• humans
  • In support of this central role of Th2 cells, levels of Th2 lymphocytes and their cytokines are elevated in the airways of humans with asthma ( 4 , 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In the fetal lung, they are frequently located at the branching points of airway tubules, and in humans are present by 10 weeks gestation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the turbinates divide the nasal airway into 4 groove-like air passages, and are responsible for forcing inhaled air to flow in a steady, regular pattern around the largest possible surface area of nasal mucosa, which, as a ciliated mucous membrane with shallow blood supply, cleans and warms the inhaled air in preparation for the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails. (wikipedia.org)
  • lungs
  • PNEC and NEB exist from fetal stage and neonatal stage in lungs airway area. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the human respiratory system, mucus, also known as airway surface liquid (ASL), aids in the protection of the lungs by trapping foreign particles that enter them, in particular, through the nose, during normal breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • This event along with the continual movement of the respiratory mucus layer toward the oropharynx, helps prevent foreign objects from entering the lungs during breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammals breathe in and out of their lungs, wasting that part of the inspiration which remains in the conducting airways where no gas exchange can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The airways and lungs receive continuous first-pass exposure to non-toxic and irritant or toxic gases via inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injury to the lungs and airways is not only due to deposition of fine particulate soot but also due to the gaseous components of smoke, which include phosgene, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, the lungs contain approximately 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) of airways and 300 to 500 million alveoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both lungs have a central recession called the hilum at the root of the lung, where the blood vessels and airways pass into the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In land animals the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dorsal respiratory group - in the medulla, involved in inhalation Ventral respiratory group - in the medulla, involved in exhalation Pneumotaxic center - various nuclei of the pons Apneustic center - nucleus of the pons From the respiratory center, the muscles of respiration, in particular the diaphragm, are activated to cause air to move in and out of the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • pulmonary
  • In resource-limited settings where CPAP improves respiratory rate and survival in children with primary pulmonary disease, researchers have found that nurses can initiate and manage care with once or twice daily physician rounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • exhalation
  • A system such as this creates dead space, a volume of air (about 150 ml in the adult human) that fills the airways after exhalation and is breathed back into the alveoli before environmental air reaches them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exhalation is usually silent, except at high respiratory rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ventral respiratory group controls voluntary forced exhalation and acts to increase the force of inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • But while PEEP refers to devices that impose positive pressure only at the end of the exhalation, CPAP devices apply continuous positive airway pressure throughout the breathing cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • distress
  • This helps to prevent the horse from inhaling food, but does not allow use of the mouth to breathe when in respiratory distress, a horse can only breathe through its nostrils. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, physicians may use CPAP in infants with respiratory distress syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even with quiet breathing, the inspiratory flow rate at the nares of an adult usually exceeds 12 liters per minute, and can exceed 30 liters a minute for someone with mild respiratory distress. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Contrarily, loss of condition, soft, non-productive cough, often worse at night, accompanying dyspnea (may occur with severe respiratory disease as well), and tachycardia with weak pulses are more indicative of a cardiac cause for the cough. (vin.com)
  • alveoli
  • In physiology, dead space is the volume of air which is inhaled that does not take part in the gas exchange, either because it (1) remains in the conducting airways, or (2) reaches alveoli that are not perfused or poorly perfused. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quantity of CO2 exhaled from the healthy alveoli will be diluted by the air in the conducting airways and by air from alveoli that are poorly perfused. (wikipedia.org)
  • defense
  • The green color of mucus comes from the heme group in the iron-containing enzyme myeloperoxidase secreted by white blood cells as a cytotoxic defense during a respiratory burst. (wikipedia.org)
  • ventilatory
  • Play media The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ventilatory rate (respiratory minute volume) is tightly controlled and determined primarily by blood levels of carbon dioxide as determined by metabolic rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon dioxide
  • and as this child tries to get enough air, then their respiratory rate increases - so this tachypnea lowers carbon dioxide levels in the blood (hypocapnia). (allnurses.com)
