• cloud
  • Aerosols may influence climate in two ways: directly through scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly through acting as condensation nuclei for cloud formation or modifying the optical properties and lifetime of clouds (from the always useful IPCC glossary ). (realclimate.org)
  • This image depicts a representative subset of the atmospheric processes related to aerosol lifecycles, cloud lifecycles, and aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions that must be understood to improve future climate predictions. (climate.gov)
  • Sea salt aerosols can alter the Earth radiation budget through directly scattering solar radiation (direct effect), and indirectly changing the cloud albedo by serving as CCN (indirect effect). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all other soluble aerosols, increasing normal-sized sea salts suppresses the precipitation process in warm clouds by increasing cloud droplet number concentration and reducing the cloud droplet size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloud drops formed on giant sea salt aerosols may grow much more rapidly by condensation that cloud drops formed on small soluble aerosol particles, as giant sea salt cloud drops may remain concentrated solution drops for long times after they are carried into cloud. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such drops may have condensational growth rates more than two times faster than drops formed on small aerosol particles, and unlike normal cloud drops, drops formed on the largest of the giant sea salt aerosols may even grow by condensation in otherwise subsaturated cloudy downdrafts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aerosol cools the flame by engulfing it with a cloud with large concentrations of microparticles which have mass median aerodynamic diameter sizes (MMAD) as small as 1 to 2 micrometres. (wikipedia.org)
  • cans
  • All of your tins, cans and aerosols can be put in your recycling bin. (southampton.gov.uk)
  • Remember to recycle your paper, cardboard and plastic bottles in your recycling bin with your tins, cans and aerosols. (southampton.gov.uk)
  • If aerosol cans were simply filled with compressed gas, it would either need to be at a dangerously high pressure and require special pressure vessel design (like in gas cylinders), or the amount of payload in the can would be small, and rapidly deplete. (wikipedia.org)
  • climate change
  • Aerosols and Radiation - NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory IPCC Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001 (TAR) Levin Z., Cotton W.R. (Eds), 2009, Aerosol pollution impact on precipitation: A scientific review Cavalli, F., Facchini, M.C., Decesari, S. et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of aerosol particles is important because of their major impacts on the global climate change, visibility, regional air pollution and human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • stratospheric
  • The IPCC AR4 says explosive volcanic events are episodic, but the stratospheric aerosols resulting from them yield substantial transitory perturbations to the radiative energy balance of the planet, with both shortwave and longwave effects sensitive to the microphysical characteristics of the aerosols. (wikipedia.org)
  • haze
  • Recent studies of the Sahel drought and major increases since 1967 in rainfall over the Northern Territory, Kimberley, Pilbara and around the Nullarbor Plain have led some scientists to conclude that the aerosol haze over South and East Asia has been steadily shifting tropical rainfall in both hemispheres southward. (enn.com)
  • The aerosol particles form a whitish haze in the sky. (wikipedia.org)
  • soot
  • The media often uses everyday terms that hint at aerosol sources, such as smoke, ash, and soot. (nasa.gov)
  • diameter
  • The size of particles has a major influence on their properties, and the aerosol particle radius or diameter (dp) is a key property used to characterise aerosols. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a monodisperse aerosol, a single number-the particle diameter-suffices to describe the size of the particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Size of sea salt aerosols ranges widely from ~0.05 to 10 µm in diameter, with most of masses concentrated in super-micron range (coarse mode), and highest number concentration in sub-micron range. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to gaseous suppressants, which emit only gas, and dry chemical suppression agents, which are powder-like particles of a large size (25-150 micrometres), condensed aerosols are defined by the National Fire Protection Association as releasing finely-divided solids of less than 10 micrometres in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • combustion
  • These four means of fire extinction are: Reduction or isolation of fuel Reduction of heat Reduction or isolation of oxygen Inhibiting the chain reaction of the above components Condensed aerosols' primary extinguishing mechanism involves the fourth element of the fire tetrahedron by means of chemical reactions with the free radicals of the flame, therefore interfering with the combustion process of the fire. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1941
  • Aerosol bombs were developed in 1941 by Lyle D. Goodhue and William N. Sullivan of the United States Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine and a patent was granted to the pair October 5, 1943 A public-service patent was issued on the invention and assigned to the Secretary of Agriculture for the free use of the people of the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patent No. 2,331,117 (Serial No. 413,474) for an aerosol "dispensing apparatus", filed by Lyle D. Goodhue and William N. Sullivan on October 3, 1941 (including dispenser drawing), and granted October 5, 1943. (wikipedia.org)
  • condensation
  • The CAD, like other aerosol detectors (e.g., evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD) and condensation nucleation light scattering detectors (CNLSD)), falls under the category of destructive general-purpose detectors (see Chromatography Detectors). (wikipedia.org)
