• species
  • agar (ä´gär, ā´-, ăg´är) , product obtained from several species of red algae, or seaweed , chiefly from the Ceylon, or Jaffna, moss ( Gracilaria lichenoides ) and species of Gelidium, harvested in eastern Asia and California. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The composition of cell walls varies between species and may depend on cell type and developmental stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodesmata evolved independently in several lineages, and species that have these structures include members of the Charophyceae, Charales, Coleochaetales and Phaeophyceae (which are all algae), as well as all embryophytes, better known as land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diatoms are identifiable based on each species unique silica cell walls and vary depending on their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2004, molecular analysis of Pythium determined that P. porphyrae is in "Clade A" along with P. adhaerens, P. deliense, P. aphanidermatum, and P. monospermum Clade A has two clusters, and P. porphyrae shares one with the species also originating on algae, P. adhaerens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agar forms the supporting structure in the cell walls of certain species of algae, and which is released on boiling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Degradation
  • Anaerobic digestion (AD) of microalgae is primarily inhibited by the chemical composition of their cell walls containing biopolymers able to resist bacterial degradation. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • This Paper present optimum approach to degradation of the cell wall by ultra-sonication with practical design specification parameter for ultrasound based pretreatment system. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • K. Sander and G. S. Murthy, "Enzymatic degradation of microalgal cell walls," in Proceedings of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting (ASABE '09), Paper Number: 1035636, pp. 2489-2500, June 2009. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • agar
  • Red algae such as dulse (Palmaria palmata) and laver ( nori / gim ) are a traditional part of European and Asian cuisines and are used to make other products such as agar , carrageenans and other food additives . (wikipedia.org)
  • Agar (pronounced /ˈeɪɡɑːr/, US: /ˈɑːɡər/) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agar was first subjected to chemical analysis in 1859 by the French chemist Anselme Payen, who had obtained agar from the marine algae Gelidium corneum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "agar" comes from agar-agar, the Malay name for red algae (Gigartina, Gracilaria) from which the jelly is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • green
  • They also worked to optimize the growth conditions of their green recovery method, testing variables such as the cell culture density of the microbes, light intensity and agitation of the cultures. (algaeindustrymagazine.com)
  • The Cell Walls of Green Algae: A Journey through Evolution and Diversi" by David S. Domozych, Marina Ciancia et al. (skidmore.edu)
  • The extracellular coverings of green algae including cell walls are also diverse. (skidmore.edu)
  • A recent surge of research in green algal cell walls fueled by new emerging technologies has revealed new and critical insight concerning these coverings. (skidmore.edu)
  • Larger and more detailed surveys of the green algal taxa including incorporation of emerging genomic and transcriptomic data are required in order to more fully resolve evolutionary trends within the green algae and in relationship with higher plants as well as potential applications of wall components in the food and pharmaceutical industries. (skidmore.edu)
  • 2005, the red algae are classified in the Archaeplastida , along with the glaucophytes and green algae plus land plants ( Viridiplantae or Chloroplastida). (wikipedia.org)
  • Solvent-free" ultrasound-assisted extraction of lipids from fresh microalgae cells: A green, clean and scalable process. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The green alga Entocladia perforans, an endophyte, depends on this eelgrass. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Chlorophyceae are one of the classes of green algae, distinguished mainly on the basis of ultrastructural morphology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetraspora) In older classifications, the term Chlorophyceae is sometimes used to apply to all the green algae except the Charales, and the internal division is considerably different. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Proteins are also found in algal cell walls including highly glycosylated and hydroxyproline-rich forms, some of which have structural semblance to extensins and arabinogalactan proteins of land plants. (springer.com)
  • If this is the case these proteins could be used in the selective transport of large molecules between the two cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodesmata have been shown to transport proteins (including transcription factors), short interfering RNA, messenger RNA, viroids, and viral genomes from cell to cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • see Isotope analysis section) Cells are preserved in the rock record because their cell walls are made of proteins which convert to the organic material kerogen as the cell breaks down after death. (wikipedia.org)
  • starch
  • Red algae store sugars as floridean starch , which is a type of starch that consists of highly branched amylopectin without amylose , as food reserves outside their plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diatoms
