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  • behavior
  • E.O. Wilson defines sociobiology as "the systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior," the central theoretical problem of which is the question of how behaviors that seemingly contradict the principles of natural selection, such as altruism , can develop. (jahsonic.com)
  • Altruism is one of the great mysteries of social behavior in animals, as it appears to contradict our understanding of natural selection . (factbites.com)
  • Biologists usually define "altruism" as behavior of an animal that is risky-perhaps deadly-for that animal, but benefits other members of its community . (factbites.com)
  • Although there are differences in opinion, it is generally believed that animal altruism exists and survives as a behavior pattern because there is some reproductive advantage to the group. (factbites.com)
  • The theory of competitive altruism also helps one connect such behavior to the handicap principle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors of "Five Studies Testing Two New Egoistic Alternatives to the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis" set out to show that empathy motivates other-regarding helping behavior not out of self-interest but out of true interest in the well-being of others. (wikipedia.org)
  • In evolutionary biology, altruism is an individual behavior that benefits another individual's fitness but reduces their own fitness in population The concept of ″altruism″ in biology arose from the debate of ″the Problem of Altruism″ in Natural Selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • behaviour
  • In the science of ethology (the study of animal behaviour), and more generally in the study of social evolution , altruism refers to behaviour by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, altruism refers to behaviour by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research in evolutionary theory has been applied to social behaviour, including altruism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from the apparent symbiosis of the cleaner and the host during actual cleaning, which cannot be interpreted as altruism, the host displays additional behaviour that meets the criteria for altruism: The host fish allows the cleaner fish free entrance and exit and does not eat the cleaner, even after the cleaning is done. (wikipedia.org)
  • turnout
  • Substantial equilibrium turnout emerges with nontrivial voting costs and modest altruism. (nber.org)
  • Since the failure of standard rational choice models-which assume voters' have "selfish" preferences-to explain voter turnout in large elections, public choice economists and social scientists have increasingly turned to altruism as a way to explain why rational individuals would choose to vote despite its apparent lack of individual benefit, the so-called paradox of voting. (wikipedia.org)
  • behaviors
  • Competitive altruism is a possible mechanism for the persistence of cooperative behaviors, specifically those that are performed unconditionally. (wikipedia.org)
  • good consequences
  • Altruism is often seen as a form of consequentialism, as it indicates that an action is ethically right if it brings good consequences to others. (factbites.com)
  • Altruism may be seen as similar to utilitarianism, however an essential difference is that the latter prescribes acts that maximize good consequences for all of society, while altruism prescribes maximizing good consequences for everyone except the actor. (wikipedia.org)
  • conundrum
  • with an old conundrum that has animated many late-night dormitory debates: If helping someone gives you pleasure, gains you points for an afterlife, and enhances your reputation, is it really altruism? (prospect.org)
  • consequences
  • Effective altruism is a philosophy and social movement that maintains that the consequences of our actions - for ourselves and others - are important, and seeks to maximise the overall quality of these consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • cooperation
  • With competitive altruism, cooperation is considered a trait that provides a signaling benefit, and thus is subject to sexual selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also demonstrates the original motivations and the internal mechanisms of the human cooperation, revealing the inevitability and social significance ranging from kin altruism to un-relative altruism in the human population. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] It is even possible for altruism to spread to all the members of a population, through a variety of mechanisms (e.g. founder effects or population bottlenecks). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Norwegian eco-philosopher Arne Næss argues that environmental action based upon altruism - or service of the other - stems from a shrunken "egoic" concept of the self. (wikipedia.org)
  • social
  • Altruism can be distinguished from feelings of loyalty , in that whilst the latter is predicated upon social relationships, altruism does not consider relationships. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effective altruism is a growing social movement and philosophy centered on the idea of using evidence and reason to do the most good you can in the world. (meetup.com)
