• turnout
  • Substantial equilibrium turnout emerges with nontrivial voting costs and modest altruism. (nber.org)
  • Since the failure of standard rational choice models-which assume voters' have "selfish" preferences-to explain voter turnout in large elections, public choice economists and social scientists have increasingly turned to altruism as a way to explain why rational individuals would choose to vote despite its apparent lack of individual benefit, the so-called paradox of voting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behavior
  • E.O. Wilson defines sociobiology as "the systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior," the central theoretical problem of which is the question of how behaviors that seemingly contradict the principles of natural selection, such as altruism , can develop. (jahsonic.com)
  • Research questions that can be explored using this learning guide include: what are the factors that motivate one person to help another, how costs and rewards, or empathy influence helping and altruism, the impact that cultural norms and roles may have on helping behavior, and whether characteristics of the person needing help influence helping behavior and if so, how. (umich.edu)
  • The theory of competitive altruism also helps one connect such behavior to the handicap principle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors of "Five Studies Testing Two New Egoistic Alternatives to the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis" set out to show that empathy motivates other-regarding helping behavior not out of self-interest but out of true interest in the well-being of others. (wikipedia.org)
  • dictator
  • Since the dictator game provides the most suitable design for studying altruism and generosity in the lab setting, we use a modified version to study the beliefs involved in the game. (repec.org)
  • conundrum
  • with an old conundrum that has animated many late-night dormitory debates: If helping someone gives you pleasure, gains you points for an afterlife, and enhances your reputation, is it really altruism? (prospect.org)
  • describes
  • Hamilton's rule describes the benefit of such altruism in terms of Wright's coefficient of relationship to the beneficiary and the benefit granted to the beneficiary minus the cost to the sacrificer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wilson
  • Wilson seeks to explain how group selection, altruism , hierarchies, and sexual selection work in populations of animals, and to identify evolutionary trends and sociobiological characteristics of all animal groups, up to and including man. (jahsonic.com)
  • evidence
  • Belief in Hard Work and Altruism: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment ," Working Papers 2017-053, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group. (repec.org)
  • Effective altruism is a philosophy and social movement that aims to apply evidence and reason to determine the most effective ways to benefit others. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the broad, evidence-based approach that distinguishes effective altruism from traditional altruism or charity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effective altruism organizations use randomized controlled trials as a primary form of evidence, as they are often considered to be at the highest level of strong evidence in healthcare research. (wikipedia.org)
  • moral
  • Effective altruism differs from other philanthropic practices because of its emphasis on quantitatively comparing charitable causes and interventions with the goal of maximizing certain moral values. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Altruism in biological observations in field populations of the day organisms can be defined as an individual performing an action which is at a cost to themselves (e.g., pleasure and quality of life, time, probability of survival or reproduction), but benefits, either directly or indirectly, another third-party individual, without the expectation of reciprocity or compensation for that action. (wikipedia.org)
  • arise
  • also determined that since a period of searching is required for 'mutually acceptable' players to find one another, competitive altruism is more likely to arise in animals with long life spans. (wikipedia.org)
  • consequences
  • Altruism is often seen as a form of consequentialism, as it indicates that an action is ethically right if it brings good consequences to others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altruism may be seen as similar to utilitarianism, however an essential difference is that the latter prescribes acts that maximize good consequences for all of society, while altruism prescribes maximizing good consequences for everyone except the actor. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Spencer argued that since the rest of society will almost always outnumber the utilitarian, a genuine utilitarian will inevitably end up practicing altruism or a form of altruism. (wikipedia.org)
  • If chances of meeting another reciprocal altruist are high enough, or if the game is repeated for a long enough amount of time, this form of altruism can evolve within a population. (wikipedia.org)
  • possible
  • Much debate exists as to whether "true" altruism is possible in human psychology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Netscape's recent move to give away the source code for its browser shows that the corporate world now believes that it is possible to make money with free software - previously eyed with cautious pessimism - money is not the prime motivator of most producers of the Internet's free goods, and neither is altruism . (jahsonic.com)
  • animals
  • Cases of animals helping individuals to whom they are closely related can be explained by kin selection, and are not considered true altruism. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore
  • Therefore, Charles Darwin regarded ″the Problem of Altruism″ as a potential fatal challenge to his concept of natural selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • relatives
  • If a gene affects altruism in such a way that the altruism is more likely to be directed at close relatives, the gene can spread in the population despite the cost imposed on the altruist. (prospect.org)
  • group
  • Group selection departs from the more familiar model of individual selection that sees the evolutionary prize going to the individual, male or female, who has more surviving offspring, regardless of health and life-span, much less altruism. (prospect.org)
  • The results confirmed the empathy-altruism hypothesis: those in the high empathy group were almost equally as likely to help her in either circumstance, while the low empathy group helped out of self-interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • benefits
  • It also depends on how much the citizen cares about benefits to others, which is labeled a for altruism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, people frequently engage in acts of altruism by choosing to bear costs in order to provide benefits to others. (wikipedia.org)