• encode enzymes
  • TOL plasmids encode enzymes responsible for utilization of toluene and related aromatic compounds by Pseudomonas putida, ultimately converting them to central metabolic intermediates. (unt.edu)
  • Some examples of this include producing the mRNA that encode enzymes to adapt to a change in a food source, producing the gene products involved in cell cycle specific activities, and producing the gene products responsible for cellular differentiation in higher eukaryotes, as studied in evolutionary developmental biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Mutagens of the gene for this enzyme can cause unusual forms of diabetes or hypoglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • An important region for the activity of gene repression and expression found in RNA is the 3' untranslated region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since repression is active, silencer elements target the assembly of GTFs, necessary for transcription of the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2A also known as acute lymphoblastic leukemia 1 (ALL-1), myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1), or zinc finger protein HRX (HRX) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the KMT2A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • RNA polymerase, a DNA-dependent enzyme, transcribes the DNA sequences, called nucleotides, in the 3' to 5' direction while the complementary RNA is synthesized in the 5' to 3' direction. (wikipedia.org)
  • term enzyme
  • In 1877, German physiologist Wilhelm Kühne (1837-1900) first used the term enzyme, which comes from Greek ἔνζυμον, "leavened" or "in yeast", to describe this process. (wikipedia.org)
  • lactose
  • This lactose metabolism system was used by Jacob and Monod to determine how a cell knows which enzyme to synthesize. (wikipedia.org)
  • It would be wasteful to produce the enzymes when there is no lactose available or if there is a more preferable energy source available, such as glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • In enzymology, a malate oxidase (EC 1.1.3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (S)-malate + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } oxaloacetate + H2O2 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (S)-malate and O2, whereas its two products are oxaloacetate and H2O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • Some biochemists have argued that the name glucokinase should be abandoned as misleading, as this enzyme can phosphorylate other hexoses in the right conditions, and there are distantly related enzymes in bacteria with more absolute specificity for glucose that better deserve the name and the EC 2.7.1.2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes' specificity comes from their unique three-dimensional structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monod
  • François Jacob (17 June 1920 - 19 April 2013) was a French biologist who, together with Jacques Monod, originated the idea that control of enzyme levels in all cells occurs through regulation of transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1961 Jacob and Monod explored the idea that the control of enzyme expression levels in cells is a result of regulation of transcription of DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalytic
  • Using specific mutagenic assays, Asp-192 was found to be the catalytic nucleophile of the enzyme, "attacking C-1 of the glucosyl moiety of sucrose" (Schwarz and Nidetzky 2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • Louis Pasteur recognized in 1860 that enzymes were essential to fermentation but assumed that their catalytic action was inextricably linked with the structure and life of the yeast cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • pepsin
  • The word enzyme was used later to refer to nonliving substances such as pepsin, and the word ferment was used to refer to chemical activity produced by living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • accelerate
  • Enzymes can accelerate, often by several orders of magnitude, reactions that under the mild conditions of cellular concentrations, temperature, p H, and pressure would proceed imperceptibly (or not at all) in the absence of the enzyme. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymology
  • The study of enzymes is called enzymology and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Sucrose phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.7) is an important enzyme in the metabolism of sucrose and regulation of other metabolic intermediates. (wikipedia.org)
  • For many years it had been known that bacterial and other cells could respond to external conditions by regulating levels of their key metabolic enzymes, and/or the activity of these enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzyme catalysis in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolic pathways depend upon enzymes to catalyze individual steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • shifts
  • In the T state, enzyme conformation shifts slightly such that the space previously taken up by the Arg162 is replaced with Glu161. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalyzes
  • It has been shown in multiple experiments that the enzyme catalyzes this conversion by a double displacement mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Thus a graph plotting PFK1 activity against increasing F6P concentrations would adopt the sigmoidal curve shape traditionally associated with allosteric enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nature of the cooperativity has been postulated to involve a "slow transition" between two different enzyme states with different rates of activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • binding site
  • An MluI restriction enzyme site was introduced at the carbamoylphosphate binding site within the pyrB genes of both Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli. (unt.edu)
  • independently
  • Such radical changes in homology between corresponding regions of different operons, combined with variable base and codon usage patterns within and between operons, provides additional support for the idea that the upper and lower operons encoding enzymes of aromatic pathways have evolved independently of one another and that these operons have continued to exchange genetic material with homologous expression units through a series of recombination events. (unt.edu)
  • This important achievement was the first indication that enzymes could function independently of the cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • cell
  • Substances such as lead and other heavy metals(made outside the body/cell) attach to the enzyme at allosteric site and alter the shape of the active site. (studystack.com)
  • PFK is able to regulate glycolysis through allosteric inhibition, and in this way, the cell can increase or decrease the rate of glycolysis in response to the cell's energy requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lac operon uses a two-part control mechanism to ensure that the cell expends energy producing the enzymes encoded by the lac operon only when necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • forms
  • The crystal structure revealed that this enzyme forms a stable dimeric structure with a strong three-layered inter-subunit interaction, and that its subunit consists of two structurally homologous alpha/beta domains, each containing a four-stranded parallel beta-sheet flanked by six alpha-helices. (jove.com)
  • active
  • The enzyme consists of four major domains, namely A, B, B', and C. Domains A, B' and C exist as dimers around the active site (Sprogoe et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather than a Km for glucose, it is more accurate to describe a half-saturation level S0.5, which is the concentration at which the enzyme is 50% saturated and active. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Pubmed ID: 21159649 The chemotherapeutic drug pemetrexed, an inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, has an important secondary target in human leukemic cells, aminoimidazolecarboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (AICART), the second folate-dependent enzyme of purine biosynthesis. (jove.com)