• amines
  • Aliphatic & Aromatic amides are converted into aliphatic and aromatic amines, respectively In the preparations of anthranilic acid from phthalimide Nicotinic acid is converted into 3-Amino pyridine The Symmetrical structure of α-phenyl propanamide does not change after Hofmann reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phenoxide anion has a similar nucleophilicity to free amines, with the further advantage that its conjugate acid (neutral phenol) does not become entirely deactivated as a nucleophile even in moderately acidic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aziridine is less basic than acyclic aliphatic amines, with a pKa of 7.9 for the conjugate acid, due to increased s character of the nitrogen free electron pair. (wikipedia.org)
  • One method involves the ring-opening reaction of an epoxide with sodium azide, followed by organic reduction of the azide with triphenylphosphine accompanied by expulsion of nitrogen gas: The other method involves the ring-opening reaction of an epoxide with amines, followed by ring closing with the Mitsunobu reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbonyl
  • 6. Particles as claimed in claim 3 wherein the polymer comprising a hydrocarbon backbone with at least one pendant oxygen and/or nitrogen containing polar group is an aliphatic(N-heterocyclic)carbonyl polymer. (google.co.uk)
  • 7. Particles as claimed in claim 6 wherein the aliphatic(N-heterocyclic)carbonyl polymer is an alkylated derivative of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (google.co.uk)
  • An aldehyde /ˈældɪhaɪd/ or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the step involving the hydride is complete, the acetal is removed (by reacting it with an aqueous acid), giving back the original carbonyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ketone
  • 3-Methyl-3-penten-2-one is an unsaturated aliphatic ketone. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a precursor of 3-methyl-2-pentanone (methyl sec-butyl ketone) and is obtained by acid-catalyzed dehydration of 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-pentanone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The original publication concerns the conversion of bile acid in a series of reactions: acid chloride (2) formation with thionyl chloride, diazoketone formation (3) with diazomethane, chloromethyl ketone formation (4) with hydrochloric acid, organic reduction of chlorine to methylketone (5), ketone halogenation to 6, elimination reaction with pyridine to enone 7 and finally oxidation with chromium trioxide to bisnorcholanic acid 8. (wikipedia.org)
  • esters
  • 260-775) This invention relates to a process tor the production of bead polymerizates, and more particularly to the bead polymerization of cyclic internal esters of a-hydroxy carboxylic acids. (google.com)
  • Phenolate esters are more stable toward hydrolysis than acid anhydrides and acyl halides but are sufficiently reactive under mild conditions to facilitate the formation of amide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aasen´s research areas include determination of the absolute configurations of racemic drugs, isolation, structural determination and syntheses of natural products, e.g. carotenoids and pyrrolizidine alkaloids, mass spectrometry of specifically deuterium-labelled wax esters, fatty acids and triglycerides, and identification and syntheses of flavour constituents from tobacco and other plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction is very useful in synthesizing β-keto esters from aldehydes and diazoacetate, using various Lewis acids as catalysts (such as BF3, SnCl2, GeCl2). (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • These are keto acids with an alkyl chain the contains less than 6 carbon atoms. (hmdb.ca)
  • 6. The microemulsion composition of claim 1 further including a fatty acid has 8 to 22 carbon atoms. (google.com)
  • Omega hydroxy acids (also known as ω-hydroxy acids) are a class of naturally occurring straight-chain aliphatic organic acids n carbon atoms long with a carboxyl group at position 1 and a hydroxyl at position n. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Hofmann rearrangement is the organic reaction of a primary amide to a primary amine with one fewer carbon atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, phenol's ring is so strongly activated-second only to aniline-that bromination or chlorination of phenol leads to substitution on all carbon atoms ortho and para to the hydroxy group, not only on one carbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenol is easily neutralized by sodium hydroxide forming sodium phenate or phenolate, but being weaker than carbonic acid, it cannot be neutralized by sodium bicarbonate or sodium carbonate to liberate carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a lab, the determination of AOX parameter consists of adsorption of organic halides from the sample on to an activated carbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activated carbon can be powdered or granular and adsorbed using microcolumns or a batch process, if the samples are rich in humic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Vigorous shaking is often employed in the event of a batch process to favor the adsorption of organic halide on to the activated carbon due to its electronegativity and presence of lone pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carbon with adsorbed organic halide is obtained by filtration, after which the filter containing the carbon is burnt in the presence of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general adsorption procedure is given below: C ∗ ( s ) + R − X ( a . q ) ⟶ C ∗ − X − R ( s ) + H 2 O {\displaystyle {C^{*}}_{(}s_{)}+R-X(a.q)\longrightarrow {C^{*}}-X-R_{(}s_{)}+H_{2}O} Where C ∗ ( s ) {\displaystyle {C^{*}}_{(}s_{)}} is the activated carbon and R − X {\displaystyle R-X} is any organic halide. (wikipedia.org)
