• gene
  • The Y155H amino acid substitution in the neuraminidase gene (NA) has previously been associated with highly reduced inhibition by neuraminidase inhibitors in the seasonal H1N1 influenza A virus which circulated in humans before the 2009 pandemic. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, somatic form, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDHA1 gene.The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial matrix multienzyme complex that provides the primary link between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle by catalyzing the irreversible conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The preliminary peptide encoded by this gene was 29 amino acids at the very start of the sequence that correspond to a typical mitochondrial targeting leader sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • aspartic acid
  • Thus, a potential CTL epitope present in the Friend virus sequence is not properly processed and presented because of a natural flanking aspartic acid that obliterates the correct C-terminal cleavage site. (jimmunol.org)
  • helix
  • Multiple regression analyses were performed correlating overall stability with the hydrophobicity, size, and helix propensity of the replacement amino acid. (rice.edu)
  • In most cases, once a range of amino acids has been correlated at a given position, the stabilities of untested mutants can be predicted based on the hydropathy, size, and helix propensity of the substituted amino acid. (rice.edu)
  • single
  • More importantly, the stabilities of multiple mutants can be predicted from the measured unfolding constants of the corresponding single mutants or from the amino acid properties of the substituted amino acid using the regression analysis performed on the single mutants. (rice.edu)
  • In addition, the potential expression levels for multiple mutants of myoglobin can be predicted from either the stabilities of the corresponding single mutants, or from the properties of the replacement amino acid, even if the stabilities have not been measured previously. (rice.edu)
  • We now show that failure to recognize Friend MuLV-transformed tumor cells is based on a defect in proteasome-mediated processing of the Friend epitope which is due to a single amino acid substitution (N→D) immediately flanking the C-terminal anchor residue of the epitope. (jimmunol.org)
  • A single amino acid substitution, Q65H, in the non-structural protein 2C was found to be responsible for increased resistance to BFA. (frontiersin.org)
  • All but one of the single arginine substitution mutants yielded functional channels. (rupress.org)
  • Changing a single amino acid in a protein may reduce its ability to carry out this function, or the mutation may even change the function that the protein carries out. (wikipedia.org)
  • terminus
  • In vitro proteasome-mediated digestion analysis ( 12 , 13 , 15 , 17 ) and proteasome inhibitor studies ( 17 , 18 ) have shown that in particular the C terminus of the CTL epitope is precisely determined by the proteasome, whereas the N terminus is often elongated by one or two amino acids. (jimmunol.org)
  • arginine
  • Amino acids within the range from −19 to +7 of the Q/R site of GluR6(Q) were individually mutated to arginine and the mutant cDNAs were expressed as homomeric channels in HEK 293 cells. (rupress.org)
  • However, arginine substitution at several locations upstream of the Q/R site resulted in homomeric channels exhibiting strong inhibition by fatty acids, which is characteristic of homomeric GluR6(R) channels. (rupress.org)
  • peptide
  • The optimal MHC class I presentable peptide length is most likely generated by N-terminal trimming by ER resident ( 19 , 20 , 21 ) or cytosolic amino peptidases, as has recently been suggested for the OVA CTL epitope ( 17 , 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • We also tested a virus presenting a truncation of 109 amino acids at the C-terminal part of Env, a cytoplasmic tail partial deletion that is spontaneously selected in vitro. (mdpi.com)
  • Human corin, a polypeptide of 1042 amino acids, consists of an N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain and an extracellular region with two frizzled-like domains, eight LDL receptor-like domains, a scavenger receptor-like domain and a C-terminal trypsin-like serine protease domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • spatial
  • However, epistatic interactions among sites in a protein result in hererogeneities in the substitution rate, both temporal and spatial, that are beyond the capabilities of current models. (datadryad.org)
  • divergence
  • For example, even though rodents are genetically very similar to primates, they have undergone a much higher number of substitutions in the estimated time since divergence in some regions of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • A model is said to have a strict molecular clock if the expected number of substitutions per year μ is constant regardless of which species' evolution is being examined. (wikipedia.org)
  • An important implication of a strict molecular clock is that the number of expected substitutions between an ancestral species and any of its present-day descendants must be independent of which descendant species is examined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its molecular mass is 45.2 kDa, being composed of 402 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses
  • During the 2012/13 epidemic season in Spain, two A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses bearing the specific Y155H substitution in the NA were detected and isolated from two patients diagnosed with severe respiratory syndrome and pneumonia requiring admission to the intensive care unit. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • molecules
  • A variety of different ion channels are modulated by direct interactions with cis-unsaturated molecules, including arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and endocannabinoids, which are derived from membrane phospholipids. (rupress.org)
  • rates
  • Although there is extensive evidence for biased substitution rates in animal mtDNA, there is no consensus on whether this is entirely due to the pattern of mutation or is filtered by selection ( 2 , 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • We constructed a mechanistic framework for modelling amino acid substitution rates that uses the formalisms of statistical mechanics, with principles of population genetics underlying the analysis. (datadryad.org)
  • substitution rates are determined by how often epistasis results in such nearly neutral conditions. (datadryad.org)
  • side
  • This is most likely modulated by a histidine (H138) residue that first deprotonates the carboxy side, and then, as an acid, protonates the phosphate part. (wikipedia.org)
  • weak
  • Only weak inhibition, typical of wild-type GluR6(Q) channels, was observed for substitutions +1 to +6 downstream of the Q/R site. (rupress.org)