• carbonyl
  • 6. Particles as claimed in claim 3 wherein the polymer comprising a hydrocarbon backbone with at least one pendant oxygen and/or nitrogen containing polar group is an aliphatic(N-heterocyclic)carbonyl polymer. (google.co.uk)
  • 7. Particles as claimed in claim 6 wherein the aliphatic(N-heterocyclic)carbonyl polymer is an alkylated derivative of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (google.co.uk)
  • After the step involving the hydride is complete, the acetal is removed (by reacting it with an aqueous acid), giving back the original carbonyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • An aldol condensation is a condensation reaction in organic chemistry in which an enol or an enolate ion reacts with a carbonyl compound to form a β-hydroxyaldehyde or β-hydroxyketone (an aldol reaction), followed by dehydration to give a conjugated enone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ketone
  • 3-Methyl-3-penten-2-one is an unsaturated aliphatic ketone. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a precursor of 3-methyl-2-pentanone (methyl sec-butyl ketone) and is obtained by acid-catalyzed dehydration of 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-pentanone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The original publication concerns the conversion of bile acid in a series of reactions: acid chloride (2) formation with thionyl chloride, diazoketone formation (3) with diazomethane, chloromethyl ketone formation (4) with hydrochloric acid, organic reduction of chlorine to methylketone (5), ketone halogenation to 6, elimination reaction with pyridine to enone 7 and finally oxidation with chromium trioxide to bisnorcholanic acid 8. (wikipedia.org)
  • the Wieland-Miescher ketone product is an important starting material for many organic syntheses. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its usual form, it involves the nucleophilic addition of a ketone enolate to an aldehyde to form a β-hydroxy ketone, or "aldol" (aldehyde + alcohol), a structural unit found in many naturally occurring molecules and pharmaceuticals. (wikipedia.org)
  • amines
  • Aziridine is less basic than acyclic aliphatic amines, with a pKa of 7.9 for the conjugate acid, due to increased s character of the nitrogen free electron pair. (wikipedia.org)
  • One method involves the ring-opening reaction of an epoxide with sodium azide, followed by organic reduction of the azide with triphenylphosphine accompanied by expulsion of nitrogen gas: The other method involves the ring-opening reaction of an epoxide with amines, followed by ring closing with the Mitsunobu reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • In vivo, oxaloacetate (the ionized form of oxaloacetic acid) is formed by the oxidation of L-malate, catalyzed by malate dehydrogenase, and reacts with Acetyl-CoA to form citrate, catalyzed by citrate synthase. (hmdb.ca)
  • The organic carbon that was remaining after the nitric acid purge can be analyzed using UV-persulfate wet oxidation followed by Infrared-detection (IR). (wikipedia.org)
  • p-Methoxybenzyl ether (PMB) - Removed by acid, hydrogenolysis, or oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • Oxaloacetic acid, also known as oxosuccinic acid or oxalacetic acid, is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid appearing as an intermediate of the citric acid cycle. (hmdb.ca)
  • These are keto acids with an alkyl chain the contains less than 6 carbon atoms. (hmdb.ca)
  • Omega hydroxy acids (also known as ω-hydroxy acids) are a class of naturally occurring straight-chain aliphatic organic acids n carbon atoms long with a carboxyl group at position 1 and a hydroxyl at position n. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a lab, the determination of AOX parameter consists of adsorption of organic halides from the sample on to an activated carbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activated carbon can be powdered or granular and adsorbed using microcolumns or a batch process, if the samples are rich in humic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Vigorous shaking is often employed in the event of a batch process to favor the adsorption of organic halide on to the activated carbon due to its electronegativity and presence of lone pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carbon with adsorbed organic halide is obtained by filtration, after which the filter containing the carbon is burnt in the presence of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general adsorption procedure is given below: C ∗ ( s ) + R − X ( a . q ) ⟶ C ∗ − X − R ( s ) + H 2 O {\displaystyle {C^{*}}_{(}s_{)}+R-X(a.q)\longrightarrow {C^{*}}-X-R_{(}s_{)}+H_{2}O} Where C ∗ ( s ) {\displaystyle {C^{*}}_{(}s_{)}} is the activated carbon and R − X {\displaystyle R-X} is any organic halide. (wikipedia.org)
  • C ∗ − X − R ( s ) {\textstyle {C^{*}}-X-R_{(}s_{)}} is the organic halide - activated carbon complex that can be filtered out. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the N-substituent is an electron-withdrawing group such as a tosyl group, the carbon-nitrogen bond breaks, forming another zwitterion TsN− -CH 2-CH+ 2-R This reaction type requires a Lewis acid catalyst such as boron trifluoride. (wikipedia.org)
  • OH− + CO2 ⇌ HCO− 3 The equilibrium constant for this reaction can be specified either as a reaction with dissolved carbon dioxide or as a reaction with carbon dioxide gas (see carbonic acid for values and details). (wikipedia.org)
  • R-Br + OH− → R-OH + Br− Nucleophilic substitution reactions are commonplace in organic chemistry, and they can be broadly categorized as taking place at a carbon of a saturated aliphatic compound carbon or (less often) at an aromatic or other unsaturated carbon center. (wikipedia.org)
  • compound
