• blacks
  • Free African American Christians founded their own churches which became the hub of the economic, social, and intellectual lives of blacks in many areas of the fledgling nation. (loc.gov)
  • This paper and other early writings by blacks fueled the attack against slavery and racist conceptions about the intellectual inferiority of African Americans. (loc.gov)
  • Thousands of freed blacks, with the aid of interested whites, returned to Africa with the aid of the American Colonization Society and colonized what eventually became Liberia. (loc.gov)
  • Blacks were originally brought to America to serve as slaves in southeastern states on large-scale plantations. (conservapedia.com)
  • Blacks tended to support the Republican Party from the 1860s to the 1960s, but few who lived in the South voted--some states even stopped people of African ancestry voting by the use of literacy tests, poll taxes and other measures. (conservapedia.com)
  • The uninterrupted history of blacks in the United States began in 1619, when 20 Africans were landed in the English colony of Virginia. (britannica.com)
  • Edmund S. Morgan's American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia (1975) ( FHL Book 975.5 H6m ) is considered one of the best histories of enslaved blacks in Virginia. (familysearch.org)
  • Changes in the main commodity crops to less labor-intensive crops after the American Revolutionary War numerous slaveholders freed their slaves by deed or in wills, so that the percentage of free blacks to the total number of blacks rose from less than one percent to 10 percent in the Upper South. (wikipedia.org)
  • African-American literature explores the issues of freedom and equality long denied to Blacks in the United States, along with further themes such as African-American culture, racism, religion, slavery, a sense of home, segregation, migration, feminism, and more. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early Republic, African-American literature represented a way for free blacks to negotiate their identity in an individualized republic. (wikipedia.org)
  • enslavement
  • Professor Bartolome de Albornoz of the University of Mexico writes against the enslavement and sale of Africans. (blackpast.org)
  • Equiano recounts his childhood in Africa until his capture and enslavement, his subsequent sale to European traders, the horrors of the middle passage, his bondage in the United States, and his life on board British merchant vessels from 1758 to 1788--first as a slave and later for hire. (loc.gov)
  • colonial
  • By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although their lives were circumscribed by numerous discriminatory laws even in the colonial period, freed African Americans, especially in the North, were active participants in American society. (loc.gov)
  • Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century. (wikipedia.org)
  • African Americans, who are largely descended from Africans of the American colonial era, have lived and worked in France since the 1800s. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to McElroy, the artistic convention of representing African-Americans as less than fully realized humans began with Justus Engelhardt Kühn's colonial era painting Henry Darnall III as a child. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Kühn's work existed "simultaneously with a radically different tradition in colonial America" as indicated by the work of portraitists such as Charles (or Carolus) Zechel, (see Portrait of a Negro Girl and Portrait of a Negro boy) the market demand for such work reflected the attitudes and economic status of their audience. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been created within the larger realm of post-colonial literature, although scholars distinguish between the two, saying that "African American literature differs from most post-colonial literature in that it is written by members of a minority community who reside within a nation of vast wealth and economic power. (wikipedia.org)
  • Museums
  • A discussion of the DuSable Museum of African American History in Chicago, from the documentary Riches, Rivals & Radicals: 100 Years of Museums in America . (britannica.com)
  • After the Civil War, it became increasingly acceptable for African American-created works to be exhibited in museums, and artists increasingly produced works for this purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phillis Wheatley
  • One of the most celebrated of early black writers, African-born Phillis Wheatley was captured when she was about eight years old and sold to the Wheatley family in Boston as a household servant. (loc.gov)
  • Senegal
  • The overwhelming majority were taken from the area of western Africa stretching from present-day Senegal to Angola, where political and social organization as well as art, music, and dance were highly advanced. (britannica.com)
  • 15th
  • Notably, the Maryland legislature refused to ratify both the 14th Amendment, which conferred citizenship rights on former slaves, and the 15th Amendment, which gave the vote to African Americans. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a petition sent by African Americans to the Los Angeles Board of Education in 1872, the California Supreme Court ruled Ward v. Floor current segregation in educational practices as unconstitutional, breaching U.S. Constitution's 14th and 15th amendments. (wikipedia.org)
  • artisans
  • African farmers and artisans accompany Pedro Menendez de Aviles on the expedition that establishes the community of San Agustin (St. Augustine, Florida). (blackpast.org)
  • remain
  • The German Nazi invasion of Paris in June 1940 meant suppression of the "corrupt" influence of jazz in the French capital and danger of imprisonment for African Americans choosing to remain in the city. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virginia
  • African American research in Virginia can be divided into two general time periods - before and after the Civil War . (familysearch.org)
  • This Wiki page describes research strategies, and major sources of information about African American families from Virginia . (familysearch.org)
  • Soon the first African slavers were bought to the new Province of Maryland by 1642 to develop the economy in a similar way to Virginia, with tobacco being the commodity crop, which was labor-intensive. (wikipedia.org)
  • segregation
  • The Slave codes was replaced by the Black codes in restricting the rights of African Americans until the Jim Crow laws took affect to limit civil rights protections and continue the codified segregation that lasted until the mid-1900s. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1980s
  • To reestablish "cultural integrity" in the late 1980s, Jesse Jackson proposed African American , which-unlike some "baseless" colour label-proclaims kinship with a historical land base. (britannica.com)
  • 1870
  • African American students in lower education increased from 24 in 1870 to 183 by the late 19th century, and ranked highest performing students in literacy subjects in 1900. (wikipedia.org)
  • people
  • The common knowledge on 'negro', 'colored' and 'black' in some social circles as unacceptable, obscene or hurtful is present and mass consciousness by the American people of all races to abandon those archaic or unrequested words by the African-American community. (conservapedia.com)
  • It includes people who are of full or partial African American background. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paintings like John Singleton Copley's Watson and the Shark (1778) and Samuel Jennings' Liberty Displaying the Arts and Sciences (1792) are early examples of the debate underway at that time as to the role of Black people in America. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2015, the number of African-American residents has been estimated at around 3,000 people, a large portion of whom live in Accra. (wikipedia.org)
  • Black people gained no relief of their trials from the Roosevelt administration because the National Recovery Act (NRA) was later referred to, by African-Americans, as the Negro Removal Act. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1930s
  • One of the earliest African-American bookstores to achieve national prominence was Lewis Michaux's National Memorial African Bookstore, which operated in Harlem from the early 1930s to the middle of the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)