• exposure
  • How important is personal exposure assessment in the epidemiology of air pollutants? (bmj.com)
  • Most of the epidemiological investigations rely on measurements of the pollutant at some central location in the city and then use these data as a surrogate for individual exposure. (bmj.com)
  • For example, in a recent study of the daily mortality and hospital admissions in the West Midlands of the UK, the exposure of the 2.3 million people in the study area to particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and other pollutants was defined by data from between one and three monitoring stations. (bmj.com)
  • Occupational exposure to hazardous airborne pollutants: effects of air mixing and source location. (cdc.gov)
  • This study investigates occupational exposure in relation to indoor air mixing and source location relative to a human body. (cdc.gov)
  • Study results show that the often used assumption of uniform pollutant distribution in an occupied space is not always appropriate for estimation of inhalation exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Results also indicate that an occupant may experience very high acute exposure to airborne pollutants when little air mixing exists in a space and the pollutant source is in the vicinity of the occupant. (cdc.gov)
  • The buoyancy-driven convective plume around a body seems to have a significant influence on pollutant transport and human exposure, especially in the absence of room air mixing. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and related compounds such as PCBs, brominated flame retardants, organochlorine pesticides and PAHs is regarded as an important environmental risk factor for humans. (rsc.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of different scavenging devices by means of a standardised experimental model and thereby study occupational nitrous oxide exposure in dental surgery. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The experimental model of measuring occupational nitrous oxide exposure during a 25-minute standardised dental treatment showed high reproducibility and might be useful for determining whether or not a system has a reasonable chance of meeting the requirements set by different national boards of occupational safety and health. (biomedsearch.com)
  • According to this method of evaluation, five out of seven systems might have good possibilities of meeting Swedish standards of occupational exposure (nitrous oxide limit value 100 ppm). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Alveolar air and urine analyses as biomarkers of exposure to trihalomethanes in an indoor swimming pool. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The exposure of workers and swimmers at an indoor swimming pool to trihalomethanes (THMs) as a consequence of water chlorination was evaluated by analyzing alveolar air and urine samples. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mean chloroform levels in alveolar air and urine before exposure were 4 microg/ m3 and 475 ng/L, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • After 2 h of exposure, concentration increases of ca. 8 times in alveolar air and 2 times in urine were observed in workers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In conclusion, alveolar air provides better response sensitivity and shorter reaction time to external exposure than urine, being therefore the most sensitive biomarker. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As part of the study, a relationship between flour dust concentrations obtained by using Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) samplers and closed-face 37-mm cassettes was examined and the literature on the health effects of exposure to flour dust was reviewed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 4, 5 Other known risk factors for COPD-including occupational exposure, air pollution, airway hyperresponsiveness, asthma, and genetic disease such as α 1 -antitrypsin deficiency-are also important. (bmj.com)
  • STUDY OBJECTIVE To examine the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and demographic, lifestyle, occupational characteristics and self reported health conditions. (bmj.com)
  • Men and women reporting high level ETS exposure were more likely to be black and never married or separated/divorced, to have no college or partial college education, to consume three alcoholic drink/day or more and to report exposure to several occupational hazards. (bmj.com)
  • Firstly, to examine the association between ETS exposure and demographic, socioeconomic, occupational and physiological characteristics and secondly, to ascertain the independent cross sectional association of ETS exposure with self reported common acute and chronic health conditions. (bmj.com)
  • Occupational exposures constitute the highest risk of toxicity and domestic exposure is uncommon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) developed a global recommendation limiting exposures to less than 20 parts per billion for chronic exposure and value less 100 ppb for one hour for acute exposure, using nitrogen dioxide as a marker for other pollutants from fuel combustion. (wikipedia.org)
  • TEOM-based devices have been approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for environmental air quality monitoring, and by the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration for monitoring coal dust exposure for miners to prevent several respiratory diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Determining appropriate air quality standards generally requires up-to-date scientific data on the health effects of the pollutant under review, with specific information on exposure times and sensitive populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • pollution
  • Epidemiological studies have shown that the low levels of air pollution in most industrialised societies are still linked to adverse health outcomes. (bmj.com)
  • Studies of the long term effects of air pollution have been carried out in large cohorts. (bmj.com)
  • Some governmental regulatory jurisdictions require industrial sources of air pollution to comply with sea level standards corrected for altitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, industrial air pollution sources located at altitudes well above sea level must comply with significantly more stringent air quality standards than sources located at sea level (since it is more difficult to comply with lower standards). (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to its preexisting standards and particularly severe motor vehicle air pollution problems in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the U.S. state of California has special dispensation from the federal government to promulgate its own automobile emissions standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing in the United States has been an issue of public concern, and includes the potential contamination of ground and surface water, methane emissions, air pollution, migration of gases and hydraulic fracturing chemicals and radionuclides to the surface, the potential mishandling of solid waste, drill cuttings, increased seismicity and associated effects on human and ecosystem health. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD), formed in 1968, is the air pollution agency responsible mainly for regulating stationary sources of air pollution for Ventura County. (wikipedia.org)
