• blacks
  • Free African American Christians founded their own churches which became the hub of the economic, social, and intellectual lives of blacks in many areas of the fledgling nation. (loc.gov)
  • This paper and other early writings by blacks fueled the attack against slavery and racist conceptions about the intellectual inferiority of African Americans. (loc.gov)
  • Thousands of freed blacks, with the aid of interested whites, returned to Africa with the aid of the American Colonization Society and colonized what eventually became Liberia. (loc.gov)
  • Blacks were originally brought to America to serve as slaves in southeastern states on large-scale plantations. (conservapedia.com)
  • Blacks tended to support the Republican Party from the 1860s to the 1960s, but few who lived in the South voted--some states even stopped people of African ancestry voting by the use of literacy tests, poll taxes and other measures. (conservapedia.com)
  • Edmund S. Morgan's American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia (1975) ( FHL Book 975.5 H6m ) is considered one of the best histories of enslaved blacks in Virginia. (familysearch.org)
  • Though the standard of living for black Africans in South Africa was higher than for most people living on the African continent, political and economic conditions still made immigration difficult, as blacks were forced to escape to other African nations before they could emigrate to the country of their choice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes in the main commodity crops to less labor-intensive crops after the American Revolutionary War numerous slaveholders freed their slaves by deed or in wills, so that the percentage of free blacks to the total number of blacks rose from less than one percent to 10 percent in the Upper South. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990s
  • citation needed] During the 1980s and 1990s, many South Africans entered the US for political reasons, to be with family members, or to access professional opportunities not available in their home country. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the 1990s, African-American bookstores earned significant attention from more politically moderate and business oriented media outlets such as the magazine Black Enterprise. (wikipedia.org)
  • enslavement
  • Professor Bartolome de Albornoz of the University of Mexico writes against the enslavement and sale of Africans. (blackpast.org)
  • Equiano recounts his childhood in Africa until his capture and enslavement, his subsequent sale to European traders, the horrors of the middle passage, his bondage in the United States, and his life on board British merchant vessels from 1758 to 1788--first as a slave and later for hire. (loc.gov)
  • colonial
  • Although their lives were circumscribed by numerous discriminatory laws even in the colonial period, freed African Americans, especially in the North, were active participants in American society. (loc.gov)
  • By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. (wikipedia.org)
  • Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century. (wikipedia.org)
  • African Americans, who are largely descended from Africans of the American colonial era, have lived and worked in France since the 1800s. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to McElroy, the artistic convention of representing African-Americans as less than fully realized humans began with Justus Engelhardt Kühn's colonial era painting Henry Darnall III as a child. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Kühn's work existed "simultaneously with a radically different tradition in colonial America" as indicated by the work of portraitists such as Charles (or Carolus) Zechel, (see Portrait of a Negro Girl and Portrait of a Negro boy) the market demand for such work reflected the attitudes and economic status of their audience. (wikipedia.org)
  • slave trade
  • This autobiography is one of the few personal accounts by an African of his experiences as a victim of the slave trade and as a slave. (loc.gov)
  • Congo
  • On or near the African coast had emerged the major kingdoms of Oyo, Ashanti , Benin , Dahomey , and the Congo. (britannica.com)
  • In particular, the African regions of the Bight of Biafra (modern Nigeria ), Senegambia (modern Senegal and Gambia ), West Central Africa (modern Angola and Congo ), and the Gold Coast (modern Ghana ) were hotspots for Virginia slave traders. (familysearch.org)
  • Between 1723 and 1769, most African slaves imported to Louisiana were from modern day Senegal and Congo, many thousands being imported to Louisiana from there. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the American period (1804-1820), almost half of the African slaves came from the Congo. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] Following the Soweto uprising in 1976, there was a significant increase in South African immigration to the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The majority of South Africans who emigrated went to Australia and New Zealand, countries with similar cultural and linguistic heritage, as well as similar climates and latitude positioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Atlanta, Georgia, has a large population of South African Jews. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Also, a number of South Africans live in New York City and Mid-Atlantic states such as Maryland. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The African-American newspaper titled "The American Freedman" was a New York-based paper that served as an outlet to inspire African-Americans to use the Reconstruction period as a time for social and political advancement. (wikipedia.org)