  • Earth's
  • In 1974, Drs. Frank Sherwood Rowland and Mario J. Molina proposed that chlorofluorocarbons, used as propellants in aerosol sprays, contributed to the depletion of Earth's ozone layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deodorant
  • There may be a smell of aerosol products such as deodorant around the affected area, the injury may itch or be painful, the skin may freeze and become hardened, blisters may form on the area, and the flesh can become red and swollen. (wikipedia.org)
  • fresheners
  • In rarer cases aerosol burns are reported to have been caused by air fresheners and other compressed aerosol canisters exploding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Household aerosol products such as air fresheners and deodorants can be a convenient, easily available means to satisfy the compulsions. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • Recent study revealed that sea salt aerosols contain a substantial amount of organic matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2004: Advances in characterization of size-resolved organic matter in marine aerosol over the North Atlantic, J. Geophys. (wikipedia.org)
  • propellant
  • Kahn's idea was to mix cream and a propellant from two sources to make whipped cream at home - not a true aerosol in that sense. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • Students use real satellite data to determine 1) where the greatest concentrations of aerosols are located during the course of a year in the tropical Atlantic region and 2) their source of origin. (climate.gov)
  • It is difficult to estimate accurately, for example, whether the presence of ash and water vapour is important for aerosol formation from volcanic products, and whether high or low atmospheric concentrations of precursor chemicals (such as SO2 and H2S) are optimal for aerosol formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique is particularly appropriate for situations where aerosol concentrations are changing on a timescale of 1 s or faster. (wikipedia.org)
  • gaseous
  • Condensed aerosol fire suppression is a particle-based form of fire extinction similar to gaseous fire suppression or dry chemical fire extinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Condensed aerosol suppressants, like gaseous suppressants, use four methods to extinguish fires. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, some condensed aerosol fire suppressants can extinguish a Class B flammable liquid pool fire with 1/5 the amount of Halon 1301 agent or 1/10 the amount of a hydrofluorocarbon or fluoroketone based clean agent gaseous fire suppression system in terms of kilogram mass of agent per cubic meter. (wikipedia.org)
  • volcanic
  • Aerosols can be natural such as volcanic in source or manmade. (enn.com)
  • Understanding of these aerosols comes in large part from the study of volcanic eruptions, notably Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, which erupted in 1991 when scientific techniques were sufficiently far advanced to study the effects carefully. (wikipedia.org)
  • pollution
  • Another example of early discussion of aerosols was in London (1273) and the prohibition of coal burning, because of the particulate air pollution that it was producing. (wikipedia.org)
  • measurement
  • Electrical aerosol spectrometry (EAS) is a technique for measurement of the number-size distribution of aerosol using a combination of electrical charging and multiple solid state electrometer detectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately aerosol science and measurement wasn't really established until the second half of the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • It wasn't until the 1960s that aerosol measurement methods started to get more complex and involve the technological and instrumentation advancements of the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The predecessor to the CAD, termed an evaporative electrical detector, was first described by Kaufman at TSI Inc in US patent 6,568,245 and was based on the coupling of liquid chromatographic approaches to TSI's electrical aerosol measurement (EAM) technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measurement of the aggregate charge of aerosol particles using a filter/electrometer. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequent
  • Goodhue and Sullivan received the first Erik Rotheim Gold Medal from the Federation of European Aerosol Associations on August 28, 1970, in Oslo, Norway in recognition of their early patents and subsequent pioneering work with aerosols. (wikipedia.org)
  • valve
  • When the container's valve is opened, the payload is forced out of a small hole and emerges as an aerosol or mist. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • The most common method for measuring the amount of these particles (commonly referred to as aerosols) is collecting them on a filter paper from a ground based station to give a measure of mass of the particles at that location. (anl.gov)
  • The most common cause of aerosol burns is patients' spraying deodorants for prolonged periods of time in close proximity to their skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Speed, portability, and permanence also make aerosol paint a common graffiti medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sea salt aerosols are mainly constituted of sodium chloride (NaCl), but other chemical ions which are common in sea water, such as K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42− and so on, can also be found. (wikipedia.org)
  • varies
  • Also for a quantity that varies over a large range, as many aerosol sizes do, the width of the distribution implies negative particles sizes, clearly not physically realistic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately
  • Unfortunately, there is sparse observational data describing the vertical profiles of aerosols and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) as a function of altitude. (anl.gov)
  • Composition
  • The most clear and important advantage of impaction, as opposed to filtration, is that two key aerosol parameters, size and composition, can be simultaneously established. (wikipedia.org)