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  • duct
  • trachea main bronchus (diameter approximately 1 - 1.4 cm in adults)lobar bronchus (diameter approximately 1 cm) segmental bronchus (diameter 4.5 to 13 mm)subsegmental bronchus (diameter 1 to 6 mm)conducting bronchiole terminal bronchiole respiratory bronchiole alveolar duct alveolar sac alveolus At each division point or generation, one airway branches into two or more smaller airways. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung
  • In addition, common indices of respiratory capacity - for example, minimum air volume of the relaxed lung (MAV) and total lung capacity (TLC) - exist only for a limited number of marine mammals of different age classes ( Kooyman, 1973 ). (biologists.org)
  • The importance of variability in the respiratory pattern is partially explained by the anatomical structure of the lung. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The basic rationale for variable controlled mechanical ventilation is that the use of a physiological variability in the respiratory pattern, as observed in the healthy resting state, may be beneficial to improve function and reduce damage in the diseased lung. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Left untreated, the immune system and fungal spores can damage sensitive lung tissues and lead to scarring. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Another important feature is its ability to interact and integrate with epithelial surfaces, which results in massive pro-inflammatory counter-response by the immune system involving IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 (a CCL2 receptor ligand). (wikipedia.org)
  • airway
  • There is tentative evidence that in those with respiratory failure identified before arrival in hospital, continuous positive airway pressure can be useful when started before conveying to hospital. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Fick's Law for gas-exchange surface Gases must first dissolve in a liquid in order to diffuse across a membrane, so all biological gas exchange systems require a moist environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • collapse
  • The objective was to create a theoretical framework that could be used to predict the air volumes of the various compartments of the respiratory system to the limit of collapse. (biologists.org)
  • Infection
  • To combat infection, the phagocytes of the innate immune system facilitates many pattern recognition receptors (PRR) to help recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on the surface of pathogenic microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in healthy individuals the innate immune system is an efficacious barrier to A. fumigatus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • rarely
  • Alveolar emphysema is rarely a problem except in the horse. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Respiratory alkalosis is very rarely life-threatening, though pH level should not be 7.5 or greater. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respiratory stimulants such as doxapram are rarely used, and if the respiratory failure resulted from an overdose of sedative drugs such as opioids or benzodiazepines, then the appropriate antidote (naloxone or flumazenil, respectively) will be given. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • The definition of respiratory failure in clinical trials usually includes increased respiratory rate, abnormal blood gases (hypoxemia, hypercapnia, or both), and evidence of increased work of breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspergillus
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a condition characterised by an exaggerated response of the immune system (a hypersensitivity response) to the fungus Aspergillus (most commonly Aspergillus fumigatus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspergillus spores are small (2-3 μm in diameter) and can penetrate deep into the respiratory system to the alveolar level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspergillus spores and hyphae can interact with ECM proteins, and it is hypothesised that this process facilitates the binding of spores to damaged respiratory sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases
  • 478) Other diseases of upper respiratory tract (478.1) Abscess/ulcer of nose (480) Viral pneumonia (480.31) Pneumonia, SARS associated coronavirus (480.9) Pneumonia, viral, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • namely
  • Therefore, this study was undertaken to increase the current knowledge of the mechanical properties of the respiratory system of marine mammals and to estimate the respiratory capacity (namely TLC and MAV) for a larger number of marine mammals. (biologists.org)
  • They are known to cause respiratory disorders under particular conditions namely if the human immune system is impaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organs
  • Play media The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most fish, and a number of other aquatic animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates) the respiratory system consists of gills, which are either partially or completely external organs, bathed in the watery environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • innate immune
  • They are highly adaptive components of the innate immune system and can be specifically modified to whatever functions needed depending on their state of differentiation and micro-environmental factors encountered. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • The respiratory pathway is a prime site for exposure to pathogens and toxic substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since some of these products are potent proinflammatory stimuli it is extremely important for the immune system to distinguish between pathogens and non-pathogenic commensals. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathological
  • However, in some pathological states, the feedback is more powerful than is necessary to simply return the system towards its steady state. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • Chronic respiratory alkalosis is a more long-standing condition, here one finds the kidneys have time to decrease the bicarbonate level. (wikipedia.org)
  • When PaCO2 is adjusted rapidly in individuals with chronic respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis may occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • body's
  • In this course, students learn to recognize and to apply the basic concepts that govern integrated body function (as an intact organism) in the body's nine organ systems. (coursera.org)
  • When these offensive agents infiltrate the superficial barriers, the body's immune system responds in an orchestrated defense involving a litany of specialized cells which target the threat, neutralize it, and clean up the remnants of the battle. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxic
  • These unusual properties may cause the respirable dusts to be at least moderately toxic to the respiratory system, and larger grains to be abrasive to the skin & eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolic
  • Gases are constantly consumed and produced by cellular and metabolic reactions in most living things, so an efficient system for gas exchange between, ultimately, the interior of the cell(s) and the external environment is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • asthma
  • It is most commonly caused by: Oesophageal rupture, for example in Boerhaave syndrome Asthma or other conditions leading to alveolar rupture Bowel rupture, where air in the abdominal cavity tracts up into the chest. (wikipedia.org)
  • relatively
  • Quartz was readily retoxified by phospholipase-A2 in a cell free in-vitro system and was relatively free of retained phospholipids. (cdc.gov)
  • Activity of the alveolar macrophage is relatively high, because they are located at one of the major boundaries between the body and the outside world. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Biological systems constantly adjust their inner condition according to the external environment in order to achieve a steady state that allows their adaptation to the environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Healthy biological systems are able to quickly adapt to changing environmental conditions and exhibit intrinsic fluctuations in function within each subsystem, for example the cardiovascular [ 1 ] and respiratory [ 2 ] systems, during steady‐state conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In diseased biological systems, however, such intrinsic functional fluctuation (variability) is usually reduced. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Different from most biological systems, the variability of the respiratory system can be easily influenced in an attempt to improve its function. (biomedcentral.com)