• dendritic cells
  • Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are cells of the immune system found in primary and secondary lymph follicles of the B cell areas of the lymphoid tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the age-dependent biological changes that contribute to the onset of immunosenescence are listed below: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which provide the regulated lifelong supply of leukocyte progenitors that are in turn able to differentiate into a diversity of specialised immune cells (including lymphocytes, antigen-presenting dendritic cells and phagocytes) diminish in their self-renewal capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with old age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has shown that TIGIT-Fc fusion protein could interact with PVR on dendritic cells and increase its IL-10 secretion level/decrease its IL-12 secretion level under LPS stimulation, and also inhibit T cell activation in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In collaboration with his colleague Federica Sallusto, Lanzavecchia helped solve this fundamental problem when he discovered that human monocytes could be induced to differentiate in vitro into "immature" dendritic cells that resemble those that function as sentinels in peripheral tissues (8), contributing to the rapid advancement of the field in the late nineties and paving the way for the use of antigen-loaded dendritic cells as vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using these dendritic cells he studied in detail the cell biology of the maturation process and identified the microbial and endogenous stimuli that trigger dendritic cell maturation (7, 10). (wikipedia.org)
  • After this mutation, the FCoV acquires a tropism for macrophages (see also: immune cells, leucocyte, monocyte, dendritic cells, mononuclear cell, antigen-presenting cell) while losing intestinal tropism. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand-receptor
  • A detection method is used to determine the presence and extent of the ligand-receptor complexes formed, and this is usually determined electrochemically or through a fluorescence detection method. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings suggest that interference with Wnt signaling at the ligand-receptor level may improve the effectiveness of cancer therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • self antigens
  • Therefore, incomplete clonal deletion allows for a balance between the host's ability to recognize foreign antigens and self antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immune system usually does not react to self-antigens under normal homeostatic conditions due to negative selection of T cells in the thymus and is supposed to identify and attack "non-self" invaders from the outside world or modified/harmful substances present in the body under distressed conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Non-microbial non-self antigens can include pollen, egg white and proteins from transplanted tissues and organs or on the surface of transfused blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface antigen
  • Two-dimensional dot plots illustrating the separation of monocytes and granulocytes (and lymphocytes) by their inherent light-scattering properties (forward-angle light scatter versus right-angle light scatter) (left) or the combination of a light-scattering property (right-angle light scatter) and a specific lineage-defining surface antigen (CD14-PE)(right). (asmscience.org)
  • These are subunit vaccines, consisting of specific protein antigens (such as tetanus or diphtheria toxoid) or recombinant protein components (such as the hepatitis B surface antigen). (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • Using clones of antigen-specific B and T cells, he demonstrated that B cells efficiently capture, via membrane immunoglobulins, the specific antigen, which is then internalized, and processed into peptides, which are presented to T helper cells in an extraordinarily efficient manner (1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens are usually peptides (amino acid chains), polysaccharides (chains of monosaccharides/simple sugars) or lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, saccharides and lipids (as opposed to peptides) qualify as antigens but not as immunogens since they cannot elicit an immune response on their own. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a high affinity calcium ion-binding protein that is structurally and functionally similar to calmodulin and troponin C. The encoded protein is thought to be involved in muscle relaxation. (genecards.org)
  • Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 9 (NEDD-9) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEDD9 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • cloned the gene encoding a protein hyperphosphorylated following ligation of β1-integrins in T cells and hypothesized to play a role in the process of T cell costimulation, designating this gene Cas-L (Crk-associated substrate-related protein, Lymphocyte type). (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • As the results, it was elucidated that such rigid-oligomerization between cytokines and their receptor subunits via the specific glycans is important to modulate immunological response. (nii.ac.jp)
  • membrane
  • They are found bound to the outer membrane of mitochondria in most cell types in the body. (genecards.org)
  • Membrane associated progesterone receptor component 2 (PGRMC2) belongs to the cytochrome b5 family. (abcam.cn)
