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  • mRNA
  • The Escherichia Coli trp regulon, for example, demonstrates control by genetic regulation, mRNA attenuation and enzyme inhibition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some examples of this include producing the mRNA that encode enzymes to adapt to a change in a food source, producing the gene products involved in cell cycle specific activities, and producing the gene products responsible for cellular differentiation in higher eukaryotes, as studied in evolutionary developmental biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • There has been a recent discovery of Polycomb-group Response Elements (PREs), which can allow and inhibit repression depending on the protein bound to it, and the presence of non-coding transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the period from 1930 to 1936, pepsin pepsin, enzyme produced in the mucosal lining of the stomach that acts to degrade protein. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pepsin is one of three principal protein-degrading, or proteolytic, enzymes in the digestive system, the other two being chymotrypsin and trypsin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • it was confirmed that the crystals were protein, and the protein nature of enzymes was thereby firmly established. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2A also known as acute lymphoblastic leukemia 1 (ALL-1), myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1), or zinc finger protein HRX (HRX) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the KMT2A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is processed by the enzyme Taspase 1 into two fragments, MLL-C (~180 kDa) and MLL-N (~320 kDa). (wikipedia.org)
  • More recent work on the phylogeny of the reductase has shown that these residues involved in protein-protein interactions have been conserved througout the evolution of this enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the presence of glucose, the catabolite activator protein (CAP), required for production of the enzymes, remains inactive, and EIIAGlc shuts down lactose permease to prevent transport of lactose into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both of them have the same function, which is to facilitate the reaction of enzymes and protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term coenzyme refers specifically to enzymes and, as such, to the functional properties of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some consider tightly bound organic molecules as prosthetic groups and not as coenzymes, while others define all non-protein organic molecules needed for enzyme activity as coenzymes, and classify those that are tightly bound as coenzyme prosthetic groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium is another special case, in that it is required as a component of the human diet, and it is needed for the full activity of many enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase, protein phosphatases, and adenylate kinase, but calcium activates these enzymes in allosteric regulation, often binding to these enzymes in a complex with calmodulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • RNA polymerase, a DNA-dependent enzyme, transcribes the DNA sequences, called nucleotides , in the 3' to 5' direction while the complementary RNA is synthesized in the 5' to 3' direction. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode enzymes
  • TOL plasmids encode enzymes responsible for utilization of toluene and related aromatic compounds by Pseudomonas putida, ultimately converting them to central metabolic intermediates. (unt.edu)
  • catalyzes
  • It has been shown in multiple experiments that the enzyme catalyzes this conversion by a double displacement mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a malate oxidase (EC 1.1.3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (S)-malate + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } oxaloacetate + H2O2 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (S)-malate and O2, whereas its two products are oxaloacetate and H2O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • cofactor
  • An inactive enzyme without the cofactor is called an apoenzyme, while the complete enzyme with cofactor is called a holoenzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although chromium deficiency causes impaired glucose tolerance, no human enzyme that uses this metal as a cofactor has been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iodine is also an essential trace element, but this element is used as part of the structure of thyroid hormones rather than as an enzyme cofactor. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • Enzymes can be classified into six categories according to the type of reaction they catalyze. (studystack.com)
  • The forward reaction is an essential step in the energy metabolism of galactose since the product of the galactose pathway enzymes in yeast is glucose 1-phosphate. (string-db.org)
  • The enzyme involved in this reaction is an aminotransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • It has been proposed that this property is biologically useful and actively selected for by evolution[ 15 ], though other studies have questioned whether this is a real feature of metabolic networks[ 16 ], and have suggested that the topology simply derives from the way in which new enzyme functions evolve. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For many years it had been known that bacterial and other cells could respond to external conditions by regulating levels of their key metabolic enzymes, and/or the activity of these enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidoreductase
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is (S)-malate:oxygen oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other organisms require additional metals as enzyme cofactors, such as vanadium in the nitrogenase of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, tungsten in the aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase of the thermophilic archaean Pyrococcus furiosus, and even cadmium in the carbonic anhydrase from the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • In erythrocytes, both M and L subunits randomly tetramerize to form M4, L4 and the three hybrid forms of the enzyme (ML3, M2L2, M3L). (wikipedia.org)
