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  • clouds
  • The Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observer (CALIPSO) uses a laser-based technology that provides detailed vertical profiles of aerosol plumes and clouds. (nasa.gov)
  • That's because aerosols-and clouds seeded by them-reflect about a quarter of the Sun's energy back to space. (nasa.gov)
  • Aerosols may influence climate in two ways: directly through scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly through acting as condensation nuclei for cloud formation or modifying the optical properties and lifetime of clouds (from the always useful IPCC glossary ). (realclimate.org)
  • It is now generally recognized that aerosols have substantial impact on the energy budget of the atmosphere, the formation of clouds and precipitation. (anl.gov)
  • Frederick G. Donnan presumably first used the term aerosol during World War I to describe an aero-solution, clouds of microscopic particles in air. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all other soluble aerosols, increasing normal-sized sea salts suppresses the precipitation process in warm clouds by increasing cloud droplet number concentration and reducing the cloud droplet size. (wikipedia.org)
  • gases
  • Some aerosols, particularly sulfate aerosols from fossil fuel combustion, exert a cooling influence (by the reflection or absorption of sunlight before it reaches the earth) on the climate which partly counteracts the warming induced by greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. (enn.com)
  • The team of researchers will take daily measurements of trace gases and aerosols the city emits (known as the Sacramento urban plume) under relatively well defined and regular weather conditions. (enn.com)
  • Models estimate that aerosols have had a cooling effect that has counteracted about half of the warming caused by the build-up of greenhouse gases since the 1880s. (nasa.gov)
  • However, unlike many greenhouse gases, aerosols are not distributed evenly around the planet, so their impacts are most strongly felt on a regional scale. (nasa.gov)
  • Or equivalently, since the aerosols are anthropogenic, that European temperatures had been subdued due to the cooling effects of the aerosols - and since they are now decreasing, the full effects of the greenhouse gases are starting to be felt. (realclimate.org)
  • Certain plants produce gases that react with other substances in the air to yield aerosols, such as the "smoke" in the Great Smoky Mountains of the United States. (nasa.gov)
  • Aerosols and short-lived gases aren't totally ignored. (scientificamerican.com)
  • It has been established that emission of precursor gases for sulfur aerosols is the principal mechanism by which volcanoes cause episodic global cooling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aerosol Impaction is the process in which particles are removed from an air stream by forcing the gases to make a sharp bend. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aerosols particles and gases mixing with the gaseous components of the flame isolate the fire's fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • single scatte
  • Aerosol monitoring instruments also measure single scattering albedo (SSA), the fraction of light that is scattered compared to the total. (nasa.gov)
  • Some sea salt dominated aerosols could have a single scattering albedo as large as ~0.97. (wikipedia.org)
  • spray
  • A dispersion of fine particles of a solid or liquid in a pressurized or liquefied gas propellant for release as an aerosol spray. (wiktionary.org)
  • In general conversation, aerosol usually refers to an aerosol spray that delivers a consumer product from a can or similar container. (wikipedia.org)
  • An aerosol burn is an injury to the skin caused by the pressurized gas within an aerosol spray cooling quickly, with the sudden drop in temperature sufficient to cause frostbite to the applied area. (wikipedia.org)
  • List of cutaneous conditions Deodorant Aerosol spray Frostbite Burn "Brrrr! (wikipedia.org)
  • The first aerosol spray can patent was granted in Oslo in 1927 to Erik Rotheim, a Norwegian chemical engineer, and a United States patent was granted for the invention in 1931. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was not until 1941 that the aerosol spray can was first put to good use by Americans Lyle Goodhue and William Sullivan, who are credited as the inventors of the modern spray can. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "crimp-on valve", used to control the spray in low-pressure aerosols was developed in 1949 by Bronx machine shop proprietor Robert H. Abplanalp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aerosol paint (also called spray paint) is a type of paint that comes in a sealed pressurized container and is released in an aerosol spray when depressing a valve button. (wikipedia.org)