  • In Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), alkaline phosphatase is located in the periplasmic space, external to the inner cell membrane and within the peptidoglycan portion of the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Receptor with high affinity for TNFSF2/TNF-alpha and approximately 5-fold lower affinity for homotrimeric TNFSF1/lymphotoxin-alpha. (bosterbio.com)
  • Interleukin-18 (IL-18) and IL-18 receptor α (IL-18Rα) recognize the distinct GPI-anchored glycan portion of CD48, and the high-affinity octamer formation of (IL-18)_2(CD48)_2(IL-18Rα)_2(IL-18Rβ)_2 triggers the intracellular signal transduction and produces interferon-γ in KG-1 cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Low and high affinity cellular receptors for interleukin 2. (naver.com)
  • Follicular DCs have high expression of complement receptors CR1 and CR2 (CD 35 and CD 21 respectively) and Fc-receptor FcγRIIb (CD32). (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in the formation of GC, where antigen-activated B cells are trapped to undergo somatic mutation, positive and negative selection, isotype switching, and differentiation into high-affinity plasma cells and memory B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those cells that demonstrate a high affinity for this self antigen are often subsequently deleted so they cannot create progeny, which helps protect the host against autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • If they demonstrate high affinity for self-antigen, one method of preventing autoimmunity is through clonal deletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells demonstrating high affinity for self cells can undergo clonal deletion within the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible for B cells with high self affinity to go undeleted because they require activation signals and stimulation from autoreactive T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high affinity IgE receptor plays a central role in allergic disease, coupling allergen and mast cell to initiate the inflammatory and immediate hypersensitivity responses that are characteristic of disorders such as hay fever and asthma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high-affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI): a critical regulator of airway smooth muscle cells? (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994). "High-level expression of the truncated alpha chain of human high-affinity receptor for IgE as a soluble form by baculovirus-infected insect cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later in the same month the company launched a collaboration, with Editas Medicine, to create CAR-T and high-affinity T cell receptor therapies to treat cancer, with the potential to generate up to $737 million-plus for Editas. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when it is systemically released in the blood and in high levels (due to mass T-cell activation resulting from the SAg binding), it can cause severe and life-threatening symptoms, including shock and multiple organ failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon activation, "low-affinity" IL-2 receptors are replaced by "high-affinity" IL-2 receptors consisting of α, β, and γ chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal
  • In normal lymphoid tissue recirculating resting B cells migrate through the FDC networks, whereas antigen-activated B cells are intercepted and undergo clonal expansion within the FDC networks, generating germinal centers (GC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive selection occurs in the thymic cortex, which suggests it is possible for a cell to undergo positive selection within the cortex and then negative selection in the medulla via clonal deletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector
  • These T cells can then go on to perform effector functions such as macrophage activation, B cell activation, and cell-mediated cytoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on original studies on the roles of T cell receptor triggering, sustained signalling and costimulation in T cell activation (12-14), Lanzavecchia also proposed a progressive model of T cell differentiation to explain the generation of central and effector memory T cells within a single clone of antigen-primed T cells (15). (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of central memory and effector memory cells has been particularly relevant in the context of T cell-based vaccines that aim at inducing durable and protective immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Upon stimulation by a T cell, which usually occurs in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs like the spleen and lymph nodes , the activated B cell begins to differentiate into more specialized cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This occurs after the functional B-cell receptor (BCR) is assembled. (wikipedia.org)
  • A perturbation occurs that brings about the release of histamine and proteases from the granules in the cytoplasm of the mast cell and leads to the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes-potent effectors of the hypersensitivity response. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • They capture immune complexes in CR1/2-dependent way either directly from the blood or from macrophages, and putate to the lymphoid tissue, where they upload FDCs with opsonized antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although myeloid cell production does not seem to decline with age, macrophages become dysregulated as a consequence of environmental changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • FVII, a serine protease, becomes activated (FVIIa) upon binding with TF forming the FVIIa/TF complex, which induces intracellular signaling pathways by activating protease activated receptor 2 (PAR-2). (newyorkoncology.com)