  • 11. Particles as claimed in claim 10 wherein the polymeric compound is a polyvinyl sulphonic acid, a poly(meth)acrylic acid or a copolymer of a vinylsulphonic acid and a (meth)acrylic acid or an alkali metal salt thereof. (google.co.uk)
  • For example, ellagic acid is a dimer of gallic acid and forms the class of ellagitannins, or a catechin and a gallocatechin can combine to form the red compound theaflavin, a process that also results in the large class of brown thearubigins in tea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally, the higher the amount of chlorine in an organic compound, the more toxic it is considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hydroxide attached to a strongly electropositive center may itself ionize,[citation needed] liberating a hydrogen cation (H+), making the parent compound an acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Dieckmann condensation involves two ester groups in the same molecule and yields a cyclic molecule A Henry reaction involves an aldehyde and an aliphatic nitro compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • esters
  • 260-775) This invention relates to a process tor the production of bead polymerizates, and more particularly to the bead polymerization of cyclic internal esters of a-hydroxy carboxylic acids. (google.com)
  • Aasen´s research areas include determination of the absolute configurations of racemic drugs, isolation, structural determination and syntheses of natural products, e.g. carotenoids and pyrrolizidine alkaloids, mass spectrometry of specifically deuterium-labelled wax esters, fatty acids and triglycerides, and identification and syntheses of flavour constituents from tobacco and other plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • keto acid
  • It is the alpha-keto acid analogue of isoleucine. (hmdb.ca)
  • 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid is produced from isoleucine by cytosolic branched chain aminotransferase 1 (EC:2.6.1.42), whereupon it is further degraded by branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase E1 to 2-Methyl-1-hydroxybutyl-ThPP. (hmdb.ca)
  • MSUD is caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain -keto acid dehydrogenase compex resulting in an accumulation of branched-chain amino acids and the corresponding -keto-and -hydroxy acids in blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid causing neurological damage and mental retardation. (hmdb.ca)
  • Aqueous
  • In aqueous solution the hydroxide ion is a base in the Brønsted-Lowry sense as it can accept a proton from a Brønsted-Lowry acid to form a water molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • 14. The oligomer of claim 13, wherein R 1 and R 2 are independently hydrogen or acetyl, R 3 is hydrogen, X is NH 2 , Y is hydroxy or NH 2 , n is 5-15 and B is thymine, cytosine, adenine, guanine or uracil. (google.es)
  • aromatic
  • Phenols can have two or more hydroxy groups bonded to the aromatic ring(s) in the same molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organic substitution reactions are classified in several main organic reaction types depending on whether the reagent that brings about the substitution is considered an electrophile or a nucleophile, whether a reactive intermediate involved in the reaction is a carbocation, a carbanion or a free radical or whether the substrate is aliphatic or aromatic. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • AHAs most commonly used in cosmetic applications are typically derived from food products including glycolic acid (from sugar cane), lactic acid (from sour milk), malic acid (from apples), citric acid (from citrus fruits) and tartaric acid (from grape wine). (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • Oxaloacetic acid is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle and is converted to aspartic acidD by a transamination reaction. (hmdb.ca)
  • Geminal halide hydrolysis is an organic reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reaction has since been modified to proceed in the presence of Lewis acids and common organic solvents such as THF and dichloromethane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, Keiji Maruoka from Kyoto University reported Lewis acid catalyzed asymmetric Roskamp Reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • At neutral or acid pH, the reaction is slow, but is catalyzed by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which effectively creates hydroxide ions at the active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1979, Kagan observed the reduction of a variety of organic functional groups by samarium iodide under mild reaction conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • alcohol
  • The coating may be polymeric such as an oligomeric polyacid polyester, a polymeric alkoxylated alcohol or a fatty acid polyamine condensate or it may also. (google.co.uk)
  • intermediate
  • Pyruvic acid or pyruvate is a key intermediate in the glycolytic and pyruvate dehydrogenase pathways, which are involved in biological energy production. (drugbank.ca)
  • LACTIC ACID
  • Lactic acid is an organic acid. (hmdb.ca)
  • It is a chiral molecule, consisting of two optical isomers, L-lactic acid and D-lactic acid, with the L-isomer being the most common in living organisms. (hmdb.ca)
  • Lactic acid plays a role in several biochemical processes and is produced in the muscles during intense activity. (hmdb.ca)
  • Glycolic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid, on topical application to photodamaged skin, have been shown to produce increased amounts of mucopolysaccharides and collagen and increased skin thickness without detectable inflammation, as monitored by skin biopsies. (wikipedia.org)
  • citric acid
  • The evaluation of plasma citric acid is scarcely used in the diagnosis of human diseases. (hmdb.ca)