  • The District was formed by the Board of Supervisors in response to the county's first air pollution study which identified Ventura County as having a severe air quality problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • The VCAPCD is governed by the Air Pollution Control Board. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also appoint the Air Pollution Control Officer, the District Hearing Board, Advisory Committee, and Clean Air Fund Advisory Committee. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Air Pollution Control Officer (APCO) of the VCAPCD reports to the APC Board and the following divisions report to the APCO: The VCAPCD has a staff of about fifty employees including inspectors, engineers, planners, technicians, and support staff. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Hearing Board consists of five members appointed by the Air Pollution Control Board for three-year terms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current members are: Gary Gasperino - Engineering (Chair) Stephen C. Hurlock, Ph.D - Public (Vice Chair) Daniel J. Murphy - Law Mike Stubblefield - Public The VCAPCD Advisory Committee is a twenty-member citizens advisory body appointed by the Air Pollution Control Board. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Committee reviews staff proposed new and revised rules, and makes recommendations to the Air Pollution Control Board on those rules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air quality regulation must identify the substances and energies which qualify as "pollution" for purposes of further control. (wikipedia.org)
  • While specific labels vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there is broad consensus among many governments regarding what constitutes air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • A broader conception of air pollution may also incorporate noise, light, and radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such standards generally are expressed as levels of specific air pollutants that are deemed acceptable in ambient air, and are most often designed to reduce or eliminate the human health effects of air pollution, although secondary effects such as crop and building damage may also be considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzene
  • citation needed] In DISH, Texas, elevated levels of disulfides, benzene, xylenes and naphthalene have been detected in the air, emitted from compressor stations. (wikipedia.org)
  • urine
  • The sampling was done concurrently, taking the urine and alveolar air samples before and after the work shift for 15 workers and the swimming activity for 12 swimmers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A high THM uptake was observed in alveolar air and urine of subjects exposed, with chloroform being the most abundant THM. (biomedsearch.com)
  • After 1 h swimming, the increases found in swimmers were ca. 20 and 3 times in alveolar air and urine, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • nitrogen
  • Nitrogen dioxide is an irritant of the mucous membrane linked with another air pollutant that causes pulmonary diseases such as OLD, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sometimes acute exacerbation of COPD and in fatal cases, deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • If a gaseous emission sample is analyzed and found to contain water vapor and a pollutant concentration of say 40 ppmv, then 40 ppmv should be designated as the "wet basis" pollutant concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • indoors
  • We discuss the potential advantages, limitations and developments needed, so that PAS can be used reliably and routinely indoors and in occupational settings for POPs. (rsc.org)
  • regulations
  • Such states are frequently referred to as "CARB states" in automotive discussions because the regulations are defined by the California Air Resources Board. (wikipedia.org)
  • On April 17, 2012, the EPA issued cost-effective regulations, required by the Clean Air Act, which include the first federal air standards for natural gas wells that are hydraulically fractured. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6.6 million in 2006 dollars) for the analysis of air regulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • respiratory
  • Division of Respiratory Disease Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, USA. (nih.gov)
  • regulation
  • The United States Environmental Protection Agency (responsible for air quality regulation at a national level under the U.S. Clean Air Act, utilizes performance standards under the New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) program. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Much of the recent epidemiology has been based on time-series studies of large urban populations, although there are also a number of small panel studies of groups that may be more susceptible to the effects air pollutants. (bmj.com)
  • The rules also will reduce air toxics, which are known or suspected of causing cancer and other serious health effects, and emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • Environmental monitoring of THMs in water and ambient air was also performed in order to assess the possible correlation between environmental and biological samples. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, water droplets cannot be distinguished from particle mass, so the device must adjust the incoming air temperature to cause water droplets to evaporate, or contain a dryer or humidity sensor to adjust the readings. (wikipedia.org)
  • standards
  • Two sets, or tiers, of emission standards for light-duty vehicles in the United States were defined as a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • The District has stated the following goals for 2010-2011: Attainment of federal and state ambient air quality standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Develop attainment plans for a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ambient air quality standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • A distinction may be made between mandatory and aspirational air quality standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, employers may be required immediately to rectify any violation of OSHA workplace air quality standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are generally designed to achieve air quality standards and to protect human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • gases
  • The United States has recently seen controversy over whether carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases should be classified as air pollutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyses
  • The analyses were carried out on environmental air and urinary t,t-MA before (t,t-MAA) and at the end of work shift (t,t-MAB). (biomedsearch.com)
  • reference
  • TEOM instruments with FDMS alternate between a base cycle and a reference cycle, the latter of which measures the mass loss of the filter when clean air is passed through it, allowing the mass loss during the base cycle to be estimated. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Experimental and computational methods were used to provide information about the pollutant distribution in the vicinity of the human body for different levels of room air mixing. (cdc.gov)
  • settings
  • Cadmium, which is known to cause emphysema in occupational settings, may also be important in the development of tobacco related lung disease. (bmj.com)