• catalyzes
  • It has been shown in multiple experiments that the enzyme catalyzes this conversion by a double displacement mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a malate oxidase (EC 1.1.3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (S)-malate + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } oxaloacetate + H2O2 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (S)-malate and O2, whereas its two products are oxaloacetate and H2O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • It has been proposed that this property is biologically useful and actively selected for by evolution[ 15 ], though other studies have questioned whether this is a real feature of metabolic networks[ 16 ], and have suggested that the topology simply derives from the way in which new enzyme functions evolve. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sucrose phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.7) is an important enzyme in the metabolism of sucrose and regulation of other metabolic intermediates. (wikipedia.org)
  • For many years it had been known that bacterial and other cells could respond to external conditions by regulating levels of their key metabolic enzymes, and/or the activity of these enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • RNA polymerase, a DNA-dependent enzyme, transcribes the DNA sequences, called nucleotides, in the 3' to 5' direction while the complementary RNA is synthesized in the 5' to 3' direction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidoreductase
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is (S)-malate:oxygen oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other organisms require additional metals as enzyme cofactors, such as vanadium in the nitrogenase of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, tungsten in the aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase of the thermophilic archaean Pyrococcus furiosus, and even cadmium in the carbonic anhydrase from the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • In erythrocytes, both M and L subunits randomly tetramerize to form M4, L4 and the three hybrid forms of the enzyme (ML3, M2L2, M3L). (wikipedia.org)
  • On the opposite side of the each subunit from each active site is the allosteric site, at the interface between subunits in the dimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concerted model (the Monod, Wyman and Changeux (MWC) model) of allosteric regulation requires all subunits to be in the same conformation or state within an oligomer like the morpheein model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monod
  • François Jacob (17 June 1920 - 19 April 2013) was a French biologist who, together with Jacques Monod, originated the idea that control of enzyme levels in all cells occurs through regulation of transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1961 Jacob and Monod explored the idea that the control of enzyme expression levels in cells is a result of regulation of transcription of DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • This lactose metabolism system was used by Jacob and Monod to determine how a cell knows which enzyme to synthesize. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Thus a graph plotting PFK1 activity against increasing F6P concentrations would adopt the sigmoidal curve shape traditionally associated with allosteric enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nature of the cooperativity has been postulated to involve a "slow transition" between two different enzyme states with different rates of activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • An important region for the activity of gene repression and expression found in RNA is the 3' untranslated region. (wikipedia.org)
  • binding site
  • An MluI restriction enzyme site was introduced at the carbamoylphosphate binding site within the pyrB genes of both Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli. (unt.edu)
  • shifts
  • In the T state, enzyme conformation shifts slightly such that the space previously taken up by the Arg162 is replaced with Glu161. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Such radical changes in homology between corresponding regions of different operons, combined with variable base and codon usage patterns within and between operons, provides additional support for the idea that the upper and lower operons encoding enzymes of aromatic pathways have evolved independently of one another and that these operons have continued to exchange genetic material with homologous expression units through a series of recombination events. (unt.edu)
  • lactose
  • It would be wasteful to produce the enzymes when there is no lactose available or if there is a more preferable energy source available, such as glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Rather than a Km for glucose, it is more accurate to describe a half-saturation level S0.5, which is the concentration at which the enzyme is 50% saturated and active. (wikipedia.org)
  • active
  • Substances such as lead and other heavy metals(made outside the body/cell) attach to the enzyme at allosteric site and alter the shape of the active site. (studystack.com)
  • The enzyme consists of four major domains, namely A, B, B', and C. Domains A, B' and C exist as dimers around the active site (Sprogoe et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • The term enzyme comes from zymosis, the Greek word for fermentation fermentation, process by which the living cell is able to obtain energy through the breakdown of glucose and other simple sugar molecules without requiring oxygen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mechanism
  • The lac operon uses a two-part control mechanism to ensure that the cell expends energy producing the enzymes encoded by the lac operon only when necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • forms
  • The crystal structure revealed that this enzyme forms a stable dimeric structure with a strong three-layered inter-subunit interaction, and that its subunit consists of two structurally homologous alpha/beta domains, each containing a four-stranded parallel beta-sheet flanked by six alpha-helices. (jove.com)
  • Mutagens of the gene for this enzyme can cause unusual forms of diabetes or hypoglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Louis Pasteur recognized in 1860 that enzymes were essential to fermentation but assumed that their catalytic action was inextricably linked with the structure and life of the yeast cell. (thefreedictionary.com)