  • largely
  • During the 1920s and 1930s, African American organized crime was centered in New York's Harlem where the numbers racket was largely controlled by Casper Holstein and the "Madam Queen of Policy", Stephanie St. Clair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Senegal
  • The overwhelming majority were taken from the area of western Africa stretching from present-day Senegal to Angola, where political and social organization as well as art, music, and dance were highly advanced. (britannica.com)
  • 15th
  • Notably, the Maryland legislature refused to ratify both the 14th Amendment, which conferred citizenship rights on former slaves, and the 15th Amendment, which gave the vote to African Americans. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1930s
  • One of the earliest African-American bookstores to achieve national prominence was Lewis Michaux's National Memorial African Bookstore, which operated in Harlem from the early 1930s to the middle of the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • 19th
  • African American students in lower education increased from 24 in 1870 to 183 by the late 19th century, and ranked highest performing students in literacy subjects in 1900. (wikipedia.org)
  • The book has often been considered to be a slur against Africans, and "Sambo" as a slur has certainly been used this way, though the US restaurant chain Sambo's, surviving to this day, uses iconography more in tune with a Jungle Book view of 19th-century India. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gollywog is a similarly enduring caricature, most often represented as a blackface doll, and dates to American children's books of the late 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • remain
  • The German Nazi invasion of Paris in June 1940 meant suppression of the "corrupt" influence of jazz in the French capital and danger of imprisonment for African Americans choosing to remain in the city. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virginia
  • African American research in Virginia can be divided into two general time periods - before and after the Civil War . (familysearch.org)
  • This Wiki page describes research strategies, and major sources of information about African American families from Virginia . (familysearch.org)
  • Soon the first African slavers were bought to the new Province of Maryland by 1642 to develop the economy in a similar way to Virginia, with tobacco being the commodity crop, which was labor-intensive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reconstruction
  • This newspaper did so by publishing articles that reference African-American mobilization during the Reconstruction period that had not only local support, but had gained support from the global community as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • majority
  • While some African Americans chose this option, the vast majority felt themselves to be Americans and focused their efforts on achieving equality within the United States. (loc.gov)
  • The great majority of African Americans are Protestants , with their own Baptist , Pentecostal , and Methodist churches. (conservapedia.com)
  • Although the majority of these businesses were operated by African Americans, it is unclear to the extent these operations were run independently of the larger criminal organizations of the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • freedom
  • African Americans also engaged in achieving freedom for others, which was a complex and dangerous undertaking. (loc.gov)
  • In this volume, Wheatley discusses her African background and her love of freedom. (loc.gov)
  • The South African consulate in Chicago has close ties with many expatriates and hosts regular events and speakers, including an annual celebration of Freedom Day on 27 April. (wikipedia.org)
  • mailing list
  • In addition, this organization allows the exchange of information through a web site and a mailing list, keeping South Africans informed about international and local events. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • Such African cities as Djenné and Timbuktu, both now in Mali, were at one time major commercial and educational centres. (britannica.com)
  • By the time of the American Civil War a bit more than 49% of African Americans in Maryland were free. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paintings like John Singleton Copley's Watson and the Shark (1778) and Samuel Jennings' Liberty Displaying the Arts and Sciences (1792) are early examples of the debate underway at that time as to the role of Black people in America. (wikipedia.org)
  • culture
  • The state, and particularly the major cities of Memphis and Nashville have played important roles in African-American culture and the Civil Rights Movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is widely held that prior to the 1950s and 1960s, most African-American names closely resembled those used within European-American culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The book Baby Names Now: From Classic to Cool-The Very Last Word on First Names places the origins of "La" names in African-American culture in New Orleans. (wikipedia.org)