• glucose
  • The transport properties for phenylalanine and glucose in luminal-membrane vesicles from outer cortex (pars convoluta) and outer medulla (pars recta) of rabbit kidney were studied by a spectrophotometric method. (biochemj.org)
  • Attempts to calculate the stoichiometry of the different Na+/D-glucose transport systems by using Hill-type plots revealed that the ratio of the Na+/hexose co-transport probably is 1:1 in the case of pars convoluta and 2:1 in membrane vesicles from pars recta. (biochemj.org)
  • However, neurons may also release insulin, and compelling evidence have been provided for a brain-centered glucoregulatory system that work in concert with the islet cells to regulate plasma levels of glucose ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This is usually to accumulate high concentrations of molecules that a cell needs, such as glucose or amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blood-brain barrier is formed by brain endothelial cells and it allows the passage of water, some gases, and lipid-soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. (wikipedia.org)
  • No difference in brain uptake of glucose, amino acids, organic acids, purines, nucleosides, or choline was observed between adult and newborn rabbits. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane
  • The differential affinity of PGB and GBP at L-type system leads to more concentrative accumulation of PGB than GBP, which may facilitate PGB transmembrane absorption in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
  • glutamine
  • In the central nervous system (CNS), glutamatergic and GABAergic signals are postulated to be dependent on the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle for vesicular loading of neurotransmitters, for inactivating the signal and for the replenishment of the neurotransmitters. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is consistent with the detection of significant changes in plasma glutamine concentrations in newly diagnosed diabetic patients ( 8 ) indicating that dysfunctional amino acid metabolism, signaling, and/or amino acid transporter function may precede and/or augment development of diabetes. (frontiersin.org)
  • After their release, the signal is partly inactivated by transport of the released neurotransmitter into astroglial cells and conversion to glutamine catalyzed by glutamine synthetase (GS) ( 9 , 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • functional
  • Apart from oocytes, no other expression system has been used for transfection of functional rBAT activity. (uzh.ch)
  • solutes
  • In contrast, a channel can be open to both environments at the same time, allowing the solutes it transports to diffuse without interruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenylalanine
  • Na+-dependent transport of L-phenylalanine by outer-cortical membrane vesicles could be accounted for by one transport system (KA congruent to 1.5 mM). (biochemj.org)
  • Due to technical details (easier chemical synthesis of NSAAs, less crosstalk and easier evolution of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthase), the NSAAs are generally larger than standard amino acids and most often have a phenylalanine core but with a large variety of different substitutents. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • In cultured human fibroblasts incubated under hypertonic conditions, the specific silencing of SNAT2 expression, obtained with anti-SNAT2 siRNAs, prevents the increase in system A transport activity, hinders the expansion of intracellular amino acid pool, and significantly delays cell volume recovery. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There are many mechanisms that exist to regulate the expression of system Xc-, although it is not the sole determinate of extracellular glutamate or intracellular glutathione. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • This chapter describes the potential for production of diacetyl and carbon dioxide from lactose metabolism in lactococci with reduced lactic acid dehydrogenase activity. (asmscience.org)
  • Inhibition
  • Inhibition of L-type amino acid transporter modulates the expression of cell cycle regulatory factors in KB oral cancer cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, the mutual inhibition alone is insufficient to conclude which specific transport system is involved in PGB transport in the ileum. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The early conclusion on system L-mediated PGB transport in the rat ileum was also complicated by lack of mutual inhibition between GBP and PGB in intestine and lack of carrier-mediated uptake of GBP and PGB in Caco-2 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our data show that exogenously applied BMAA rapidly inhibits nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), even at micromolar concentrations, and that the inhibition was considerably more severe than that induced by combined nitrogen sources and most other amino acids. (mdpi.com)
  • The inhibition of system Xc- has been found to alter a number of behaviors, which suggests that it plays a key role in excitatory signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Transfection with rBAT antisense, but not with rBAT sense, resulted in the specific reduction of rBAT mRNA expression and b0,(+)-like transport activity. (uzh.ch)
  • GcvB RNA binds PhoPQ mRNA, which encodes a two-component system involved in magnesium homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the ribosome, the information in mRNA is translated into a specific amino acid when the mRNA codon matches with the complementary anticodon of a tRNA, and the attached amino acid is added onto a growing polypeptide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Dr Julian Dow Laboratory of Cell Biology, Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow: Genetic analysis of epithelial transport in Drosophila. (bio.net)
  • SNAT2
  • As amino acids represent a large fraction of cell organic osmolytes, changes of SNAT2 activity are followed by modifications in both cell amino acids and cell volume. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results demonstrate the pivotal role played by SNAT2 induction in the short-term hypertonic RVI and suggest that neutral amino acids behave as compatible osmolytes in hypertonically stressed cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • molecule
  • Wessler I, Kirkpatrick C J, Racke K. The cholinergic 'pitfall': acetylcholine, a universal cell molecule in biological systems, including humans. (springer.com)
  • Wessler I, Kirkpatrick C J, Racke K. Non-neuronal acetylcholine, a locally acting molecule, widely distributed in biological systems: expression and function in humans. (springer.com)
  • This explained the previous failures, as most alterations to the pregabalin molecule which increase affinity for the α2δ channels and therefore increase apparent potency in the test tube, were found to also dramatically reduce binding to the system L transporter, and with no assisted transport into the brain, blood-brain barrier penetration was minimal and the drugs were inactive in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the lipid bilayer is impermeable to the molecule needing transport, active transport is also necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Of these organisms, homofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are of the greatest importance, as the manufacture of fermented dairy products is directly dependent on their primary metabolic end product, lactic acid. (asmscience.org)
  • Pregabalin
  • GABOB, or β-hydroxy-GABA, is a close structural analogue of GABA (see GABA analogue), as well as of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), phenibut (β-phenyl-GABA), baclofen (β-(4-chlorophenyl)-GABA), and pregabalin (β-isobutyl-GABA). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, after extensive searching it was discovered that one enantiomer of the relatively simple derivative 4-methylpregabalin, was both 4x higher in binding affinity to α2δ channels than pregabalin, and also retained similar affinity for the system L transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell proliferation depends exclusively on the nutritionally essential amino acid, L-threonine, in the medium. (frontiersin.org)
  • As we have emphasized in Chapter 1, we defined cancer as a systems disease which is characterized by abnormal cell growth in a defined tissue or organ and progressive systemic dysregulation. (springer.com)
  • Secondary active transport involves the use of an electrochemical gradient, and does not use energy produced in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • once such ions are dissolved in water they cannot diffuse freely across cell membranes due to the hydrophobic nature of the fatty acid tails of the phospholipids that make up the bilayers. (wikipedia.org)
  • endogenous
  • It is a GABA analogue, or an analogue of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and has been found to be an endogenous metabolite of GABA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecules
  • Amino acids, which play pivotal roles in fast neuronal signaling, have also been proposed to act as signaling molecules in the islets of Langerhans ( 4 - 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • System Xc- can be inhibited by many small molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic small molecules such as erastin, sulfasalazine, and sorafenib can inhibit system Xc- function and induce ferroptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Strategies that increase SNAT1-mediated transport and supply of L-citrulline may serve as novel therapeutic approaches to enhance NO production in patients with pulmonary vascular disease. (gwu.edu)
  • In order to incorporate a novel amino acid into the genetic code several changes are required. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, for successful translation of a novel amino acid, the codon to which the novel amino acid is assigned cannot already code for one of the 20 natural amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active site of the synthetase is modified to accept only the novel amino acid. (wikipedia.org)