• Nystagmus
  • Albinism is associated with a number of vision defects, such as photophobia, nystagmus, and amblyopia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eye conditions common in albinism include: Nystagmus, irregular rapid movement of the eyes back and forth, or in circular motion. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Mayo Clinic's website, there are several different types of vision loss associated with albinism, including sensitivity to light, astigmatism, and rapid, involuntary back-and-forth movement of the , also known as nystagmus. (sentinel-standard.com)
  • pigmentation
  • Albinism is sex linked trait that causes eyes, skin, hair, and/or fur to have less pigmentation. (adobe.com)
  • The polymorphisms may be in an OCA2 regulatory sequence, where they may influence the expression of the gene product, which in turn affects pigmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A particularly noticeable manifestation of pigmentation in plants is seen with autumn leaf color, a phenomenon that affects the normally green leaves of many deciduous trees and shrubs whereby they take on, during a few weeks in the autumn season, various shades of red, yellow, purple, and brown. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with light skin pigmentation are often referred to as white or fair, although these usages can be ambiguous in some countries where they are used to refer specifically to certain ethnic groups or populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • This accounts for the development of dark skin pigmentation of people living near the equator but does not account for the increasingly lighter-skinned people living outside the tropics. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Unlike humans, other animals have multiple pigments and for these, albinism is considered to be a hereditary condition characterised by the absence of melanin in particular, in the eyes, skin, hair, scales, feathers or cuticle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The past decade has brought news of an atrocity, mainly from Africa: the slaughter of humans with albinism for their body parts for use in ritual magic. (skeptoid.com)
  • Some individual animals and humans have very little or no melanin in their bodies, a condition known as albinism . (wikidoc.org)
  • Both pheomelanin and eumelanin are found in human skin and hair , but eumelanin is the most abundant melanin in humans, as well as the form most likely to be deficient in albinism . (wikidoc.org)
  • In humans, it is more abundant in people with dark skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pleiotropy not only affects humans, but also animals, such as chickens and laboratory house mice, where the mice have the "mini-muscle" allele. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans living at latitudes far from the equator developed light skin in order to help absorb more vitamin D. People with light (type II) skin can produce previtamin D3 in their skin at rates 5-10 times faster than dark-skinned (type V) people. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • Despite the number of albinism-causing mutations identified in human patients and animal models, there remain a significant number of cases for which no mutation has been identified, suggesting that our understanding of melanogenesis is incomplete. (arvojournals.org)
  • albinistic
  • But there are facts and fictions about our albinistic comrades that even more sophisticated people might not know. (skeptoid.com)
  • and second, social pressures tend to group people with albinism together, where they're more likely to intermarry, greatly increasing the chances of albinistic offspring. (skeptoid.com)
  • Statistics prove that fifty percent of albinistic people in Tanzania have a known albinistic relative, although very few understand or are educated about the medical and genetic causes of this condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • condition
  • Albinism is an often misunderstood and stigmatized condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long-term sun exposure greatly increases the risk of skin damage and skin cancers, including an aggressive form of skin cancer called melanoma, in people with this condition. (nih.gov)
  • The condition affects skin, hair and eye color. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Six weeks ago, a little boy was born with a rare condition, which affects only around 35,000 people in the United States, to a young couple living in Aloha Township in Cheboygan County. (sentinel-standard.com)
  • In most types of albinism, the person has to inherit two copies of the mutated gene, one from each parent, in order to have the condition. (sentinel-standard.com)
  • Albinism is a genetically inherited condition which is very rare and, worldwide, affects approximately one in twenty thousand people Although rare in the western world, albinism is quite common in sub-Saharan Africa, likely as a result of consanguinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Tanzania, where it is estimated that about one in 3,000 people suffer from the condition, many albinos have gone into hiding. (findingdulcinea.com)
  • People with this condition may have pink-white skin and white hair. (cancer.org)
  • In this rare congenital (present at birth) condition, people develop many basal cell cancers over their lifetime. (cancer.org)
  • It has been claimed by some, e.g. that "albinism" can occur for a number of reasons aside from inheritance including genetic mutations, diet, living conditions, age, disease, or injury, however, this is contrary to definitions where the condition is inherited. (wikipedia.org)
  • retina
  • In photographs, those with albinism are more likely to demonstrate "red eye", due to the red of retina being visible through the iris. (wikipedia.org)
  • pigments
  • In plants, albinism is characterised by partial or complete loss of chlorophyll pigments and incomplete differentiation of chloroplast membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tanzania
  • The rate is highest in Tanzania and Burundi, where albinism affects about 1 in every 1500 people. (skeptoid.com)
  • A report was released on 1 April 2014 by the Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, office of the Canadian charity Under the Same Sun. Titled Reported Attacks of Persons with Albinism, the document reviews 180 countries and lists 129 recent killings and 181 other attacks, all within 23 African countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • NOAH actively works to counter these negative and often inaccurate depictions of albinism. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with albinism often have lighter colored skin and hair than the other members of their family or ethnic group. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Often, people think they must give up their hobbies - but our glasses can help with driving (in some states), reading, watching television, seeing people's faces more clearly and a myriad of other tasks. (sbwire.com)
  • Although a distinction is frequently made between heterochromia that affects an eye completely or only partially (segmental heterochromia), it is often classified as either genetic (due to mosaicism or congenital) or acquired, with mention as to whether the affected iris or portion of the iris is darker or lighter. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • The most common cause of albinism is an interruption in the functioning of the enzyme tyrosinase. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These cancers are becoming more common in younger people as well, probably because they are spending more time in the sun with their skin exposed. (cancer.org)
  • color
  • People of European descent show the greatest variety in eye color of any population worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The skin color of people with light skin is determined mainly by the bluish-white connective tissue under the dermis and by the hemoglobin circulating in the veins of the dermis. (wikipedia.org)
  • forms
  • Other examples of pleiotropy are albinism, sickle cell anemia, and certain forms of autism and schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • hair
  • People with a less severe form are born with white hair and skin, which turn slightly darker as they age. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • People living far from the equator were under evolutionary pressure to develop light skin, which allowed more penetration of UV radiation and helped to produce more of the essential vitamin D. The evolution of blond hair in some populations is related to the development of light skin, but in other populations is independent. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Visual impairment may cause people difficulties with normal daily activities such as driving, reading, socializing, and walking. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • NOAH's objectives are to provide information and support regarding albinism and related conditions, to promote public and professional education about these conditions, to encourage research and funding that will lead to improved diagnosis and management of albinism, and to provide networking for those with special interests related to albinism such as minority groups and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS). (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Held in different regions of the country, NOAH national conferences provide the albinism community with unparalleled opportunities to connect with one another, to share experiences, to learn about current research and to celebrate the diversity of the community. (wikipedia.org)
  • People have different skin colors mainly because their melanocytes produce different amount and kinds of melanin. (wikipedia.org)
  • skin cancer
  • Many people with risk factors for skin cancer, never get it. (cancer.org)
  • People who have had radiation treatment have a higher risk of developing skin cancer in the area that received the treatment. (cancer.org)
  • conditions
  • Skinema.com, a Web site run by San Francisco dermatologist Vail Reese, thoroughly documents the portrayal of conditions like albinism in mainstream media. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenomenon
  • Albinism is a well-recognized phenomenon in molluscs, both in the shell and in the soft parts. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a modern phenomenon that is pretending to be part of the country's old custom, through the use of traditional medicine, which roughly 80% of people rely on. (wikipedia.org)