• individual amino acid
  • After you become familiar with the chemical properties of each amino acid as you progress in biochemistry review begin always looking for instances in where you can broaden your understanding of how each individual amino acid behaves in unique ways in enzyme activity or as intermediates in biochemical pathways. (wikipremed.com)
  • chains
  • Now these five carbon or six carbon sugars, can very often not only be in these what are called straight chains, but they can manoeuvre and join to form ring structures. (brightstorm.com)
  • tRNAs are small noncoding RNA chains (74-93 nucleotides) that transport amino acids to the ribosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzyme
  • When the sequence of this enzyme became known, it was given the name "calpain", to recognize it as a hybrid of two well-known proteins at the time, the calcium-regulated signalling protein, calmodulin, and the cysteine protease of papaya, papain. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if the protein is an enzyme, it will be able to act more efficiently with its substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • unfolded amino acid chain
  • A simple approach is to run a molecular dynamics simulation on an unfolded amino acid chain, but the amount of computational resources required ( e.g. distributed computing or supercomputers) makes this method intractable for all but the smallest proteins. (colostate.edu)
  • alanine
  • Regions richer in alanine (A), glutamic acid (E), leucine (L), and methionine (M) and poorer in proline (P), glycine (G), tyrosine (Y), and serine (S) tend to form an α helix. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • The ribosome facilitates decoding by inducing the binding of complementary tRNA anticodon sequences to mRNA codons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ribosome then moves (translocates) to the next mRNA codon to continue the process, creating an amino acid chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each amino acid added is matched to a three nucleotide subsequence of the mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The successive amino acids added to the chain are matched to successive nucleotide triplets in the mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mRNA carries genetic information encoded as a ribonucleotide sequence from the chromosomes to the ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anticodon is an RNA triplet complementary to the mRNA triplet that codes for their cargo amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • This product may be transcribed and be functional as RNA or is translated from mRNA to a protein to be functional in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These miRNAs work by binding to a complementary target mRNA sequence to prevent translation from occurring. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosomes
  • In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prokaryotic ribosomes have a different structure from that of eukaryotic ribosomes, and thus antibiotics can specifically target bacterial infections without any harm to a eukaryotic host's cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These amino acid sequences are translated from cellular mRNAs by ribosomes in the cytoplasm of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ribosomes have enzymatic activity which directs the condensation reaction forming the amide linkage between each successive amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • A protein is created by ribosomes that "read" RNA that is encoded by codons in the gene and assemble the requisite amino acid combination from the genetic instruction, in a process known as translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • EFR, like other proteins, undergoes translation in a cell's ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • aspartic acid
  • According to the work of Brylinski and Skolnick [ 2 ], aspartic acid has much higher preference to bind Mn 2+ than glutamic acid and histidine. (hindawi.com)
  • cysteine
  • Cysteine on the other hand can react with another cysteine residue and thereby form a cross link stabilizing the whole structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Proteins coordinate most of the cellular functions in an organism. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Since protein folding, and therefore protein function, is susceptible to environmental conditions, chaperones could represent an important cellular aspect of biodiversity and environmental tolerance by organisms living in hazardous conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, structures exist at all levels of organization, ranging hierarchically from the atomic and molecular to the cellular, tissue, organ, organismic, population and ecosystem level. (wikipedia.org)