• acetaldehyde
  • Alcohol also has toxic and unpleasant actions in the body, many of which are mediated by its byproduct acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study of 818 heavy drinkers found that those who are exposed to more acetaldehyde than normal through a defect in the gene for alcohol dehydrogenase are at greater risk of developing cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract and liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a review, Pöschl and Seitz list some possible mechanisms of alcohol as a carcinogen: local effects of alcohol metabolism to acetaldehyde (which may be mutagenic at physiologically meaningful levels) induction of CYP2E1 nutritional deficiencies interactions with retinoids alcohol and methylation alcohol and immune surveillance Purohita et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boffetta and Hashibe list plausible mechanisms as including: a genotoxic effect of acetaldehyde increased oestrogen concentration a role as solvent for tobacco carcinogens production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species changes in folate metabolism Individuals who both smoke and drink are at a much higher risk of developing mouth, tracheal, and esophageal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinogen
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization has classified alcohol as a Group 1 carcinogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer) of the World Health Organization has classified alcohol as a Group 1 carcinogen, similar to arsenic, benzene and asbestos. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancers
  • Europe: A 2011 study found that one in 10 of all cancers in men and one in 33 in women were caused by past or current alcohol intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has shown their risk of developing these cancers is 35 times higher than in individuals who neither smoke nor drink. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol dependence is associated with hypertension, coronary heart disease, and ischemic stroke, cancer of the respiratory system, and also cancers of the digestive system, liver, breast and ovaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Death rate amongst current drinkers was higher for 'alcohol augmentable' disease such as liver disease and oral cancers, but these deaths were much less common than cardiovascular and respiratory deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies have found age-dependent mortality risks of low-to-moderate alcohol use: an increased risk for individuals aged 16-34 (due to increased risk of cancers, accidents, liver disease, and other factors), but a decreased risk for individuals ages 55+ (due to lower incidence of ischemic heart disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol is associated with an increased risk of a number of cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • The company's research and development is focused on drugs for neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders like Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive disorders, alcohol and drug dependence and post traumatic stress disorder, and inflammatory and fibrotic liver disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heavy drinking is associated with liver disease, such as cirrhosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aflatoxin B1, a frequent food contaminate, causes liver cancer, but drinking coffee is associated with a reduced risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • Alcohol causes generalized central nervous system depression and associated cognitive, memory, motor, and sensory impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects can manifest much later-mid-life Alcohol Use Disorder has been found to correlate with increased risk of severe cognitive and memory deficits in later life. (wikipedia.org)
  • impairment
  • One of the short-term effects of alcohol is impaired mental function, which can cause behavioral changes and memory impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies show that alcohol consumption has the potential to trigger long-term biological changes that may have detrimental effects on the developing adolescent brain, including neurocognitive impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marquis states how "Adolescent alcohol use is not an acceptable rite of passage but a serious threat to adolescent development and health, as the statistics related to adolescent impairment, injury, and death attest. (wikipedia.org)
  • whole grains
  • Dietary recommendations for cancer prevention typically include weight management and eating "mainly vegetables, fruit, whole grains and fish, and a reduced intake of red meat, animal fat, and refined sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] Most research is based on alcohol and the effects on people in general, essentially relating to adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] These counter arguments still don't change the fact that minors will continue to die, or how harmful drinking is to the human body when starting at a young age. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Take the brain for instance, drinking effects more than one part of the brain like the cerebral cortex, frontal lobe, and the hippocampus. (wikipedia.org)
  • grams
  • Limit the intake of simple sugars to less than 10% of calorie (below 5% of calories or 25 grams may be even better) Limit salt / sodium from all sources and ensure that salt is iodized. (wikipedia.org)
  • abuse
  • WKS is usually secondary to alcohol abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol use is also related to various societal problems, including driving accidents and fatalities, accidental injuries, sexual assaults, domestic abuse, and violent crime. (wikipedia.org)
  • drinkers
  • Of the total number of deaths and diseases caused by alcohol, most happen to the majority of the population who are moderate drinkers, rather than the heavy drinker minority. (wikipedia.org)
  • varies
  • The size of a standard drink varies widely, as does the recommended maximum number of drinks per day or week, among the various guidelines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk
  • Some studies found that drinking small quantities of alcohol (up to one standard drink per day for women and one to two drinks per day for men) is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and early death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long-term effects of heavy drinking can inhibit new brain cell development and increase the risk for developing major depressive disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least two alcohol-free days every week To reduce risk of injury per occasion: no more than 5 standard drinks (50 g) on any single occasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • better source needed] Alcohol is known to make blood less likely to clot, reducing risk of heart attack and stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol consumption is recognized worldwide as a leading risk factor for disease, disability, and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • The health effects of wine are mainly determined by its active ingredient alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol has a variety of short-term and long-term adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adverse effects of alcohol on health are most important when it is used in excessive quantities or with heavy frequency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol works in the brain primarily by increasing the effects of a neurotransmitter called γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol has been produced and consumed by humans for its psychoactive effects for almost 10,000 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • These changes are significant as alcohol's effect on NMDARs could contribute to learning and memory dysfunction (see Effects of alcohol on memory). (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol at moderate levels has some positive and negative effects on health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely moderate intake of alcohol may have some beneficial effects on gastritis and cholelithiasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whatever the numerical definition used, heavy drinking or rapid consumption over a short period of time with the intention of becoming intoxicated is often implied when the term is used colloquially, since four or five drinks consumed over the course of a whole day and as an accompaniment to meals will not have the same effects as the same amount consumed over a couple of hours on an empty stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • A legal minimum age for the buying or consuming of alcohol is in place in many of the world's countries, typically with the intent to protect the young from alcohol-related harm. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • One of the proposed mechanisms for alcohol's neurotoxicity is the production of nitric oxide (NO), yet other studies have found alcohol-induced NO production to lead to apoptosis (see Neuroinflammation section). (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • This is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, and by facilitating its actions, alcohol suppresses the activity of the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • define
  • Studies have shown that most people find it difficult to understand and define exactly what a standard drink is, and consistently underestimate how much they drink. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • In general, women absorb alcohol more quickly than men due to their lower body water content, so their moderate levels of consumption may be lower than those for a male of equal age. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alcohol in wine has anticoagulant properties that limits blood clotting by making the platelets in the blood less prone to stick together and reducing the levels of fibrin protein that binds them together. (wikipedia.org)
  • digestive
  • Wine has a long history of use as an early form of medication, being recommended variously as a safe alternative to drinking water, an antiseptic for treating wounds, a digestive aid, and as a cure for a wide range of ailments including lethargy, diarrhea and pain from child birth. (wikipedia.org)