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  • physiological
  • The interpretation of what is observed is clearly a more challenging task, one that animal behavior researchers have long grappled with using additional physiological measures and comparative approaches to attribute meaning to what is observed. (acm.org)
  • neuroendocrine
  • On the basis of the literature on the functions of these hormones and our own recent findings, we propose that dynamic interactions between oxytocin and vasopressin are components of a larger system which integrates the neuroendocrine and autonomic changes associated with mammalian social behaviors and the concurrent regulation of the stress axis. (bio.net)
  • experimental
  • In contrast, ethologists were wary of experimental work and instead carried out fieldwork to gain understanding of behavior in natural contexts. (acm.org)
  • As research progressed, ethology established methodology for observing and measuring behavior, whereas psychologists honed experimental design and quantification. (acm.org)
  • territorial
  • The silvertip shark can be recognized by its white-edged fins Jaws Upper teeth Lower teeth Though silvertip sharks are quite mobile, they exhibit fidelity to certain areas and there are reports of territorial behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • engage
  • Birds with similarly sized gold crown patches are far more likely to engage in agonistic behavior than are those showing differences, and the outcomes of such confrontations can be predicted based on the color of their black stripes. (wikipedia.org)
  • context
  • Copulation in captivity usually takes place in the context of bonding or resting behaviors (Orgeldinger 1996). (wisc.edu)
  • occur
  • Inter-group interactions usually occur along the periphery of a specific siamang group's territory, and can last up to several hours. (wisc.edu)
  • These interactions are mostly seen amongst older workers and occur throughout colony decline and up until total colony termination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animals are better able to assess their next form of agonistic action by judging the opponent's size and if they are likely to win a fight if a physical altercation were to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • mates
  • Some forms of agonistic behaviour are between contestants who are competing for access to the same resources, such as food or mates. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormones
  • Ann N Y Acad Sci 807: 164-174 (1997) Integrative functions of lactational hormones in social behavior and stress management Carter CS, Altemus M Department of Zoology, University of Maryland College Park 20742, USA. (bio.net)
  • Hormones and Behavior , 43 (5), 549-553. (rti.org)
  • patterns
  • I studied the behavior of the Ozark zigzag salamander (Plethodon angusticlavius), that was naturally infected with the larval stage of an ectoparasitic mite (Hannemania eltoni) to determine if parasitism was associated with altered behavioral patterns. (missouristate.edu)
  • In these two systems, enough is known about the chemical constituents that mediate behaviors to explore the evolution of chemical signaling mechanisms that affect life history patterns. (nih.gov)
  • Patterns of animal conflict reveal important insights into the evolution of behavior and the influence of behavior on relationships that develop in a social group. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • The much lower frequency of attacks between nesting seasons suggests such behavior may have evolved due to its benefit for the mobber's young. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reference to "measuring" behavior suggests this process is straightforward and relies solely upon recording observable actions. (acm.org)
  • attempts
  • A courtship display is a set of display behaviors in which an animal attempts to attract a mate and exhibit their desire to copulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethology
  • The research surrounding behavior has been a multidisciplinary effort, with origins in two scientific approaches: psychology (the study of the mind) and ethology (the biological study of behavior). (acm.org)
  • predators
  • Costs of mobbing behavior include the risk of engaging with predators, as well as energy expended in the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies were either carried out in the field or in large test chambers (i.e. outdoor pools) where interactions between large predators (e.g. smallmouth bass) and crayfish were observed. (biologists.org)
  • closely
  • Colony behavior in V. acadica closely resembles that of other members of the V. rufa group. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Mirza was resurrected in 1982 by American paleoanthropologist Ian Tattersall to represent an intermediate branch between Microcebus and Cheirogaleus, citing the Coquerel's giant mouse lemur's significantly larger size than the largest Microcebus and locomotor behavior more closely aligned with Cheirogaleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • Our results suggest that social status in house finches influences one component of the APR (mass loss) and can interact with the APR to modulate intraspecific agonistic interactions in ways likely relevant for disease transmission. (brill.com)
  • animals
  • In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using zebrafish as a model system, we demonstrate how social experience affects decision making to enable animals to produce socially appropriate behavior. (jneurosci.org)
  • Social animals live in complex physical and social environments requiring them to attend and rapidly respond to social and environmental information by changing their behavior. (pnas.org)
  • Awareness of status is a salient component of social interactions in humans and other animals. (pnas.org)
  • behavioral
  • Given that once established, hierarchies tend to be quite stable ( Broom, 2002 ), the outcome of an initial encounter between two or more individuals can have important consequences for future behavioral interactions and fitness. (frontiersin.org)
  • male-male
  • The evolution of chemical signaling in reptiles is discussed along with behaviors governed by pheromones including conspecific trailing, male-male agonistic interactions, sex recognition and sex pheromones, and reptilian predator recognition. (nih.gov)
  • animal
  • Knowledge of animal physiology, animal behavior and animal needs based on the five freedoms is paramount in assessing as well as enforcing animal welfare. (ac.ke)
  • In this article we consider the challenges involved in measuring and interpreting animal behavior. (acm.org)
  • Specifically, we focus on trying to understand an animal's responses to a new system, which might be a new computer-based system the animal interacts with or a new management system (such as housing, feeding, etc.), where the animal-computer interaction element is actually the tools used to measure the observed behavior. (acm.org)
  • We hope that some of the experiences in observing, recording, and interpreting animal behavior that we recount here will highlight important points to consider, both when measuring behavior to evaluate interactive systems and during the design of these systems. (acm.org)
  • From these outward expressions of behavior, inferences can be drawn to further understand biology, provide indicators of welfare or well-being and identify preferences, and provide insight into animal perspectives. (acm.org)
  • citation needed] Animal decisions regarding involvement in conflict are defined by the interplay between the costs and benefits of agonistic behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • By making measurements of behavior-that is, through the act of assigning values to our observations-reference values are created that permit further analysis and evaluation, thus enhancing the scientific rigor of our inquiries. (acm.org)
  • control
  • In this review we will describe a cichlid fish model system in which we can mimic the natural social and physical environment to analyze how social interactions control reproduction. (pnas.org)
  • although
  • All hormonal treatments reduced agonistic behaviors when compared to SALOIL, although none of the hormonal treatments restored affiliation to INT levels. (rti.org)
  • results
  • Other behaviors that results in exchange of blood and saliva, i.e., tail-biting and ear-biting, may also function in transmission. (prrs.com)
  • successful
  • Overall, tail flipping was found to be a successful behavior in preventing predation, and only a small percentage of crayfish were killed and consumed. (biologists.org)