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  • stimulate
  • Some adjuvants, such as alum, function as delivery systems by generating depots that trap antigens at the injection site, providing a slow release that continues to stimulate the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune response
  • Adjuvants may be added to a vaccine to modify the immune response by boosting it such as to give a higher amount of antibodies and a longer-lasting protection, thus minimizing the amount of injected foreign material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adjuvants may also be used to enhance the efficacy of a vaccine by helping to modify the immune response to particular types of immune system cells: for example, by activating T cells instead of antibody-secreting B cells depending on the purpose of the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • An adjuvant can also act as an irritant, which engages and amplifies the body's immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • addition
  • In addition, concerns have been raised regarding whether adjuvants may be able to trigger responses to self-proteins causing autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • provide
  • This chapter will focus on both well established and exploratory adjuvants to provide an overview of our current understanding of vaccine adjuvant mechanism of action and how this information may be used in the discovery of the next generation of products. (frontiersin.org)
  • products
  • Much of the early work on adjuvants discovery and development was empirical producing safe and effective products, but without a clear understanding of how they worked. (frontiersin.org)
  • research
  • I am unaware of any research showing how quickly cysts can develop after immunization with an oil adjuvant. (whale.to)
  • different
  • A magazine article about vaccine adjuvants in 2007 was headlined "Deciphering Immunology's Dirty Secret" to refer to the early days of vaccine manufacture, when significant variations in the effectiveness of different batches of the same vaccine were observed, correctly assumed to be due to contamination of the reaction vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alum formulations are particulate in nature, to which the vaccine antigens are adsorbed, albeit with distinct characteristics among the different forms of alum salts ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • work
  • No matter what the mechanism is, alum is not a perfect adjuvant because it does not work with all antigens (e.g. malaria and tuberculosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • make
  • The ingredients are not simply flushed out like they might be if taken in as food, and some ingredients such as aluminium and mercury make their way to the brain and accumulate over time. (learntherisk.org)