  • Unusually, diatoms have a cell wall composed of biogenic silica. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diatoms are diverse microscopic algae with silica cell walls that have different characteristics such as color, shape, and size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of the frustules enables scientists to compare the cell walls of the deceased organisms with the living diatoms to determine characteristics of their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reason diatoms are a common tool to match water environments is because of the variability of their populations are predictable and constant, the organisms can be identified by using the light microscope, and their silica cell walls allow for preservation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the body can preserve these microscopic algae, the presence of diatoms may not only be on a victim or suspect through their relation to a crime scene, which affects the reliability of the results collected from a scene. (wikipedia.org)
  • plastids
  • Similar structures, called gap junctions and membrane nanotubes, interconnect animal cells and stromules form between plastids in plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • This definition has been the basis for the quantification of the total lipid fraction of algae as the total quantity of compounds soluble in a chloroform/methanol solvent mixture (based on an original method described by Bligh and Dyer [ 5 ] and then improved by Folch et al. (springer.com)
  • It is clear from the diversity of the published lipid contents of algae and inconsistencies in reported methodology that this loose definition needs to be improved. (springer.com)
  • polymers
  • These polymers are synthesized in the Golgi Apparatus, transported to cell surface sites via actin- and tubulin-based motors and deposited in the wall complex. (springer.com)
  • Often, post-secretory crosslinking with cations alters the structural architecture of these polymers that, in turn, influences the strength and function of the cell wall. (springer.com)
  • Chlorophyta
  • Baylson FA, Stevens BW, Domozych DS (2001) Composition and synthesis of the pectin and protein components of the cell wall of Closterium acerosum (Chlorophyta). (springer.com)
  • pigments
  • The red algae form a distinct group characterized by having eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles , chloroplasts that lack external endoplasmic reticulum and contain unstacked (stoma) thylakoids , and use phycobiliproteins as accessory pigments , which give them their red color. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma membrane
  • The plasma membrane portion of the plasmodesma is a continuous extension of the cell membrane or plasmalemma and has a similar phospholipid bilayer structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • soluble
  • This paper preproposal stage investigated the effect of different pre-treatments on microalgae cell wall, and their impact on the quantity of soluble biomass released in the media and thus on the digestion process yields. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • compounds
  • Adoption of pre-treatments such as thermal, thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis have the potential to remove these inhibitory compounds and enhance biogas yields by degrading the cell wall, and releasing the intracellular algogenic organic matter (AOM). (koreascience.or.kr)
  • These compounds are rigid and waterproof, making the secondary wall stiff. (wikipedia.org)
  • prokaryote
  • These cell-sized prokaryote fossils are seen in the Barberton fossil record in rocks as old as 3.5 billion years. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphogenesis
  • Modern molecular and immunobinding studies are now probing the specific mechanisms in wall development including modulations that occur during morphogenesis and in response to environmental triggers. (springer.com)
  • grows
  • Hugo von Mohl (1853, 1858) advocated the idea that the cell wall grows by apposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been observed that the thin form of the alga grows laterally five times as fast as the thick form and is less likely to be attacked by burrowing organisms, so the association between the two organisms may be mutually beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Cell walls serve similar purposes in those organisms that possess them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sloughing is probably a means of eliminating old reproductive structures and damaged surface cells, and reducing the risk of surface penetration by burrowing organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • These organisms live together, and each cell in the colony is the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary
  • A secondary endosymbiosis event involving an ancestral red alga and a heterotrophic eukaryote resulted in the evolution and diversification of several other photosynthetic lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both wood and bark cells of trees have secondary walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two forms of plasmodesmata: primary plasmodesmata, which are formed during cell division, and secondary plasmodesmata, which can form between mature cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodesmata can also be inserted into existing cell walls between non-dividing cells (secondary plasmodesmata) A typical plant cell may have between 103 and 105 plasmodesmata connecting it with adjacent cells equating to between 1 and 10 per µm2. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Primary plasmodesmata are formed when portions of the endoplasmic reticulum are trapped across the middle lamella as new cell wall is laid down between two newly divided plant cells and these eventually become the cytoplasmic connections between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • V. chlorellavorus leaves behind only the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane of Chromatium along with a few intracytoplasmic inclusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Approximately 5% of the red algae occur in freshwater environments with greater concentrations found in the warmer area. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • The thallus of Spongites yendoi is relatively thin and is mainly composed of filaments of small, squarish cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chitin
  • In research, calcofluor-white is also used to stain bud scars of yeast cells because the bud scars have a higher content of chitin, which stains them more than the rest of the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)