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  • nucleic acids
  • The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic Acids Res. (wikipedia.org)
  • It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • I also get into explaining how these Biotoxins latch on the Toll Receptor sites of fat cells and inappropriately trigger them to produce inflammatory Cytokine proteins. (biotoxinjourney.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the bicoid subfamily of the paired (PRD) homeobox family of proteins. (genecards.org)
  • 290. Mitra S., Ghantasala S., Sameer Kumar GS, Lakshmi BJ, Thakur SS, Kumar S. Absence of Wdr13 gene predisposes mice to mild social isolation - chronic stress, leading to depression-like phenotype associated with differential expression of synaptic proteins. (gov.pl)
  • It is used for finding new ligands (enzyme inhibitors, receptor agonists and antagonists) to target proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than twenty distinct IFN genes and proteins have been identified in animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, interferons induce production of hundreds of other proteins-known collectively as interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)-that have roles in combating viruses and other actions produced by interferon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mating factor receptors STE2 and STE3 are integral membrane proteins that may be involved in the response to mating factors on the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amino acid sequences of both receptors contain high proportions of hydrophobic residues grouped into 7 domains, in a manner reminiscent of the rhodopsins and other receptors believed to interact with G-proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spectrins are a family of widely distributed cytoskeletal proteins which are involved in actin crosslinking, cell adhesion, intercellular communication and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endogenous glucocorticoid hormone cortisol diffuses through the cell membrane into the cytoplasm and binds to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) resulting in release of the heat shock proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The single transmembrane domain of 22 (mostly) non-polar residues crosses the plasma membrane in a single alpha helix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha II-spectrin is expressed in a variety of tissues, and is highly expressed in cardiac muscle at Z-disc structures, costameres and at the sarcolemma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cardiac tissue, alpha II-spectrin is found in myocytes at Z-discs, costameres, and the sarcolemma membrane, and in cardiac fibroblasts along the surface of the cytoskeletal network. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another function of Hsc70 is as an ATPase in the disassembly of clathrin-coated vesicles during transport of membrane components through the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and strokes) or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation of the DNA and nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulates
  • The GR is expressed in almost every cell in the body and regulates genes controlling the development, metabolism, and immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, Hsc70 regulates the nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1, which is a key player in G1 to S phase cell cycle transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression in response to a variety of stimuli, including cytokines, growth factors, stress, and bacterial and viral infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • target genes
  • In the absence of activated GR, other transcription factors such as NF-κB or AP-1 themselves are able to transactivate target genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However activated GR can complex with these other transcription factors and prevent them from binding their target genes and hence repress the expression of genes that are normally upregulated by NF-κB or AP-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysteine
  • Each repeat, referred to as a class A repeat or LDL-A, contains roughly 40 amino acids, including 6 cysteine residues that form disulfide bonds within the repeat. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • The growth factors TGF alpha, TGF beta, and IL2 have all been shown to stimulate c-Fos, and thereby stimulate cellular proliferation via AP-1 activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citric
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • progesterone
  • Note: UGB is itself progesterone induced gene in the endometrium in Lagomorphs) Inhibits phospholipase A2 in vitro Binds phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol Binds to fibronectin: The uteroglobulin knockout mice on the inbred C57Bl6 strain develop Goodpasture's syndrome like glomerulopathy due to fibronectin binding of IgA which might potentially be prevented by uteroglobin replacement. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligands
  • Recent research suggests that lysophosphatidylinositol and its 2-arachidonoyl derivative, 2-arachidonoyl lysophosphatidylinositol (2-ALPI), may be the endogenous ligands for GPR55, and the receptor appears likely to be a possible target for treatment of inflammation and pain as with the other cannabinoid receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This profile as a distinct non-CB1/CB2 receptor which responds to a variety of both endogenous and exogenous cannabinoid ligands, has led some groups to suggest GPR55 should be categorised as the CB3 receptor, and this re-classification may follow in time. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbohydrates
  • Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three basic classes of molecule: amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids (often called fats). (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • May play a role in the regulation of cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization. (uniprot.org)
  • When the GR binds to glucocorticoids, its primary mechanism of action is the regulation of gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Promoter
  • EF-1 alpha promoter versions of the Tet-On 3G Tetracycline Inducible Expression System provide for consistent long-term expression of the Tet-On 3G transactivator, even in cell types known for their tendency to silence a CMV promoter over time, such as hematopoietic cells and stem cells. (clontech.com)
  • however the Tet-On 3G transactivator is expressed from an EF1-alpha promoter instead of a CMV promoter. (clontech.com)
  • When expressing the Tet-On 3G transactivator protein from the EF-1 alpha promoter, 83% of the Jurkat Tet-On 3G clones showed strong inducible expression and 33% demonstrated very high inducibility (greater than 2,000-fold). (clontech.com)
  • Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another type IV collagen gene so that each gene pair shares a common promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • A virus-infected cell releases viral particles that can infect nearby cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteolytic capacity of 20S core particle (CP) can be activated when CP associates with one or two regulatory particles (RP) on one or both side of alpha rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal
  • We tested the EF-1 alpha version in Jurkat cells, a cell line known to show reduced expression and clonal variation in expression from CMV-based vectors. (clontech.com)
  • human
  • Based on the type of receptor through which they signal, human interferons have been classified into three major types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human IL-3 gene encodes a protein 152 amino acids long, and the naturally occurring IL-3 is glycosylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The length of an axon can be extraordinary: for example, if a pyramidal cell, (an excitatory neuron) of the cerebral cortex were magnified so that its cell body became the size of a human body, its axon, equally magnified, would become a cable a few centimeters in diameter, extending more than a kilometer. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • Phage display was first described by George P. Smith in 1985, when he demonstrated the display of peptides on filamentous phage by fusing the peptide of interest onto gene III of filamentous phage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of M13 filamentous phage display, the DNA encoding the protein or peptide of interest is ligated into the pIII or pVIII gene, encoding either the minor or major coat protein, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor (LDL-R) is a mosaic protein of 839 amino acids (after removal of 21-amino acid signal peptide) that mediates the endocytosis of cholesterol-rich LDL. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defects
  • Defects in this gene are the cause of rufous oculocutaneous albinism and oculocutaneous albinism type III. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Defects in this gene are a cause of congenital stationary night blindness. (genecards.org)
  • Reductions in expression of DNA repair genes (usually caused by epigenetic alterations) are very common in cancers, and are ordinarily even more frequent than mutational defects in DNA repair genes in cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription
  • A direct mechanism of action involves homodimerization of the receptor, translocation via active transport into the nucleus, and binding to specific DNA responsive elements activating gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AP-1 transcription factor has been shown to play numerous roles in cell growth and proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP-1 transcription is deeply involved in the modulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)