hundreds of signaling proteins called G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are involved in everything from vision and hearing to the immune system's response to invasive pathogens, and are the targets of more than 30 percent of modern drugs. (phys.org)
  • muscarinic acetylcho
  • Its toxicity stems from its ability to interact with nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epibatidine has two mechanisms of action: it can bind to either nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR). (wikipedia.org)
  • The dextrorotatory stereoisomer, dexchlorpheniramine, has been reported to possess Kd values of 15 nM for the H1 receptor and 1,300 nM for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in human brain tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • subtypes
  • Other neurokinin subtypes and neurokinin receptors that interact with SP have been reported as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacological discrimination of GluR5 and GluR6 kainate receptor subtypes by (3S,4aR,6R,8aR)-6-[2-(1(2)H-tetrazole-5-yl)ethyl]decahyd roisdoquinoline-3 carboxylic-acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, only one cDNA clone has been identified, hence these receptor subtypes likely arise from interaction of one KOR protein with other membrane associated proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • nonsteroidal anti-
  • Optimal care of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) requires an integrated approach that includes both nonpharmacologic therapies and pharmacologic agents such as nonbiologic and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), analgesics, and corticosteroids. (medscape.com)
  • Combination products are also available as immediate-release formulations, with non-narcotic analgesic ingredients such as paracetamol (acetaminophen) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin and ibuprofen. (wikipedia.org)
  • cannabinoid receptors
  • Activation of CB 2 cannabinoid receptors inhibits nociception to thermal and mechanical stimuli ( 1 , 2 ), thermal and tactile hypersensitivity produced by peripheral inflammation ( 2 - 4 ), and tactile and thermal hypersensitivity produced in a neuropathic pain model ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • CB 2 cannabinoid receptors have not been found in the CNS or on peripheral neurons, suggesting that activation of CB 2 receptors produces antinociception indirectly, by causing the release from nonneuronal cells of mediators that alter the responsiveness of primary afferent neurons to noxious stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • acute
  • CB 2 receptor activation inhibits acute, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain responses but does not cause central nervous system (CNS) effects, consistent with the lack of CB 2 receptors in the normal CNS. (pnas.org)
  • Intranasal application of a low concentration of xenon during abdominal hysterectomy reduced intraoperative opioid requirement as well as acute postoperative pain. (asahq.org)
  • 1-3 NMDA receptor antagonists such as ketamine and dextromethorphan have been shown to be useful in the reduction of acute postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. (asahq.org)
  • Nevertheless, strong analgesic drugs remain indispensable to patients suffering from severe acute and cancer pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • NMDA
  • THE N -methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is an excitatory glutamate receptor that is involved in the modulation of prolonged pain states induced by central sensitization. (asahq.org)
  • 11,12 The preponderance of evidence is that xenon acts via noncompetitive inhibition of NMDA receptors. (asahq.org)
  • Its antagonism of the NMDA receptor, similar to those of the phenylheptylamine open-chain opioids such as methadone or the phenylpiperidine ketobemidone, make levorphanol useful for types of pain that other analgesics may not be as effective against, such as neuropathic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levorphanol's exceptionally high analgesic efficacy in the treatment of neuropathic pain is also conferred by its action on serotonin and norepinephrine transporters, similar to the opioids tramadol and tapentadol, and mutually complements the analgesic effect of its NMDA receptor antagonism. (wikipedia.org)
  • agonists
  • CB 2 cannabinoid receptor-selective agonists are promising candidates for the treatment of pain. (pnas.org)
  • Experimental findings suggesting that activation of peripheral (noncentral nervous system) CB 2 receptors is necessary and sufficient to inhibit pain responses come from site-specific injections of CB 2 receptor-selective agonists and antagonists ( 1 , 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Importantly, CB 2 cannabinoid receptor-selective agonists do not cause central nervous system (CNS) effects ( 1 , 6 ), consistent with the inability to demonstrate the expression of CB 2 receptors in the normal CNS ( 7 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • The KOR may provide a natural addiction control mechanism, and therefore, drugs that act as agonists and increase activation of this receptor may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of addiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly to μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists, KOR agonists are potently analgesic, and have been employed clinically in the treatment of pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Difelikefalin (CR845, FE-202845) and CR665 (FE-200665, JNJ-38488502) are peripherally restricted KOR agonists lacking the CNS side effects of centrally active KOR agonists and are currently under clinical investigation as analgesics. (wikipedia.org)
  • injection
  • It is administered either IM or IV, with its analgesic properties beginning to take effect about 15 minutes after injection and lasting 4 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1974 and 1979, Daly and Myers collected the skins of nearly 3000 frogs from various sites in Ecuador, after finding that a small injection of a preparation from their skin caused analgesic (painkilling) symptoms in mice with symptoms that resembled those of an opioid. (wikipedia.org)
  • anti-inflammatory
  • however, until the full action of DMARDs takes effect, anti-inflammatory or analgesic medications may be required as bridging therapy to reduce pain and swelling. (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this review is to present and evaluate the evidence for anti-inflammatory properties of EM-1 and EM-2 with a view to their potential for use in chronic human inflammatory disease. (springer.com)
  • fentanyl
  • The use of fentanyl in this form also reduces side effects associated with other strong opioid analgesics. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Although it has pharmacodynamic properties similar to other strong analgesics, fentanyl exerts little hypnotic activity in lozenge form, and histamine release occurs only rarely. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • this provides an alternative to Duragesic (fentanyl) the only other extended-release opioid analgesic approved for children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intravenous midazolam is indicated for procedural sedation (often in combination with an opioid, such as fentanyl), for preoperative sedation, for the induction of general anesthesia, and for sedation of people who are ventilated in critical care units. (wikipedia.org)