  • precursor
  • first described a sequence tag corresponding to the NEDD9 3′ untranslated region based on the cloning of a group of genes predominantly expressed in the brain of embryonic, but not adult mice, a group of genes designated neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • impair
  • Instead, this research suggests that VEGF receptor-targeted therapeutics may impair cancer survival and invasion as well as angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • First, the B cells have to encounter a foreign antigen, and are then required to be activated by T helper cells before they differentiate to specific cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They divide rapidly and are still capable of internalizing antigens and presenting them to T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of interleukin 4 during in vitro priming determines the lymphokine-producing potential of CD4+ T cells from T cell receptor transgenic mice. (naver.com)
  • Supposedly, this separation from the sites of earliest antigen processing and capture provide a protected environment in which opsonized antigens can be displayed for a long time without being proteolyzed or removed by phagocytic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Noncognate[clarification needed] B cells play a significant role as an antigen transporter to FDCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells lacking CXCR5, the receptor for CXCL13, still enter the white pulp, but are mislocalized and disorganized. (wikipedia.org)
  • B and T cells are presented with self antigen after developing receptors while they are still in the primary lymphoid organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • These B cells do not pose a threat, even in the periphery, because they cannot be activated without an autoreactive T cell to stimulate them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 2% and 5% of T cells develop auto-reactive receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA vaccination is a technique for protecting against disease by injection with genetically engineered DNA so cells directly produce an antigen, producing a protective immunological response. (wikipedia.org)
  • TIGIT (also called T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains) is an immune receptor present on some T cells and Natural Killer Cells(NK). (wikipedia.org)
  • Elevated TIGIT levels remained sustained even among those with undetectable viral loads and a large fraction of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells simultaneously express both TIGIT and another negative checkpoint receptor, Programmed Death Protein 1 (PD-1) and retained several features of exhausted T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, PGRMC1 promotes cell death in cancer cells after oxidative damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2016 Juno announced it had acquired AbVitro, allowing it to use next-generation single cell sequencing platforms to complement its ability to create T cells engineered to target a broad array of cancer targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to a normal antigen-induced T-cell response where 0.0001-0.001% of the body's T-cells are activated, these SAgs are capable of activating up to 20% of the body's T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • NEDD9-binding regions in the miR-145 locus would allow the direct binding of the NEDD9 3'UTR to the genomic region of miR-145, and some studies suggests this miR regulates NEDD9 in glioblastoma prostate cancer, and renal cell carcinoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • While killed vaccines do not have this risk, they cannot generate specific killer T cell responses and may not work at all for some diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • these complexes are responsible for regulating cell growth and survival in response to nutrient and hormonal signals. (clontech.com)
  • bound
  • The 5' region of the NEDD9 promoter is regulated by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), and contains a retinoic acid response element (RARE) that is specifically bound by a retinoid X receptor (RXR)/retinoic acid receptor (RAR) heterodimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • As a by-product of his work on type-specific staphylococcus antigens, Verwey reported in 1940 that a protein fraction prepared from extracts of these bacteria non-specifically precipitated rabbit antisera raised against different staphylococcus types. (wikipedia.org)
  • body's
  • Specifically, despite the human body's endogenous receptors, hormones, and other neurotransmitters, pharmacologists utilize assays in order to create drugs that are selective, or mimic, the endogenously found cellular components. (wikipedia.org)
  • repertoire
  • A given SAg can activate a large proportion of the T-cell population because the human T-cell repertoire comprises only about 50 types of Vβ elements and some SAgs are capable of binding to multiple types of Vβ regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Immunosenescence can also be sometimes envisaged as the result of the continuous challenge of the unavoidable exposure to a variety of antigens such as viruses and bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein A is a 42 kDa surface protein originally found in the cell wall of the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. (wikipedia.org)