  • A form of spray painting, aerosol paint leaves a smooth, evenly coated surface, unlike many traditional rolled or brushed paints. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other customized technology such as sprayprinter can be attached to aerosol cans to partially automate the process of spray painting and allow for images to be created in a manner similar to printing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sea salt aerosol, which originally comes from sea spray, is one of the most widely distributed natural aerosols. (wikipedia.org)
  • cloud
  • The relatively simple instruments deduce the amount and type of aerosol in the sky by measuring the intensity of light under cloud-free conditions. (nasa.gov)
  • Sea salt aerosols can alter the Earth radiation budget through directly scattering solar radiation (direct effect), and indirectly changing the cloud albedo by serving as CCN (indirect effect). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloud drops formed on giant sea salt aerosols may grow much more rapidly by condensation that cloud drops formed on small soluble aerosol particles, as giant sea salt cloud drops may remain concentrated solution drops for long times after they are carried into cloud. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such drops may have condensational growth rates more than two times faster than drops formed on small aerosol particles, and unlike normal cloud drops, drops formed on the largest of the giant sea salt aerosols may even grow by condensation in otherwise subsaturated cloudy downdrafts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aerosol cools the flame by engulfing it with a cloud with large concentrations of microparticles which have mass median aerodynamic diameter sizes (MMAD) as small as 1 to 2 micrometres. (wikipedia.org)
  • gaseous
  • Very small sea salt aerosols, which are below the critical diameter for droplet activation at low supersaturations, can serve as nuclei for the growth of sulfate particles, while larger sea salt particles serve as a sink for gaseous hydrogen sulfate (H2SO4) molecules, reducing the amount of sulfate available for the formation of accumulation mode particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Condensed aerosol fire suppression is a particle-based form of fire extinction similar to gaseous fire suppression or dry chemical fire extinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to gaseous suppressants, which emit only gas, and dry chemical suppression agents, which are powder-like particles of a large size (25-150 micrometres), condensed aerosols are defined by the National Fire Protection Association as releasing finely-divided solids of less than 10 micrometres in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Condensed aerosol suppressants, like gaseous suppressants, use four methods to extinguish fires. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, some condensed aerosol fire suppressants can extinguish a Class B flammable liquid pool fire with 1/5 the amount of Halon 1301 agent or 1/10 the amount of a hydrofluorocarbon or fluoroketone based clean agent gaseous fire suppression system in terms of kilogram mass of agent per cubic meter. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemistry
  • But in relation to the issue of aerosols, chemistry and climate, I read yesterday (h/t Atmoz ) probably the most boneheaded article that I have seen in ages (and that's saying a lot). (realclimate.org)
  • But simply trying to couple ozone chemistry and aerosol chemistry like this is an advance, says Dentener. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The United Kingdom Chemistry and Aerosols (UKCA) is a community Chemistry-Aerosol-Climate model which are research runs of the Met Office's operational Unified Model. (wikipedia.org)
  • particulates
  • Typically, condensed aerosol particulates consist of potassium carbonate (K2CO3)) that are produced from the thermal decomposition of a solid aerosol-forming compound that includes potassium nitrate as an oxidizer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extinguishing performance of condensed aerosol fire suppressants is dependent on the density of aerosol particulates in the immediate vicinity of the flame. (wikipedia.org)
  • radiation
  • In addition to scattering or absorbing radiation, aerosols can alter the reflectivity, or albedo, of the planet. (nasa.gov)
  • Our main Science Topics, as defined within PACES Research Unit 1a deal with the quantification of different factors affecting Arctic climate change like changing synoptic patterns, increasing long wave radiation, boundary layer processes, or seasonal aerosol forcing. (awi.de)
  • First, Ruckstuhl et al found that as aerosols have decreased in Europe over the last few decades (as a result of environmental standards legislation), the amount of solar radiation at the ground has increased while the amount reflected to space has decreased. (realclimate.org)
