• aromatic
  • Aromatic amino acid auxotrophs constructed by recombinant marker exchange in Methylophilus methylotrophus AS1 cells expressing the aroP-encoded transporter of Escherichia coli. (bireme.br)
  • We describe a novel method of constructing mutants of the bacterium Methylophilus methylotrophus AS1 that are auxotrophic for aromatic amino acids. (bireme.br)
  • synthesis
  • Methods of Non-α-Amino Acid Synthesis, Second Edition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to technical details (easier chemical synthesis of NSAAs, less crosstalk and easier evolution of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthase), the NSAAs are generally larger than standard amino acids and most often have a phenylalanine core but with a large variety of different substitutents. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Apart from oocytes, no other expression system has been used for transfection of functional rBAT activity. (uzh.ch)
  • In general, the introduction of new functional unnatural amino acids into proteins of living cells breaks the universality of the genetic language, which ideally leads to alternative life forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • The Amino Acid/Auxin Permease (AAAP) Family (TC# 2.A.18) is a family of secondary carrier proteins, a member of the APC Superfamily that includes hundreds of proteins from plants, animals, fungi and lower eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are produced thanks to the translational system molecules, which decode the RNA messages into a string of amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human serotonin transporter (SERT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) are membrane transport proteins that are responsible for the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins may assist in the movement of substances by facilitated diffusion or active transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two main types of proteins involved in such transport are broadly categorized as either channels or carriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike channel proteins which only transport substances through membranes passively, carrier proteins can transport ions and molecules either passively through facilitated diffusion, or via secondary active transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • These carrier proteins have receptors that bind to a specific molecule (substrate) needing transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Facilitated diffusion is the passage of molecules or ions across a biological membrane through specific transport proteins and requires no energy input. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type of carrier proteins used in facilitated diffusion is slightly different from those used in active transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Transfection with rBAT antisense, but not with rBAT sense, resulted in the specific reduction of rBAT mRNA expression and b0,(+)-like transport activity. (uzh.ch)
  • We tested the hypothesis that changes in SNAT1 expression and transport function regulate NO production by modulating eNOS coupling in newborn piglet PAECs. (gwu.edu)
  • In cultured human fibroblasts incubated under hypertonic conditions, the specific silencing of SNAT2 expression, obtained with anti-SNAT2 siRNAs, prevents the increase in system A transport activity, hinders the expansion of intracellular amino acid pool, and significantly delays cell volume recovery. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There are many mechanisms that exist to regulate the expression of system Xc-, although it is not the sole determinate of extracellular glutamate or intracellular glutathione. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • This is consistent with the detection of significant changes in plasma glutamine concentrations in newly diagnosed diabetic patients ( 8 ) indicating that dysfunctional amino acid metabolism, signaling, and/or amino acid transporter function may precede and/or augment development of diabetes. (frontiersin.org)
  • This chapter describes the potential for production of diacetyl and carbon dioxide from lactose metabolism in lactococci with reduced lactic acid dehydrogenase activity. (asmscience.org)
  • inhibitors
  • The selectivity of the nontransported inhibitors 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid for, respectively, PAT1 and the H + -coupled di/tripeptide transporter PepT1 (SLC15A1) were examined. (aspetjournals.org)
  • mRNA
  • GcvB RNA binds PhoPQ mRNA, which encodes a two-component system involved in magnesium homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the ribosome, the information in mRNA is translated into a specific amino acid when the mRNA codon matches with the complementary anticodon of a tRNA, and the attached amino acid is added onto a growing polypeptide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamate
  • In the central nervous system (CNS), glutamatergic and GABAergic signals are postulated to be dependent on the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle for vesicular loading of neurotransmitters, for inactivating the signal and for the replenishment of the neurotransmitters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many central nervous system (CNS) disorders are due to a dysfunction in glutamate signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamine
  • After their release, the signal is partly inactivated by transport of the released neurotransmitter into astroglial cells and conversion to glutamine catalyzed by glutamine synthetase (GS) ( 9 , 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • GABA
  • Structural similarities between ALA and GABA led us to test the hypothesis that the H + -coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 (SLC36A1) will contribute to luminal ALA uptake. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, the structure of ALA is also analogous to that of the neuroactive amino acid GABA, suggesting that ALA may also interact with a GABA uptake system. (aspetjournals.org)
  • γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), also known as β-hydroxy-γ-aminobutyric acid (β-hydroxy-GABA), and sold under the brand name Gamibetal among others, is an anticonvulsant which is used for the treatment of epilepsy in Europe, Japan, and Mexico. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a GABA analogue, or an analogue of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and has been found to be an endogenous metabolite of GABA. (wikipedia.org)
  • GABOB, or β-hydroxy-GABA, is a close structural analogue of GABA (see GABA analogue), as well as of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), phenibut (β-phenyl-GABA), baclofen (β-(4-chlorophenyl)-GABA), and pregabalin (β-isobutyl-GABA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Different Efficacies of d- and l-γ-Amino-β-Hydroxybutyric Acids in GABA Receptor and Transport Test Systems" (pdf). (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Of these organisms, homofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are of the greatest importance, as the manufacture of fermented dairy products is directly dependent on their primary metabolic end product, lactic acid. (asmscience.org)
  • Pregabalin
  • This explained the previous failures, as most alterations to the pregabalin molecule which increase affinity for the α2δ channels and therefore increase apparent potency in the test tube, were found to also dramatically reduce binding to the system L transporter, and with no assisted transport into the brain, blood-brain barrier penetration was minimal and the drugs were inactive in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, after extensive searching it was discovered that one enantiomer of the relatively simple derivative 4-methylpregabalin, was both 4x higher in binding affinity to α2δ channels than pregabalin, and also retained similar affinity for the system L transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty
  • and chain lengthening or shortening of individual fatty acids. (springer.com)
  • once such ions are dissolved in water they cannot diffuse freely across cell membranes due to the hydrophobic nature of the fatty acid tails of the phospholipids that make up the bilayers. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a prodrug used in photodynamic therapy, fluorescent diagnosis, and fluorescent-guided resection because it leads to accumulation of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumor tissues. (aspetjournals.org)
  • intestine
  • Furthermore, the b0,(+)-like transport activity has not been clearly described in the kidney or intestine. (uzh.ch)
  • Locally and systemically acting corticosteroids alter the morphology and transport function of the intestine. (bmj.com)
  • novel
  • Strategies that increase SNAT1-mediated transport and supply of L-citrulline may serve as novel therapeutic approaches to enhance NO production in patients with pulmonary vascular disease. (gwu.edu)
  • In order to incorporate a novel amino acid into the genetic code several changes are required. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, for successful translation of a novel amino acid, the codon to which the novel amino acid is assigned cannot already code for one of the 20 natural amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active site of the synthetase is modified to accept only the novel amino acid. (wikipedia.org)