• individual amino acid
  • After you become familiar with the chemical properties of each amino acid as you progress in biochemistry review begin always looking for instances in where you can broaden your understanding of how each individual amino acid behaves in unique ways in enzyme activity or as intermediates in biochemical pathways. (wikipremed.com)
  • carboxyl group
  • The end with a free amino group is known as the N-terminus or amino terminus, whereas the end of the protein with a free carboxyl group is known as the C-terminus or carboxy terminus (the sequence of the protein is written from N-terminus to C-terminus, from left to right). (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzyme
  • When the sequence of this enzyme became known, it was given the name "calpain", to recognize it as a hybrid of two well-known proteins at the time, the calcium-regulated signalling protein, calmodulin, and the cysteine protease of papaya, papain. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if the protein is an enzyme, it will be able to act more efficiently with its substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • unfolded amino acid chain
  • A simple approach is to run a molecular dynamics simulation on an unfolded amino acid chain, but the amount of computational resources required ( e.g. distributed computing or supercomputers) makes this method intractable for all but the smallest proteins. (colostate.edu)
  • mRNA
  • Transcription is the process of forming a RNA strand in the cytoplasm , which is similar to the DNA strand by creating a complementary mRNA structure ( messenger RNA) in the nucleus . (brainmass.com)
  • Each amino acid added is matched to a three nucleotide subsequence of the mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The successive amino acids added to the chain are matched to successive nucleotide triplets in the mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mRNA carries genetic information encoded as a ribonucleotide sequence from the chromosomes to the ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anticodon is an RNA triplet complementary to the mRNA triplet that codes for their cargo amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • This product may be transcribed and be functional as RNA or is translated from mRNA to a protein to be functional in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These miRNAs work by binding to a complementary target mRNA sequence to prevent translation from occurring. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • The secondary structure of biological RNA's can often be uniquely decomposed into stems and loops. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many secondary structure elements of functional importance to biological RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chaperones are an integral part of a cell's protein quality control network by assisting in protein folding and are ubiquitous across diverse biological taxa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Material structures include man-made objects such as buildings and machines and natural objects such as biological organisms, minerals and chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Load-bearing biological structures such as bones, teeth, shells, and tendons derive their strength from a multilevel hierarchy of structures employing biominerals and proteins, at the bottom of which are collagen fibrils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computational systems biology aims to develop and use efficient algorithms, data structures, visualization and communication tools with the goal of computer modelling of biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • folds
  • At present, some of the most successful methods have a reasonable probability of predicting the folds of small, single-domain proteins within 1.5 angstroms over the entire structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a protein folds , it is believed that stretches of the primary sequence pre-assemble into structures such as alpha helices or beta strands . (everything2.com)
  • His [Meyer's] case against current scientific explanations of the relatively rapid appearance of the animal phyla rests on the claim that the origin of new animal body plans requires vast amounts of novel genetic information coupled with the unsubstantiated assertion that this new genetic information must include many new protein folds. (blogspot.com)
  • The reason for Meyer's idiosyncratic fixation with new protein folds is that one of his Discovery Institute colleagues has claimed that those are mathematically impossibly hard to evolve on the timescale of the Cambrian explosion. (blogspot.com)
  • The polypeptide later folds into an active protein and performs its functions in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • While in the ER, this primary polypeptide chain undergoes a regulatory process known as ER-quality control (ER-QC) to help ensure it folds into the correct 3-D structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis
  • The synthesis of proteins is done by a two-step process of transcription and translation . (brainmass.com)
  • These roles include: aiding protein synthesis catalyzing reactions regulating various processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This receptor is an important part of the plant immune system as it allows the plant cells to recognize and bind to EF-Tu, preventing genetic transformation and protein synthesis in pathogens such as Agrobacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins that are required for the proper synthesis of EFR include Arabidopsis CRT3 and UGGT, which are members of the EFR-QC and act as chaperones to help folding. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Proteins coordinate most of the cellular functions in an organism. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Since protein folding, and therefore protein function, is susceptible to environmental conditions, chaperones could represent an important cellular aspect of biodiversity and environmental tolerance by organisms living in hazardous conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, structures exist at all levels of organization, ranging hierarchically from the atomic and molecular to the cellular, tissue, organ, organismic, population and ecosystem level. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • To better understand the chemistry that drives the fundamental processes of life, it is critical that we know the molecular structures of the many proteins involved in these processes. (colostate.edu)
  • This useful distinction among scales is often expressed as a decomposition of molecular structure into four levels: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this review the authors discuss the knowledge concerning proteins and antibodies, as well as the use of quantum mechanics in the simulation of molecular systems and the three-dimensional antibody modelling. (igi-global.com)
  • Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a diverse class of molecular chaperones that assist in folding under stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has a molecular weight of 76,000 daltons and contains about 700 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • One is the use of pattern-recognition receptors (PRR) to bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP), which are highly-conserved structures on the outside of many invasive organisms. (wikipedia.org)