• residue
  • We now show that failure to recognize Friend MuLV-transformed tumor cells is based on a defect in proteasome-mediated processing of the Friend epitope which is due to a single amino acid substitution (N→D) immediately flanking the C-terminal anchor residue of the epitope. (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, a residue refers to an amino acid stripped of a hydrogen and/or a hydroxyl group and inserted in the polymeric chain of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, mutating an amino acid to a residue with significantly different properties could affect the folding and/or activity of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is most likely modulated by a histidine (H138) residue that first deprotonates the carboxy side, and then, as an acid, protonates the phosphate part. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The Y155H amino acid substitution in the neuraminidase gene (NA) has previously been associated with highly reduced inhibition by neuraminidase inhibitors in the seasonal H1N1 influenza A virus which circulated in humans before the 2009 pandemic. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, somatic form, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDHA1 gene.The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial matrix multienzyme complex that provides the primary link between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle by catalyzing the irreversible conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The preliminary peptide encoded by this gene was 29 amino acids at the very start of the sequence that correspond to a typical mitochondrial targeting leader sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • terminus
  • In vitro proteasome-mediated digestion analysis ( 12 , 13 , 15 , 17 ) and proteasome inhibitor studies ( 17 , 18 ) have shown that in particular the C terminus of the CTL epitope is precisely determined by the proteasome, whereas the N terminus is often elongated by one or two amino acids. (jimmunol.org)
  • To block antagonist production, amino acid substitutions at the C-terminus were screened for differences in VBC gut proteolysis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The remaining 361 amino acids, starting at the N terminus with phenylalanine, represent the mature mitochondrial E1 alpha peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane domain
  • Human corin, a polypeptide of 1042 amino acids, consists of an N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain and an extracellular region with two frizzled-like domains, eight LDL receptor-like domains, a scavenger receptor-like domain and a C-terminal trypsin-like serine protease domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • reduces
  • 9 This substitution also greatly reduces the cso operator binding affinity by ≥10,000-fold to undetectable levels, despite adopting a folded, α-helical tetrameric assembly state ( Figure S1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • arginine
  • Amino acids within the range from −19 to +7 of the Q/R site of GluR6(Q) were individually mutated to arginine and the mutant cDNAs were expressed as homomeric channels in HEK 293 cells. (rupress.org)
  • However, arginine substitution at several locations upstream of the Q/R site resulted in homomeric channels exhibiting strong inhibition by fatty acids, which is characteristic of homomeric GluR6(R) channels. (rupress.org)
  • peptide
  • The optimal MHC class I presentable peptide length is most likely generated by N-terminal trimming by ER resident ( 19 , 20 , 21 ) or cytosolic amino peptidases, as has recently been suggested for the OVA CTL epitope ( 17 , 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • We also tested a virus presenting a truncation of 109 amino acids at the C-terminal part of Env, a cytoplasmic tail partial deletion that is spontaneously selected in vitro. (mdpi.com)
  • divergence
  • For example, even though rodents are genetically very similar to primates, they have undergone a much higher number of substitutions in the estimated time since divergence in some regions of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • A model is said to have a strict molecular clock if the expected number of substitutions per year μ is constant regardless of which species' evolution is being examined. (wikipedia.org)
  • An important implication of a strict molecular clock is that the number of expected substitutions between an ancestral species and any of its present-day descendants must be independent of which descendant species is examined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its molecular mass is 45.2 kDa, being composed of 402 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses
  • During the 2012/13 epidemic season in Spain, two A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses bearing the specific Y155H substitution in the NA were detected and isolated from two patients diagnosed with severe respiratory syndrome and pneumonia requiring admission to the intensive care unit. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • affinity
  • Here we show that two "atom" substitutions of the Nε2 face of a Cu(I) coordinating histisine-61 allosterically uncouple Cu(I) and DNA binding, with no effect on Cu(I) binding affinity and coordination structure. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We were surprised to find that two of these substitutions led to an increase in affinity for alpha-adrenergic ligands. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Substitution with glutamine and threonine at position 312 led to a 11-15-fold increase in affinity for yohimbine and enabled p-aminoclonidine to act as an agonist. (aspetjournals.org)
  • molecules
  • A variety of different ion channels are modulated by direct interactions with cis-unsaturated molecules, including arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and endocannabinoids, which are derived from membrane phospholipids. (rupress.org)
  • neutral
  • substitution rates are determined by how often epistasis results in such nearly neutral conditions. (datadryad.org)
  • Machine learning methods of decision tree, support vector machine, Gaussian mixture model, and random forests were used to classify neutral and deleterious substitutions, and the comparison of classification accuracy with published results showed that our feature set is superior to the existing ones. (usc.edu)
  • Most substitution models used to date are neutral, independent, finite sites models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutral Selection does not operate on the substitutions, and so they are unconstrained. (wikipedia.org)
  • model
  • 9 We therefore employed native chemical ligation to perform an "atom" substitution of His61 by replacement with Nε2-methyl-histidine (MeH) or 4-(thiazolyl)-L-alanine (Thz) in order to directly test this allosteric coupling model ( Figure 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)