• species
  • agar (ä´gär, ā´-, ăg´är) , product obtained from several species of red algae, or seaweed , chiefly from the Ceylon, or Jaffna, moss ( Gracilaria lichenoides ) and species of Gelidium, harvested in eastern Asia and California. (encyclopedia.com)
  • But some algae can produce toxic byproducts, and if those species manage to outcompete others, they may form massive harmful blooms that can poison the food chain. (baynature.org)
  • Pseudo-nitzschia australis , the phytoplankton whose unprecedented bloom this summer is poisoning many marine species, can form long chains of single cells. (baynature.org)
  • The composition of cell walls varies between species and may depend on cell type and developmental stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodesmata evolved independently in several lineages, and species that have these structures include members of the Charophyceae, Charales, Coleochaetales and Phaeophyceae (which are all algae), as well as all embryophytes, better known as land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diatoms are identifiable based on each species unique silica cell walls and vary depending on their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2004, molecular analysis of Pythium determined that P. porphyrae is in "Clade A" along with P. adhaerens, P. deliense, P. aphanidermatum, and P. monospermum Clade A has two clusters, and P. porphyrae shares one with the species also originating on algae, P. adhaerens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agar forms the supporting structure in the cell walls of certain species of algae, and which is released on boiling. (wikipedia.org)
  • taxa
  • Larger and more detailed surveys of the green algal taxa including incorporation of emerging genomic and transcriptomic data are required in order to more fully resolve evolutionary trends within the green algae and in relationship with higher plants as well as potential applications of wall components in the food and pharmaceutical industries. (skidmore.edu)
  • Degradation
  • Anaerobic digestion (AD) of microalgae is primarily inhibited by the chemical composition of their cell walls containing biopolymers able to resist bacterial degradation. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • This Paper present optimum approach to degradation of the cell wall by ultra-sonication with practical design specification parameter for ultrasound based pretreatment system. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • K. Sander and G. S. Murthy, "Enzymatic degradation of microalgal cell walls," in Proceedings of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting (ASABE '09), Paper Number: 1035636, pp. 2489-2500, June 2009. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • agar
  • Red algae such as dulse (Palmaria palmata) and laver ( nori / gim ) are a traditional part of European and Asian cuisines and are used to make other products such as agar , carrageenans and other food additives . (wikipedia.org)
  • Agar (pronounced /ˈeɪɡɑːr/, US: /ˈɑːɡər/) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agar was first subjected to chemical analysis in 1859 by the French chemist Anselme Payen, who had obtained agar from the marine algae Gelidium corneum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "agar" comes from agar-agar, the Malay name for red algae (Gigartina, Gracilaria) from which the jelly is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Proteins are also found in algal cell walls including highly glycosylated and hydroxyproline-rich forms, some of which have structural semblance to extensins and arabinogalactan proteins of land plants. (springer.com)
  • If this is the case these proteins could be used in the selective transport of large molecules between the two cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodesmata have been shown to transport proteins (including transcription factors), short interfering RNA, messenger RNA, viroids, and viral genomes from cell to cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • see Isotope analysis section) Cells are preserved in the rock record because their cell walls are made of proteins which convert to the organic material kerogen as the cell breaks down after death. (wikipedia.org)
  • starch
  • Red algae store sugars as floridean starch , which is a type of starch that consists of highly branched amylopectin without amylose , as food reserves outside their plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • plastids
  • Similar structures, called gap junctions and membrane nanotubes, interconnect animal cells and stromules form between plastids in plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic cells
  • The red algae form a distinct group characterized by having eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles , chloroplasts that lack external endoplasmic reticulum and contain unstacked (stoma) thylakoids , and use phycobiliproteins as accessory pigments , which give them their red color. (wikipedia.org)
  • microscopic
  • Plasmodesmata (singular: plasmodesma) are microscopic channels which traverse the cell walls of plant cells and some algal cells, enabling transport and communication between them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diatoms are diverse microscopic algae with silica cell walls that have different characteristics such as color, shape, and size. (wikipedia.org)
  • When these microscopic algae die, their frustules (silica cell walls) becomes a part of the water sediment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the body can preserve these microscopic algae, the presence of diatoms may not only be on a victim or suspect through their relation to a crime scene, which affects the reliability of the results collected from a scene. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymers
  • These polymers are synthesized in the Golgi Apparatus, transported to cell surface sites via actin- and tubulin-based motors and deposited in the wall complex. (springer.com)
  • Often, post-secretory crosslinking with cations alters the structural architecture of these polymers that, in turn, influences the strength and function of the cell wall. (springer.com)
  • plasma membrane
  • The plasma membrane portion of the plasmodesma is a continuous extension of the cell membrane or plasmalemma and has a similar phospholipid bilayer structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silica
  • Unusually, diatoms have a cell wall composed of biogenic silica. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reason diatoms are a common tool to match water environments is because of the variability of their populations are predictable and constant, the organisms can be identified by using the light microscope, and their silica cell walls allow for preservation. (wikipedia.org)
  • prokaryote
  • These cell-sized prokaryote fossils are seen in the Barberton fossil record in rocks as old as 3.5 billion years. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphogenesis
  • Modern molecular and immunobinding studies are now probing the specific mechanisms in wall development including modulations that occur during morphogenesis and in response to environmental triggers. (springer.com)
  • grows
  • Hugo von Mohl (1853, 1858) advocated the idea that the cell wall grows by apposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been observed that the thin form of the alga grows laterally five times as fast as the thick form and is less likely to be attacked by burrowing organisms, so the association between the two organisms may be mutually beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • diatoms
  • The presence of the frustules enables scientists to compare the cell walls of the deceased organisms with the living diatoms to determine characteristics of their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Cell walls serve similar purposes in those organisms that possess them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sloughing is probably a means of eliminating old reproductive structures and damaged surface cells, and reducing the risk of surface penetration by burrowing organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • These organisms live together, and each cell in the colony is the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primitive cells, often referred to as protocells, are the precursors to today's unicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary
  • A secondary endosymbiosis event involving an ancestral red alga and a heterotrophic eukaryote resulted in the evolution and diversification of several other photosynthetic lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both wood and bark cells of trees have secondary walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two forms of plasmodesmata: primary plasmodesmata, which are formed during cell division, and secondary plasmodesmata, which can form between mature cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodesmata can also be inserted into existing cell walls between non-dividing cells (secondary plasmodesmata) A typical plant cell may have between 103 and 105 plasmodesmata connecting it with adjacent cells equating to between 1 and 10 per µm2. (wikipedia.org)
  • marine
  • But for marine biologists, alarm over the summertime growth of Pseudo-nitzschia , the single-celled algae producing the toxin, started long ago. (baynature.org)
  • Cochlan was then a marine biology doctoral student at the University of British Columbia, studying under an expert on harmful algae. (baynature.org)
  • nov. causing red rot of marine algae Porphyra spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Primary plasmodesmata are formed when portions of the endoplasmic reticulum are trapped across the middle lamella as new cell wall is laid down between two newly divided plant cells and these eventually become the cytoplasmic connections between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • V. chlorellavorus leaves behind only the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane of Chromatium along with a few intracytoplasmic inclusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Approximately 5% of the red algae occur in freshwater environments with greater concentrations found in the warmer area. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • The thallus of Spongites yendoi is relatively thin and is mainly composed of filaments of small, squarish cells. (wikipedia.org)