• glucose
  • The transport properties for phenylalanine and glucose in luminal-membrane vesicles from outer cortex (pars convoluta) and outer medulla (pars recta) of rabbit kidney were studied by a spectrophotometric method. (biochemj.org)
  • Attempts to calculate the stoichiometry of the different Na+/D-glucose transport systems by using Hill-type plots revealed that the ratio of the Na+/hexose co-transport probably is 1:1 in the case of pars convoluta and 2:1 in membrane vesicles from pars recta. (biochemj.org)
  • However, neurons may also release insulin, and compelling evidence have been provided for a brain-centered glucoregulatory system that work in concert with the islet cells to regulate plasma levels of glucose ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The blood-brain barrier is formed by brain endothelial cells and it allows the passage of water, some gases, and lipid-soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. (wikipedia.org)
  • No difference in brain uptake of glucose, amino acids, organic acids, purines, nucleosides, or choline was observed between adult and newborn rabbits. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is usually to accumulate high concentrations of molecules that a cell needs, such as glucose or amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • In cultured human fibroblasts incubated under hypertonic conditions, the specific silencing of SNAT2 expression, obtained with anti-SNAT2 siRNAs, prevents the increase in system A transport activity, hinders the expansion of intracellular amino acid pool, and significantly delays cell volume recovery. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our analyses imply GlnR-mediated regulation in constraining the import of ammonia/amino-containing compounds and the production of intracellular ammonia under conditions of high nitrogen availability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are many mechanisms that exist to regulate the expression of system Xc-, although it is not the sole determinate of extracellular glutamate or intracellular glutathione. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane
  • The differential affinity of PGB and GBP at L-type system leads to more concentrative accumulation of PGB than GBP, which may facilitate PGB transmembrane absorption in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
  • aromatic
  • Aromatic amino acid auxotrophs constructed by recombinant marker exchange in Methylophilus methylotrophus AS1 cells expressing the aroP-encoded transporter of Escherichia coli. (bireme.br)
  • We describe a novel method of constructing mutants of the bacterium Methylophilus methylotrophus AS1 that are auxotrophic for aromatic amino acids. (bireme.br)
  • Glutamate
  • In the central nervous system (CNS), glutamatergic and GABAergic signals are postulated to be dependent on the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle for vesicular loading of neurotransmitters, for inactivating the signal and for the replenishment of the neurotransmitters. (frontiersin.org)
  • We found a conserved regulatory association of GlnR with glutamine synthetase ( glnRA operon), and the transport of ammonium ( amtB-glnK ) and glutamine/glutamate (i.e. via glnQHMP , glnPHQ , gltT , alsT ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many central nervous system (CNS) disorders are due to a dysfunction in glutamate signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Apart from oocytes, no other expression system has been used for transfection of functional rBAT activity. (uzh.ch)
  • solutes
  • In contrast, a channel can be open to both environments at the same time, allowing the solutes it transports to diffuse without interruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • This is consistent with the detection of significant changes in plasma glutamine concentrations in newly diagnosed diabetic patients ( 8 ) indicating that dysfunctional amino acid metabolism, signaling, and/or amino acid transporter function may precede and/or augment development of diabetes. (frontiersin.org)
  • This chapter describes the potential for production of diacetyl and carbon dioxide from lactose metabolism in lactococci with reduced lactic acid dehydrogenase activity. (asmscience.org)
  • Inhibition
  • Inhibition of L-type amino acid transporter modulates the expression of cell cycle regulatory factors in KB oral cancer cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, the mutual inhibition alone is insufficient to conclude which specific transport system is involved in PGB transport in the ileum. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The early conclusion on system L-mediated PGB transport in the rat ileum was also complicated by lack of mutual inhibition between GBP and PGB in intestine and lack of carrier-mediated uptake of GBP and PGB in Caco-2 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our data show that exogenously applied BMAA rapidly inhibits nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), even at micromolar concentrations, and that the inhibition was considerably more severe than that induced by combined nitrogen sources and most other amino acids. (mdpi.com)
  • The inhibition of system Xc- has been found to alter a number of behaviors, which suggests that it plays a key role in excitatory signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Transfection with rBAT antisense, but not with rBAT sense, resulted in the specific reduction of rBAT mRNA expression and b0,(+)-like transport activity. (uzh.ch)