  • C ∗ − X − R ( s ) {\textstyle {C^{*}}-X-R_{(}s_{)}} is the organic halide - activated carbon complex that can be filtered out. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the N-substituent is an electron-withdrawing group such as a tosyl group, the carbon-nitrogen bond breaks, forming another zwitterion TsN− -CH 2-CH+ 2-R This reaction type requires a Lewis acid catalyst such as boron trifluoride. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein
  • 8. Particles as claimed in claim 3 wherein the coating comprises a fatty acid polyamine condensate. (google.co.uk)
  • 11. Particles as claimed in claim 10 wherein the polymeric compound is a polyvinyl sulphonic acid, a poly(meth)acrylic acid or a copolymer of a vinylsulphonic acid and a (meth)acrylic acid or an alkali metal salt thereof. (google.co.uk)
  • 10. The oligomer of claim 1, wherein Y is hydroxy, OCH 3 , NHCH 3 , or NH 2 . (google.es)
  • X is NH 2 or NHAc wherein Ac is acetyl and Y is hydroxy, OCH 3 , NH 2 or NHCH 3 . (google.es)
  • 14. The oligomer of claim 13, wherein R 1 and R 2 are independently hydrogen or acetyl, R 3 is hydrogen, X is NH 2 , Y is hydroxy or NH 2 , n is 5-15 and B is thymine, cytosine, adenine, guanine or uracil. (google.es)
  • aqueous
  • Such all-purpose liquids comprise clear and opaque aqueous mixtures of water-soluble synthetic organic detergents and water-soluble detergent builder salts. (google.com)
  • nitric acid
  • They produced it by a treating hippuric acid with nitric acid and nitrogen dioxide to form an ester of benzoic acid and glycolic acid (C6H5C(=O)OCH2COOH), which they called "benzoglycolic acid" (Benzoglykolsäure), (also benzoyl glycolic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenol reacts with dilute nitric acid at room temperature to give a mixture of 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol while with concentrated nitric acid, more nitro groups get substituted on the ring to give 2,4,6-trinitrophenol which is known as picric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inorganic halides that are also adsorbed are washed away using a strong acid such as nitric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • keto acid
  • It is the alpha-keto acid analogue of isoleucine. (hmdb.ca)
  • 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid is produced from isoleucine by cytosolic branched chain aminotransferase 1 (EC:2.6.1.42), whereupon it is further degraded by branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase E1 to 2-Methyl-1-hydroxybutyl-ThPP. (hmdb.ca)
  • MSUD is caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain -keto acid dehydrogenase compex resulting in an accumulation of branched-chain amino acids and the corresponding -keto-and -hydroxy acids in blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid causing neurological damage and mental retardation. (hmdb.ca)
  • CHEMISTRY
  • Chemistry of Hydroxylamines, Oximes and Hydroxamic Acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Journal of Organic Chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organic Chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aasen received his engineering degree in biochemistry and organic chemistry in 1964, and a doctorate (dr. ing. (wikipedia.org)
  • in organic chemistry in August 1966 from The Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim (renamed Norwegian University of Science and Technology in 1996). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1972 Aasen was appointed as unpaid associate professor ("oavlönad dosent") in organic chemistry at Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three years later Aasen was employed as a dosent in general and pharmaceutical organic chemistry at the School of Pharmacy in the University of Oslo, where except for two periods, he was a member of the staff until his retirement in 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1979 Aasen became a professor in organic chemistry at the University of Tromsø, Department of Chemistry, and in 1983 professor in chemistry at the Norwegian College of Agriculture (the Norwegian University of Life Sciences after 1995), Institute of Chemistry, Ås. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aasen was from 1979 to 1981 responsible for the establishment of a section for organic chemistry at University of Tromsø. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first paper about Roskamp Reaction was published in Journal of Organic Chemistry in 1989. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • citation needed] CI chondrites typically contain a high proportion of water (up to 22%), and organic matter in the form of amino acids and PAHs. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001) found that amino acids in Ivuna and Orgueil were present at much lower concentrations than in CM chondrites (~30%), and that they had a distinct composition high in β-alanine, glycine, γ-ABA, and β-ABA but low in α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and isovaline. (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium
  • In a catalytic cycle with sodium hypochlorite as the stoichiometric oxidant, hypochlorous acid generates the N-oxoammonium salt from TEMPO. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also prepared by the reaction of chloroacetic acid with sodium hydroxide followed by re-acidification. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty acid