  • Butorphanol
  • this gives butorphanol a lower potential for abuse than other opioid drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with other opioid analgesics, central nervous system effects (such as sedation, confusion, and dizziness) are considerations with butorphanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • In veterinary anesthesia, butorphanol (trade name: Torbugesic) is widely used as a sedative and analgesic in dogs, cats and horses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although butorphanol is commonly used for pain relief in reptiles, no studies (as of 2014) have conclusively shown that is an effective analgesic in reptiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that the hallucinogenic and dysphoric effects of opioids such as butorphanol, nalbuphine, and pentazocine serve to limit their abuse potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • The antinociceptive effects of the CB 2 receptor-selective agonist AM1241 were prevented in rats when naloxone or antiserum to β-endorphin was injected in the hindpaw where the noxious thermal stimulus was applied, suggesting that β-endorphin is necessary for CB 2 receptor-mediated antinociception. (pnas.org)
  • The effects of core-to-dentin thickness ratio (C/Dtr) on the mechanical property of bilayered veneer ICR/yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) core disks have not been previously studied. (cjebm.com)
  • As noted below, its major effects included updating the Paris Convention of 13 July 1931 to include the vast number of synthetic opioids invented in the intervening thirty years and a mechanism for more easily including new ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Less common are the gastrointestinal effects of other opioids (mostly constipation). (wikipedia.org)
  • It was later determined that the (+) and (-) enantiomers had equivalent analgesic as well as toxic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of approaches to discovering structural analogs of epibatine that maintain analgesics effects, but without the toxicity, have been attempted. (wikipedia.org)
  • and activation of the μ-opioid receptor causes analgesic and euphoriant effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The KOR is coupled to the G protein Gi/G0 and is one of four related receptors that bind opioid-like compounds in the brain and are responsible for mediating the effects of these compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • there is also a fairly high density of receptors located in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and putamen", and "disruptions to other brain regions could also explain the consciousness-altering effects [of salvinorin A]". In supplementation of the above, according to Addy et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • selective
  • In September 2015 the company announced it would acquire VM Pharma, gaining access to worldwide development and commercial rights to an allosteric selective tropomyosin receptor kinase inhibitor program - specifically the Phase II candidate VM-902A. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic Pain
  • Experts are divided regarding use for non-cancer-related chronic pain, as most opioids have great potential for dependence and have also been alleged to create paradoxical pain sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levorphanol
  • DXO is an active metabolite of the pharmaceutical drug dextromethorphan (DXM), which, analogously to DXO, is an enantiomer of the racemic mixture racemethorphan along with levomethorphan, the latter of which has similar properties to those of levorphanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nalamachu S, Gudin J. Levorphanol, another choice in opioid rotation. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthetic
  • Oxycodone was developed in 1917 in Germany as one of several semi-synthetic opioids in an attempt to improve on the existing opioids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to dynorphin, a variety of natural alkaloids, terpenes and other synthetic ligands bind to the receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • pain
  • To date, there has been virtually no information regarding the mechanism of CB 2 receptor-mediated inhibition of pain responses. (pnas.org)
  • What are the three different types of pain that will factor in to which analgesic we choose? (brainscape.com)
  • The availability of an analgesic in a lozenge form gives clinicians another means of providing patients with relief from breakthrough cancer pain. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • brand name Levo-Dromoran) is an opioid medication used to treat moderate to severe pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opioids in Cancer Pain (2nd ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opioids in Medicine: A Comprehensive Review on the Mode of Action and the Use of Analgesics in Different Clinical Pain States. (wikipedia.org)
  • medication
  • Although not generally approved as an antidepressant or anti-anxiety medication, chlorphenamine appears to have these properties as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorphenamine is often combined with phenylpropanolamine to form an allergy medication with both antihistamine and decongestant properties, though phenylpropanolamine is no longer available in the US after studies showed it increased the risk of stroke in young women. (wikipedia.org)
  • drugs
  • Since, the class has been expanded by scientific research into stimulant, analgesic, and neuroprotective agents, and also by clandestine chemists in search of novel recreational drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • nociceptive
  • However, enthusiasm for this therapeutic approach has been tempered by the lack of information regarding the mechanism underlying the inhibition of nociceptive responses by CB 2 receptor activation. (pnas.org)
  • abuse-deterrent
  • Although the company has shifted its focus to abuse-deterrent formulations, Purdue continues to market and sell opioids, and continues to be involved in lawsuits around the opioid crisis. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Its receptor - the neurokinin type 1 - is distributed over cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of many cell types (neurons, glia, endothelia of capillaries and lymphatics, fibroblasts, stem cells, white blood cells) in many tissues and organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore
  • therefore, concurrent treatment with NSAIDs or other analgesics is recommended at least until the effect of the delayed-release tablets is apparent. (medscape.com)
  • pathways
  • FVII, a serine protease, becomes activated (FVIIa) upon binding with TF forming the FVIIa/TF complex, which induces intracellular signaling pathways by activating protease activated receptor 2 (PAR-2). (newyorkoncology.com)