  • Author Gabriel Moran, (professor in the department of Humanities and the Social Sciences, New York University) says "The law and duty of life in altruism [for Comte] was summed up in the phrase : Live for others. (wikipedia.org)
  • The social exchange theory states that altruism does not exist unless benefits to the helper outweigh the costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two hypotheses that counter the empathy-altruism hypothesis are addressed in this article: 1) Empathy Specific Reward: Empathy triggers the need for social reward which can be gained by helping. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effective altruism is a philosophy and social movement that aims to apply evidence and reason to determine the most effective ways to benefit others. (wikipedia.org)
  • More on the empathy-altruism hypothesis can be found in a number of social psychology textbooks, including Brehm and Kassin (1996). (wikipedia.org)
  • moral
  • Altruism focuses on a motivation to help others or a want to do good without reward, while duty focuses on a moral obligation towards a specific individual (for example, God, a king ), a specific organization (for example, a government), or an abstract concept (for example, country etc). (factbites.com)
  • Effective altruism differs from other philanthropic practices because of its emphasis on quantitatively comparing charitable causes and interventions with the goal of maximizing certain moral values. (wikipedia.org)
  • focuses
  • Whilst ideas about altruism from one field can affect the other fields, the different methods and focuses of these fields always lead to different perspectives on altruism. (wikipedia.org)
  • describes
  • Hamilton's rule describes the benefit of such altruism in terms of Wright's coefficient of relationship to the beneficiary and the benefit granted to the beneficiary minus the cost to the sacrificer. (wikipedia.org)
  • theory
  • Although the problem of altruism was largely ignored by early evolutionary theory, over the past several decades it has risen to become a central issue in the debate over the level at which natural selection operates - whether that be the level of the gene, individual, kin group, or even an entire population . (factbites.com)
  • Selfish-gene theory allowed, however, for an explanation of altruism that arose in the 1960s and became known as "kin selection. (prospect.org)
  • Empathy-Altruism Theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the empathy-altruism theory, helpfulness is seen in those who have empathy with the person in need. (wikipedia.org)
  • explain
  • Wilson seeks to explain how group selection, altruism , hierarchies, and sexual selection work in populations of animals, and to identify evolutionary trends and sociobiological characteristics of all animal groups, up to and including man. (jahsonic.com)
  • To explain competitive altruism, Roberts uses the example of preening among birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • motivation
  • Nursing Standard said "I recommend this book to health professionals looking for a deeper understanding of altruism and its motivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • benefit
  • Altruism is contrary to the normal purpose of advertising, to convince the individual that acquiring a certain product or service will benefit that individual. (factbites.com)
  • evidence
  • Belief in Hard Work and Altruism: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment ," Working Papers 2017-053, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group. (repec.org)
  • biological
  • Altruism in biological observations in field populations of the day organisms can be defined as an individual performing an action which is at a cost to themselves (e.g., pleasure and quality of life, time, probability of survival or reproduction), but benefits, either directly or indirectly, another third-party individual, without the expectation of reciprocity or compensation for that action. (wikipedia.org)
  • another
  • also determined that since a period of searching is required for 'mutually acceptable' players to find one another, competitive altruism is more likely to arise in animals with long life spans. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore
  • Therefore, Charles Darwin regarded ″the Problem of Altruism″ as a potential fatal challenge to his concept of natural selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • possible
  • Much debate exists as to whether "true" altruism is possible in human psychology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Netscape's recent move to give away the source code for its browser shows that the corporate world now believes that it is possible to make money with free software - previously eyed with cautious pessimism - money is not the prime motivator of most producers of the Internet's free goods, and neither is altruism . (jahsonic.com)
  • group
  • Group selection departs from the more familiar model of individual selection that sees the evolutionary prize going to the individual, male or female, who has more surviving offspring, regardless of health and life-span, much less altruism. (prospect.org)
  • The results confirmed the empathy-altruism hypothesis: those in the high empathy group were almost equally as likely to help her in either circumstance, while the low empathy group helped out of self-interest. (wikipedia.org)