  • On the opposite side of the each subunit from each active site is the allosteric site, at the interface between subunits in the dimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concerted model (the Monod, Wyman and Changeux (MWC) model) of allosteric regulation requires all subunits to be in the same conformation or state within an oligomer like the morpheein model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monod
  • This lactose metabolism system was used by Jacob and Monod to determine how a cell knows which enzyme to synthesize. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • An important region for the activity of gene repression and expression found in RNA is the 3' untranslated region . (wikipedia.org)
  • The end product of a biosynthetic pathway affects the activity of the first enzyme in the pathway. (cram.com)
  • Thus a graph plotting PFK1 activity against increasing F6P concentrations would adopt the sigmoidal curve shape traditionally associated with allosteric enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nature of the cooperativity has been postulated to involve a "slow transition" between two different enzyme states with different rates of activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • binding site
  • An MluI restriction enzyme site was introduced at the carbamoylphosphate binding site within the pyrB genes of both Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli. (unt.edu)
  • glucose
  • The term enzyme comes from zymosis, the Greek word for fermentation fermentation, process by which the living cell is able to obtain energy through the breakdown of glucose and other simple sugar molecules without requiring oxygen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some biochemists have argued that the name glucokinase should be abandoned as misleading, as this enzyme can phosphorylate other hexoses in the right conditions, and there are distantly related enzymes in bacteria with more absolute specificity for glucose that better deserve the name and the EC 2.7.1.2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather than a Km for glucose, it is more accurate to describe a half-saturation level S0.5, which is the concentration at which the enzyme is 50% saturated and active. (wikipedia.org)
  • It would be wasteful to produce the enzymes when there is no lactose available or if there is a more preferable energy source available, such as glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • shifts
  • In the T state, enzyme conformation shifts slightly such that the space previously taken up by the Arg162 is replaced with Glu161. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Such radical changes in homology between corresponding regions of different operons, combined with variable base and codon usage patterns within and between operons, provides additional support for the idea that the upper and lower operons encoding enzymes of aromatic pathways have evolved independently of one another and that these operons have continued to exchange genetic material with homologous expression units through a series of recombination events. (unt.edu)
  • cell
  • Substances such as lead and other heavy metals(made outside the body/cell) attach to the enzyme at allosteric site and alter the shape of the active site. (studystack.com)
  • Louis Pasteur recognized in 1860 that enzymes were essential to fermentation but assumed that their catalytic action was inextricably linked with the structure and life of the yeast cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The lac operon uses a two-part control mechanism to ensure that the cell expends energy producing the enzymes encoded by the lac operon only when necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • active
  • The enzyme consists of four major domains, namely A, B, B', and C. Domains A, B' and C exist as dimers around the active site (Sprogoe et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalytic
  • Louis Pasteur recognized in 1860 that enzymes were essential to fermentation but assumed that their catalytic action was inextricably linked with the structure and life of the yeast cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Using specific mutagenic assays, Asp-192 was found to be the catalytic nucleophile of the enzyme, "attacking C-1 of the glucosyl moiety of sucrose" (Schwarz and Nidetzky 2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Through its expression in dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages this enzyme modulates T-cell behavior by its peri-cellular catabolization of the essential amino acid tryptophan. (genecards.org)
  • found
  • A second, similar motif is found on the extreme C-terminus (centered around the phosphorylatable Ser 621) of all Raf enzymes, but downstream of the kinase domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2004). The size of the enzyme, as determined by sedimentation centrifugation, was found to be 55 KDa, consisting of 488 amino acids (Koga et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • In many biosynthetic processes enzymes interact with each other to produce small compounds or other macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • directly
  • The method is conducted by contacting the skin with the enzyme, reacting the substrate with the enzyme and directly detecting the amount of H2O2 produced as a measure of the amount of substrate in the blood, with use of a hydrogen peroxide electrode. (wikipedia.org)
  • names
  • Alternative names for this enzyme are: human hexokinase IV, hexokinase D, and ATP:D-hexose 6-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.1 (previously 2.7.1.2). (wikipedia.org)
  • domain
  • In addition to the conventional complexes, as enzyme-inhibitor and antibody-antigen, interactions can also be established between domain-domain and domain-peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • result
  • Like all catalysts, enzymes accelerate the rates of reactions while experiencing no permanent chemical modification as a result of their participation. (thefreedictionary.com)