  • The coating may be polymeric such as an oligomeric polyacid polyester, a polymeric alkoxylated alcohol or a fatty acid polyamine condensate or it may also. (google.co.uk)
  • intermediate
  • Pyruvic acid or pyruvate is a key intermediate in the glycolytic and pyruvate dehydrogenase pathways, which are involved in biological energy production. (drugbank.ca)
  • The formation of an intermediate nitrene is not possible because it implies also the formation of an hydroxamic acid as a byproduct, which has never been observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycolic acid
  • At low concentrations (5-10%), as found in many over-the-counter products, glycolic acid (GA) reduces cell adhesion in the epidermis and promotes exfoliation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Newer formulations combine glycolic acid with an amino acid such as arginine and time-release formulations that reduces the risk of irritation without affecting glycolic acid efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such application may be used to prepare the skin for stronger glycolic acid concentrations (50 - 70%) or to prime the skin for stronger chemical applications (e.g. trichloroacetic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] At highest concentrations (50-70%) applied for 3 to 8 minutes under the supervision of a physician, glycolic acid promotes slitting between the cells and can be used to treat acne or photo-damaged skin (e.g. due to mottled dyspigmentation, melasma). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to understand that glycolic acid peels are chemical peels with similar risks and side effects as other peels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolic acid is found in some sugar-crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • A glycolate or glycollate is a salt or ester of glycolic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name "glycolic acid" was coined in 1848 by French chemist Auguste Laurent (1807-1853). (wikipedia.org)
  • He proposed that the amino acid glycine - which was then called glycocolle - might be the amine of a hypothetical acid, which he called "glycolic acid" (acide glycolique). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolic acid was first prepared in 1851 by German chemist Adolph Strecker (1822-1871) and Russian chemist Nikolai Nikolaevich Sokolov (1826-1877). (wikipedia.org)
  • They boiled the ester for days with dilute sulfuric acid, thereby obtaining benzoic acid and glycolic acid (Glykolsäure). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolic acid can be synthesized in various ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolic acid can be isolated from natural sources, such as sugarcane, sugar beets, pineapple, cantaloupe and unripe grapes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolic acid can also be prepared using an enzymatic biochemical process that may require less energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolic acid is used in the textile industry as a dyeing and tanning agent, in food processing as a flavoring agent and as a preservative, and in the pharmaceutical industry as a skin care agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolic acid is often included into emulsion polymers, solvents and additives for ink and paint in order to improve flow properties and impart gloss. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to concentration, pH also plays a large part in determining the potency of glycolic acid in solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Highly purified grades of glycolic acid are commercially available for personal care applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many plants make glycolic acid during photorespiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolic acid is a strong irritant depending on pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • dehydration
  • The enzyme dihydroxy-acid dehydratase catalyzes the fourth step in the biosynthesis of isoleucine and valine, through the dehydration of 2, 3-dihydroxy-isovaleic acid into alpha-ketoisovaleric acid. (hmdb.ca)
  • reaction
  • The reaction has since been modified to proceed in the presence of Lewis acids and common organic solvents such as THF and dichloromethane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, Keiji Maruoka from Kyoto University reported Lewis acid catalyzed asymmetric Roskamp Reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydroxyl
  • Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) microsome ω-hydroxylases such as CYP4A11, CYP4A22, CYP4F2, and CYP4F3 in humans, Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a12 in mice, and Cyp4a1, Cyp4a2, Cyp4a3, and Cyp4a8 in rats metabolize arachidonic acid and many arachidnonic acid metabolites to their corresponding omega hydroxyl products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactones
  • Eddie N. Gutierrez, Vincent Lamberti, 'Process for preparing isocitric acid, alloisocitric acid and lactones thereof. (drugbank.ca)
  • Urine
  • Alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid is found to be associated with maple syrup urine disease, which is an inborn error of metabolism. (hmdb.ca)
  • metabolites
  • and this metabolism of certain bioactive arachidonic acid metabolites such as leukotriene B4, 5-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid, and 5-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid produces 20-hydroxylated products which are 100- to 1,000-fold weaker than, and therefore represents the inactivation of, their respective precursors. (wikipedia.org)