  • GcvB RNA binds PhoPQ mRNA, which encodes a two-component system involved in magnesium homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the ribosome, the information in mRNA is translated into a specific amino acid when the mRNA codon matches with the complementary anticodon of a tRNA, and the attached amino acid is added onto a growing polypeptide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Dr Julian Dow Laboratory of Cell Biology, Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow: Genetic analysis of epithelial transport in Drosophila. (bio.net)
  • SNAT2
  • As amino acids represent a large fraction of cell organic osmolytes, changes of SNAT2 activity are followed by modifications in both cell amino acids and cell volume. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results demonstrate the pivotal role played by SNAT2 induction in the short-term hypertonic RVI and suggest that neutral amino acids behave as compatible osmolytes in hypertonically stressed cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • phenylalanine
  • Na+-dependent transport of L-phenylalanine by outer-cortical membrane vesicles could be accounted for by one transport system (KA congruent to 1.5 mM). (biochemj.org)
  • Due to technical details (easier chemical synthesis of NSAAs, less crosstalk and easier evolution of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthase), the NSAAs are generally larger than standard amino acids and most often have a phenylalanine core but with a large variety of different substitutents. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Of these organisms, homofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are of the greatest importance, as the manufacture of fermented dairy products is directly dependent on their primary metabolic end product, lactic acid. (asmscience.org)
  • Pregabalin
  • GABOB, or β-hydroxy-GABA, is a close structural analogue of GABA (see GABA analogue), as well as of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), phenibut (β-phenyl-GABA), baclofen (β-(4-chlorophenyl)-GABA), and pregabalin (β-isobutyl-GABA). (wikipedia.org)
  • This explained the previous failures, as most alterations to the pregabalin molecule which increase affinity for the α2δ channels and therefore increase apparent potency in the test tube, were found to also dramatically reduce binding to the system L transporter, and with no assisted transport into the brain, blood-brain barrier penetration was minimal and the drugs were inactive in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, after extensive searching it was discovered that one enantiomer of the relatively simple derivative 4-methylpregabalin, was both 4x higher in binding affinity to α2δ channels than pregabalin, and also retained similar affinity for the system L transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell proliferation depends exclusively on the nutritionally essential amino acid, L-threonine, in the medium. (frontiersin.org)
  • Secondary active transport involves the use of an electrochemical gradient, and does not use energy produced in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • once such ions are dissolved in water they cannot diffuse freely across cell membranes due to the hydrophobic nature of the fatty acid tails of the phospholipids that make up the bilayers. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Strategies that increase SNAT1-mediated transport and supply of L-citrulline may serve as novel therapeutic approaches to enhance NO production in patients with pulmonary vascular disease. (gwu.edu)
  • In order to incorporate a novel amino acid into the genetic code several changes are required. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, for successful translation of a novel amino acid, the codon to which the novel amino acid is assigned cannot already code for one of the 20 natural amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active site of the synthetase is modified to accept only the novel amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • GABA
  • γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), also known as β-hydroxy-γ-aminobutyric acid (β-hydroxy-GABA), and sold under the brand name Gamibetal among others, is an anticonvulsant which is used for the treatment of epilepsy in Europe, Japan, and Mexico. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a GABA analogue, or an analogue of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and has been found to be an endogenous metabolite of GABA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different Efficacies of d- and l-γ-Amino-β-Hydroxybutyric Acids in GABA Receptor and Transport Test Systems" (pdf). (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Application of the bacteriophage Mu-driven system for the integration/amplification of target genes in the chromosomes of engineered Gram-negative bacteria--mini review. (bireme.br)
  • GcvB RNA also is involved in regulating a variety of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis such as ilvC, gdhA, thrL and serA. (wikipedia.org)
  • roles
  • Amino acids, which play pivotal roles in fast neuronal signaling, have also been proposed to act as signaling molecules in the islets of Langerhans ( 4 - 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • selective
  • The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS). (wikipedia.org)