• algal
  • The extracellular matrix of algal cells, most notably the cell wall, is of fundamental significance to survival and often serves as the major product of photosynthetic carbon fixation. (springer.com)
  • Proteins are also found in algal cell walls including highly glycosylated and hydroxyproline-rich forms, some of which have structural semblance to extensins and arabinogalactan proteins of land plants. (springer.com)
  • Both marine and freshwater taxa are represented by free-living macroalgal forms and smaller endo/epiphytic/zoic forms, meaning they live in or on other algae, plants, and animals In addition, some marine species have adopted a parasitic lifestyle and may be found on closely or more distantly related red algal hosts In the system of Adl et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commercial and industrial algae cultivation has numerous uses, including production of food ingredients such as omega-3 fatty acids or natural food colorants and dyes, food, fertilizer, bioplastics, chemical feedstock (raw material), pharmaceuticals, and algal fuel, and can also be used as a means of pollution control. (wikipedia.org)
  • The water must be in a temperature range that will support the specific algal species being grown mostly between 15˚C and 35˚C. In a typical algal-cultivation system, such as an open pond, light only penetrates the top 3 to 4 inches (76-102 mm) of the water, though this depends on the algae density. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Modern molecular and immunobinding studies are now probing the specific mechanisms in wall development including modulations that occur during morphogenesis and in response to environmental triggers. (springer.com)
  • Only about 5 % of red algae occur in fresh water. (differencebetween.com)
  • Approximately 5% of the red algae occur in freshwater environments with greater concentrations found in the warmer area. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a system where algae is intentionally cultivated, maintained, and harvested, neither eutrophication nor hypoxia are likely to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • dulse
  • Some red algae are important foods such as laver, dulse etc. (differencebetween.com)
  • Red algae such as dulse (Palmaria palmata) and laver (nori/gim) are a traditional part of European and Asian cuisines and are used to make other products such as agar, carrageenans and other food additives. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterium
  • In this study, a β-agarase gene, agaB - 4 , was isolated for the first time from the agar-degrading bacterium Paenibacillus agarexedens BCRC 17346 by using next-generation sequencing. (springer.com)
  • The bacterium attaches to the surface of green algae of the genus Chlorella. (wikipedia.org)
  • On May 21, 2010, Science reported that the Venter group had successfully synthesized the genome of the bacterium Mycoplasma mycoides from a computer record, and transplanted the synthesized genome into the existing cell of a Mycoplasma capricolum bacterium that had had its DNA removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possibly the most numerous bacterium in the world (perhaps 1028 individual cells) and, along with other members of the SAR11 clade, are estimated to make up between a quarter and a half of all bacterial or archaeal cells in the ocean. (wikipedia.org)
  • sugars
  • Red algae store sugars as floridean starch, which is a type of starch that consists of highly branched amylopectin without amylose, as food reserves outside their plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also possible to grow certain types of algae without light, these types of algae consume sugars (such as glucose). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ceylon
  • 寒天 ) (from the phrase kan -zarashi tokoro ten ( 寒晒心太 ) or "cold-exposed agar"), Japanese isinglass , Ceylon moss or Jaffna moss . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also known as Kanten, Agar-Agar, or Agal-Agal (Ceylon Agar). (blogspot.com)
  • Chlamydomonas
  • Adair WS, Snell WJ (1990) The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell wall: structure, biochemistry and molecular biology. (springer.com)
  • The tetrad is the four spores produced after meiosis of a yeast or other Ascomycota, Chlamydomonas or other alga, or a plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellulose
  • Anderson CT, Carroll A, Akhmetova L, Somerville C (2010) Real-time imaging of cellulose reorientation during cell wall expansion in Arabidopsis roots. (springer.com)
  • In plants, a secondary cell wall is a thicker additional layer of cellulose which increases wall rigidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • cultivation
  • Macroalgae, commonly known as seaweed, also have many commercial and industrial uses, but due to their size and the specific requirements of the environment in which they need to grow, they do not lend themselves as readily to cultivation (this may change, however, with the advent of newer seaweed cultivators, which are basically algae scrubbers using upflowing air bubbles in small containers). (wikipedia.org)
  • Water, carbon dioxide, minerals and light are all important factors in cultivation, and different algae have different requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • plants
  • By the 1980s, some authors suggested replacing the term "cell wall", particularly as it was used for plants, with the more precise term "extracellular matrix", as used for animal cells, but others preferred the older term. (wikipedia.org)
  • Photosynthetic pigments of monerans, algae, and plants. (estrellamountain.edu)
  • In some of the more morphologically advanced forms where conducting tissue is present, this tissue does not contain lignin, which is a compound typically found in the cell walls of woody plants. (thecanadianencyclopedia.com)
  • 2005, the red algae are classified in the Archaeplastida, along with the glaucophytes and green algae plus land plants (Viridiplantae or Chloroplastida). (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • The organism incites a chronic granulomatous inflammation with infiltrate of histiocytes, lymphocytes, giant cells and occasional eosinophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • The organism has thick wall, internal septations, measures 3-11 µm in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pelagibacter ubique (an α-proteobacterium of the order Rickettsiales) has the smallest known genome (1,308,759 base pairs) of any free living organism and is one of the smallest self-replicating cells known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other Stramenopiles include brown algae, mildew, diatoms, the organism that caused the Irish potato famine, and the organism responsible for Sudden oak death disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • mycelium
  • In a laboratory it will grow 5 mm per day on seawater-cornmeal agar with low aerial mycelium and colorless colonies, but will not grow at all on potato-carrot agar. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optimum temperature for their growth is 25 °C. In an agar plate the vegetative mycelium is mostly submerged in the agar, while the conidial heads are typically arranged in zones. (wikipedia.org)
  • mycoplasma
  • Once a version of the minimal 382-gene chromosome has been synthesized, it is intended to be transplanted into a M. genitalium cell to create Mycoplasma laboratorium. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic cells
  • The transition to eukaryotic cells appears to have occurred during the Proterozoic Era, about 1.2 to 1.5 billion years ago. (estrellamountain.edu)
  • The red algae form a distinct group characterized by having eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles, chloroplasts that lack external endoplasmic reticulum and contain unstacked (stoma) thylakoids, and use phycobiliproteins as accessory pigments, which give them their red color. (wikipedia.org)
  • septate
  • The hyphae of M. brevicaulis are hyaline (transparent) and septate (separated into segments by cross-walls). (wikipedia.org)
  • sporangia
  • full citation needed] Diagnosis can be made through culture of infected fluid in Sabouraud dextrose agar or by visualization of sporangia containing sporangiospores on tissue biopsy (using hematoxylin/eosin, GMS, or PAS histochemical stains). (wikipedia.org)
  • biofuel
  • Algae are critical to global primary production, CO 2 sequestering and biomineralization as well as being of economic significance in the food, pharmaceutical and biofuel industries. (springer.com)
  • bacterial
  • Mitochondrial division is remarkably similar to the prokaryotic methods that were studied in the cell division and bacterial diversity chapters. (estrellamountain.edu)
  • The famous notion that bacterial cells in the human body outnumber human cells by a factor of 10:1 has been debunked. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are approximately 39 trillion bacterial cells in the human microbiota as personified by a "reference" 70 kg male 170 cm tall, whereas there are 30 trillion human cells in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Irish
  • Chondrus crispus-commonly called Irish moss or carrageen moss (Irish carraigín, "little rock")-is a species of red algae which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • cultures
  • V. chlorellavorus will not grow in axenic cultures, depending on access to living cells of its preferred algae host, Chlorella vulgaris for reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, mixed algae cultures can work well for larval mollusks. (wikipedia.org)