  • Their function in the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer it into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere, in a process of gas exchange. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under most conditions, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) or concentration of carbon dioxide, controls the respiratory rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central chemoreceptors are primarily sensitive to changes in the pH in the blood, (resulting from changes in the levels of carbon dioxide) and they are located on the medulla oblongata near to the medullar respiratory groups of the respiratory center. (wikipedia.org)
  • anatomical
  • Other animals, such as insects, have respiratory systems with very simple anatomical features, and in amphibians even the skin plays a vital role in gas exchange. (wikipedia.org)
  • The respiratory system in plants includes anatomical features such as stomata, that are found in various parts of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • In severe cases, stridor of the airway occurs, with gasping or wheezy inspiratory breath sounds and decreasing oxygen levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • nose
  • The principle of this procedure is the substitution of the fragile respiratory mucosa of the nose with strong skin grafts (generally from the thigh or oral mucosa) that withstand trauma and, thus, avoid bleeding. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The flow of blood to the nasal mucosa, in particular the venous plexus of the conchae is regulated by the pterygopalatine ganglion and heats or cools the air in the nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Triggered by the flow of the air, the pressure of the air in the nose, and the quality of the air, impulses from the nasal mucosa are transmitted by the trigeminal nerve to the breathing centres in the brainstem, and the generated response is transmitted to the bronchi, the intercostal muscles, and the diaphragm. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Sites of systemic absorption include broken skin tissue, inflamed gastric sites, eczematous skin and respiratory mucosa with the risk of a reaction increasing with number and duration of sprays administered. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Submucosal means that the actual gland resides in the connecting tissue below the mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The submucosa is the tissue that connects the mucosa to the muscle outside the tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • 4 - 7 Exposure to laundry detergent packets involving young children can cause central nervous system depression, upper and lower airway injuries, corneal injury, damage to oropharyngeal mucosa, pneumonitis, respiratory depression, and death. (aappublications.org)
  • Historical and physical findings which may indicate a respiratory cause for chronic cough include obesity, harsh cough, mucopurulent nasal discharge, harsh, "honking" and/or productive cough, and respiratory wheezes. (vin.com)
  • The most common cause of death in burn centers is now respiratory failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Delivery of cold, dry gas is irritating to the respiratory mucosa, can cause drying and bleeding of the nasal mucosa, can trigger bronchospasm in asthmatics, and can increase metabolic demand by cooling the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are known to cause respiratory disorders under particular conditions namely if the human immune system is impaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • Small particles such as dust, particulate pollutants, and allergens, as well as infectious agents and bacteria are caught in the viscous nasal or airway mucus and prevented from entering the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In this study, we demonstrate that STAT6 in bone marrow-derived myeloid cells was sufficient for the production of CCL17, CCL22, CCL11, and CCL24 and for Th2 lymphocyte and eosinophil recruitment into the allergic airway. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, STAT6 in airway-lining cells did not mediate chemokine production or support cellular recruitment. (jimmunol.org)
  • The accumulation of Th2 cells in the airways in this model has been shown to be due to recruitment of Th2 cells that have proliferated in the thoracic lymph nodes, rather than due to proliferation of Th2 cells already in the lung ( 14 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • tubes
  • The mucosa is the lining of the tubes, like a kind of skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acini empty into little tubes (tubules) that lead to a reservoir (collecting duct) that has a portal through the skin (mucosa) that can open and close allowing the mucus into the main tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • Also perform sputum Gram stain and culture if the respiratory system is affected. (medscape.com)
  • The inferior turbinates are graded 1-4 based on the inferior turbinate classification system in which the total amount of the airway space that the inferior turbinate takes up is estimated. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, the respiratory system of the horse is the means by which a horse circulates air around its internal organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The respiratory system begins with the nares, commonly known as the nostrils, which can expand greatly during intense exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Equus has a unique part of the respiratory system called the guttural pouch, which is thought to equalize air pressure on the tympanic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most fish, and a number of other aquatic animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates) the respiratory system consists of gills, which are either partially or completely external organs, bathed in the watery environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • Thus, a snorkel increases the person's dead space by adding even more "airway" that doesn't participate in gas exchange. (wikipedia.org)