  • PMID 12198595 ) Citric acid is found in citrus fruits, most concentrated in lemons and limes, where it can comprise as much as 8% of the dry weight of the fruit. (hmdb.ca)
  • Citric acid is a natural preservative and is also used to add an acidic (sour) taste to foods and soft drinks. (hmdb.ca)
  • The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability. (hmdb.ca)
  • Intolerance to citric acid in the diet is known to exist. (hmdb.ca)
  • sodium
  • In a catalytic cycle with sodium hypochlorite as the stoichiometric oxidant, hypochlorous acid generates the N-oxoammonium salt from TEMPO. (wikipedia.org)
  • a strong base like potassium t-butoxide, potassium hydroxide or sodium hydride in an enolate mechanism, or in an acid-catalyzed enol mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethyl glyoxylate 2 and diethyl 2-methylglutaconate 1 react to isoprenetricarboxylic acid 3 (isoprene skeleton) with sodium ethoxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Newer formulations combine glycolic acid with an amino acid such as arginine and time-release formulations that reduces the risk of irritation without affecting glycolic acid efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] CI chondrites typically contain a high proportion of water (up to 22%), and organic matter in the form of amino acids and PAHs. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001) found that amino acids in Ivuna and Orgueil were present at much lower concentrations than in CM chondrites (~30%), and that they had a distinct composition high in β-alanine, glycine, γ-ABA, and β-ABA but low in α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and isovaline. (wikipedia.org)
  • dehydration
  • The enzyme dihydroxy-acid dehydratase catalyzes the fourth step in the biosynthesis of isoleucine and valine, through the dehydration of 2, 3-dihydroxy-isovaleic acid into alpha-ketoisovaleric acid. (hmdb.ca)
  • Lactones
  • Eddie N. Gutierrez, Vincent Lamberti, 'Process for preparing isocitric acid, alloisocitric acid and lactones thereof. (drugbank.ca)
  • Urine
  • Alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid is found to be associated with maple syrup urine disease, which is an inborn error of metabolism. (hmdb.ca)
  • methyl
  • 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid is a metabolite of isoleucine in man, animals and bacteria. (hmdb.ca)
  • halides
  • Adsorbable Organic Halides (AOX) is a measure of the organic halogen load at a sampling site such as soil from a land fill, water, or sewage waste. (wikipedia.org)
  • These organic halides are released in wastewater from the oil, chemical, and paper industries, and find their way to the consumer and eventually to a landfill or oceanic dumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of any organic halides in natural water has been considered an indication of contamination with xenobiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • While there are several biochemical or electrochemical methods to remove organic halides, AOX has been preferred due to its low cost of operation and simplicity of design. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inorganic halides that are also adsorbed are washed away using a strong acid such as nitric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In water treatment plants, organic halides are adsorbed using GAC or PAC in agitated tanks. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Initial electron transfer and loss of halide generate an organic radical, which may combine with a second molecule of samarium iodide to form an organosamarium species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lewis
  • Reactions generally run at room temperature for about an hour, and the yield ranges from 70%-80% based on the choice of Lewis acid and solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • N-unsubstituted aziridines can be opened with olefins in the presence of strong Lewis acid B(C 6F 5) 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • They used the oxazaborolidinium ion Lewis acid catalysts, which are generated from the corresponding oxazaborolidine by protonation with triflic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can also act as a Lewis base by donating a pair of electrons to a Lewis acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolites
  • Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) microsome ω-hydroxylases such as CYP4A11, CYP4A22, CYP4F2, and CYP4F3 in humans, Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a12 in mice, and Cyp4a1, Cyp4a2, Cyp4a3, and Cyp4a8 in rats metabolize arachidonic acid and many arachidnonic acid metabolites to their corresponding omega hydroxyl products. (wikipedia.org)
  • and this metabolism of certain bioactive arachidonic acid metabolites such as leukotriene B4, 5-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid, and 5-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid produces 20-hydroxylated products which are 100- to 1,000-fold weaker than, and therefore represents the inactivation of, their respective precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] At highest concentrations (50-70%) applied for 3 to 8 minutes under the supervision of a physician, glycolic acid promotes slitting between the cells and can be used to treat acne or photo-damaged skin (e.g. due to mottled dyspigmentation, melasma). (wikipedia.org)
  • oseltamivir
  • However, the availability of a cheap chiral building block can overcome these additional costs (e.g. shikimic acid for oseltamivir). (wikipedia.org)
  • yields
  • Further hydrolysis yields carboxylic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has recently been investigated and determined that tripyrrolidinophosphoric acid triamide (TPPA) can be used in lieu of HMPA as an activator for SmI2 reductions, producing faster reactions and similar yields while avoiding the use of a known carcinogen. (wikipedia.org)