  • Aerosols and Radiation - NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory IPCC Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001 (TAR) Levin Z., Cotton W.R. (Eds), 2009, Aerosol pollution impact on precipitation: A scientific review Cavalli, F., Facchini, M.C., Decesari, S. et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • combustion
  • These four means of fire extinction are: Reduction or isolation of fuel Reduction of heat Reduction or isolation of oxygen Inhibiting the chain reaction of the above components Condensed aerosols' primary extinguishing mechanism involves the fourth element of the fire tetrahedron by means of chemical reactions with the free radicals of the flame, therefore interfering with the combustion process of the fire. (wikipedia.org)
  • stratospheric
  • The IPCC AR4 says explosive volcanic events are episodic, but the stratospheric aerosols resulting from them yield substantial transitory perturbations to the radiative energy balance of the planet, with both shortwave and longwave effects sensitive to the microphysical characteristics of the aerosols. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • Optical depths above 2 or 3 represent very high concentrations of aerosols. (nasa.gov)
  • Red indicates high concentrations of aerosols, beige indicates low concentrations. (nasa.gov)
  • This means that as we get our act together to reduce fossil fuel use to improve air quality and address global warming, we need to be mindful of how changes in emissions will impact aerosol concentrations and composition. (realclimate.org)
  • It is difficult to estimate accurately, for example, whether the presence of ash and water vapour is important for aerosol formation from volcanic products, and whether high or low atmospheric concentrations of precursor chemicals (such as SO2 and H2S) are optimal for aerosol formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique is particularly appropriate for situations where aerosol concentrations are changing on a timescale of 1 s or faster. (wikipedia.org)
  • sulphates
  • As should be apparent from this list, there are many natural sources of aerosol, but changes have been observed in particular, in the atmospheric loading of carbonaceous aerosol and sulphates, which originate in part from fossil fuel burning. (realclimate.org)
  • haze
  • Recent studies of the Sahel drought and major increases since 1967 in rainfall over the Northern Territory, Kimberley, Pilbara and around the Nullarbor Plain have led some scientists to conclude that the aerosol haze over South and East Asia has been steadily shifting tropical rainfall in both hemispheres southward. (enn.com)
  • The aerosol particles form a whitish haze in the sky. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of anthropogenic aerosols are haze, particulate air pollutants and smoke. (wikipedia.org)
  • volcanic eruptions
  • Understanding of these aerosols comes in large part from the study of volcanic eruptions, notably Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, which erupted in 1991 when scientific techniques were sufficiently far advanced to study the effects carefully. (wikipedia.org)
  • pollutants
  • Shindell also thinks climate policy-makers need to pay much more attention to restricting short-lived pollutants, such as methane, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aerosols. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Methane, aerosols and other short-lived pollutants have a complicated chemical relationship, only some of which Shindell's models could capture. (scientificamerican.com)
  • radiative
  • While a relatively minor part of the overall aerosol mass, changes in the anthropogenic portion of aerosols since 1750 have resulted in a globally averaged net radiative forcing of roughly -1.2 W/m 2 , in comparison to the overall average CO 2 forcing of +1.66 W/m 2 . (realclimate.org)
  • This figure also visually hints at why improving our understanding of aerosol's role in climate is so important: while overall net radiative forcing is positive (warming), aerosols provide the dominant negative (cooling) forcings. (realclimate.org)
  • These results will aid the scientific community in understanding aerosol properties and boundary layer dynamics and in improving the incorporation of aerosol radiative effects into global climate models. (anl.gov)
  • Radiative forcing caused by indirect effects show even greater variations in model prediction because of the parameterization of aerosol indirect effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • sulfates
  • Scientists believe the cooling from sulfates and other reflective aerosols overwhelms the warming effect of black carbon and other absorbing aerosols over the planet. (nasa.gov)
  • reflectivity
  • Aerosols, particularly black carbon, can alter reflectivity by depositing a layer of dark residue on ice and other bright surfaces. (nasa.gov)
  • 1941
  • Aerosol bombs were developed in 1941 by Lyle D. Goodhue and William N. Sullivan of the United States Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine and a patent was granted to the pair October 5, 1943 A public-service patent was issued on the invention and assigned to the Secretary of Agriculture for the free use of the people of the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patent No. 2,331,117 (Serial No. 413,474) for an aerosol "dispensing apparatus", filed by Lyle D. Goodhue and William N. Sullivan on October 3, 1941 (including dispenser drawing), and granted October 5, 1943. (wikipedia.org)
  • condensation
  • The CAD, like other aerosol detectors (e.g., evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD) and condensation nucleation light scattering detectors (CNLSD)), falls under the category of destructive general-purpose detectors (see Chromatography Detectors). (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • In addition, our deficient understanding of aerosol forcing also hinders our ability to use the modern temperature record to constrain the "climate sensitivity" - the operative parameter in determining exactly how much warming will result from a given increase in CO 2 concentration. (realclimate.org)
  • However, it has always been a problem to predict how the concentration of these aerosols changes as we go up from the ground to higher altitudes. (anl.gov)
  • There are several measures of aerosol concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • pollution
  • In the Arctic especially, aerosols from wildfires and industrial pollution are likely hastening the melting of ice. (nasa.gov)
  • Another example of early discussion of aerosols was in London (1273) and the prohibition of coal burning, because of the particulate air pollution that it was producing. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • 2004: Advances in characterization of size-resolved organic matter in marine aerosol over the North Atlantic, J. Geophys. (wikipedia.org)
  • cans
  • If aerosol cans were simply filled with compressed gas, it would either need to be at a dangerously high pressure and require special pressure vessel design (like in gas cylinders), or the amount of payload in the can would be small, and rapidly deplete. (wikipedia.org)
  • propellant
  • Kahn's idea was to mix cream and a propellant from two sources to make whipped cream at home - not a true aerosol in that sense. (wikipedia.org)
  • affect climate
  • Although it became clear about 40 years ago that aerosols could affect climate, the measurements needed to establish the magnitude of such effects-or even whether specific aerosol types warm or cool the surface-were lacking. (nasa.gov)
  • subsequent
  • Over subsequent decades, the instruments have grown more sophisticated and made it possible to study aerosols over the land as well. (nasa.gov)
  • Goodhue and Sullivan received the first Erik Rotheim Gold Medal from the Federation of European Aerosol Associations on August 28, 1970, in Oslo, Norway in recognition of their early patents and subsequent pioneering work with aerosols. (wikipedia.org)
  • 0.05
  • An optical depth of less than 0.05 indicates a clear sky with relatively few aerosols and maximum visibility, whereas a value of 1 indicates hazy conditions. (nasa.gov)
  • composition
  • The most clear and important advantage of impaction, as opposed to filtration, is that two key aerosol parameters, size and composition, can be simultaneously established. (wikipedia.org)
  • measurements
  • The simultaneous measurements from ground, plane and balloon will provide a comprehensive view of the atmospheric aerosols. (enn.com)
  • The first satellite instrument capable of crudely monitoring aerosol optical depth from space-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-retrieved optical depth from measurements in the visible and near-infrared spectrum, beginning in the late 1970s. (nasa.gov)
  • John Aitken is considered the founder of atmospheric aerosol science and aerosol measurements techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • On-line aerosol measurements methods took a little longer than off-line to be developed and perfected. (wikipedia.org)
  • NASA
  • NASA co-sponsors a global network of ground sensors called the Aerosols Robotic Network, or AERONET, which is comprised of more than 200 carefully calibrated sun photometers measuring aerosol optical depth around the world. (nasa.gov)
  • uncertainty
  • Aerosols contribute significantly to the uncertainty in climate sensitivity because we cannot model their historical impact on the temperature record with sufficient accuracy, though additional constraints on climate sensitivity such as the last ice age do exist . (realclimate.org)
  • But the interaction with aerosols bumps up methane's relative global warming potential (GWP) to about 33, though there is a lot of uncertainty around the exact figure. (scientificamerican.com)