• clouds
  • Aerosols may influence climate in two ways: directly through scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly through acting as condensation nuclei for cloud formation or modifying the optical properties and lifetime of clouds (from the always useful IPCC glossary ). (realclimate.org)
  • Frederick G. Donnan presumably first used the term aerosol during World War I to describe an aero-solution, clouds of microscopic particles in air. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all other soluble aerosols, increasing normal-sized sea salts suppresses the precipitation process in warm clouds by increasing cloud droplet number concentration and reducing the cloud droplet size. (wikipedia.org)
  • cans
  • All of your tins, cans and aerosols can be put in your recycling bin. (southampton.gov.uk)
  • Remember to recycle your paper, cardboard and plastic bottles in your recycling bin with your tins, cans and aerosols. (southampton.gov.uk)
  • SunTrio, both in UV and conventional, is suitable for most types of aerosol cans and closures. (wn.com)
  • If aerosol cans were simply filled with compressed gas, it would either need to be at a dangerously high pressure and require special pressure vessel design (like in gas cylinders), or the amount of payload in the can would be small, and rapidly deplete. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other customized technology such as sprayprinter can be attached to aerosol cans to partially automate the process of spray painting and allow for images to be created in a manner similar to printing. (wikipedia.org)
  • haze
  • Recent studies of the Sahel drought and major increases since 1967 in rainfall over the Northern Territory, Kimberley, Pilbara and around the Nullarbor Plain have led some scientists to conclude that the aerosol haze over South and East Asia has been steadily shifting tropical rainfall in both hemispheres southward. (enn.com)
  • The aerosol particles form a whitish haze in the sky. (wikipedia.org)
  • sulfur
  • Sulfur aerosols are common in the troposphere as a result of pollution with sulfur dioxide from burning coal, and from natural processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Creating stratospheric sulfur aerosols deliberately is a proposed geoengineering technique which offers a possible solution to some of the problems caused by global warming. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural sulfur aerosols are formed in vast quantities from the SO2 ejected by volcanoes, which may be injected directly into the stratosphere during very large (Volcanic Explosivity Index, VEI, of 4 or greater) eruptions. (wikipedia.org)
  • During periods lacking volcanic activity (and thus direct injection of SO2 into the stratosphere), oxidation of COS (carbonyl sulfide) dominates the production of stratospheric sulfur aerosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemistry of stratospheric sulfur aerosols varies significantly according to their source. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical reactions affecting both the formation and elimination of sulfur aerosols are not fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • This uncertainty makes it difficult to determine a viable approach for geoengineering uses of sulfur aerosol formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • volcanic
  • Aerosols can be natural such as volcanic in source or manmade. (enn.com)
  • Explosive volcanic eruptions have the potential to inject substantial amounts of sulfate aerosols into the lower stratosphere . (britannica.com)
  • Consequently, aerosols from explosive volcanic eruptions have the potential to affect Earth's climate . (britannica.com)
  • The IPCC AR4 says explosive volcanic events are episodic, but the stratospheric aerosols resulting from them yield substantial transitory perturbations to the radiative energy balance of the planet, with both shortwave and longwave effects sensitive to the microphysical characteristics of the aerosols. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is difficult to estimate accurately, for example, whether the presence of ash and water vapour is important for aerosol formation from volcanic products, and whether high or low atmospheric concentrations of precursor chemicals (such as SO2 and H2S) are optimal for aerosol formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding of these aerosols comes in large part from the study of volcanic eruptions, notably Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, which erupted in 1991 when scientific techniques were sufficiently far advanced to study the effects carefully. (wikipedia.org)
  • cloud
  • Sea salt aerosols can alter the Earth radiation budget through directly scattering solar radiation (direct effect), and indirectly changing the cloud albedo by serving as CCN (indirect effect). (wikipedia.org)
  • The aerosol cools the flame by engulfing it with a cloud with large concentrations of microparticles which have mass median aerodynamic diameter sizes (MMAD) as small as 1 to 2 micrometres. (wikipedia.org)
  • climate change
  • Our main Science Topics, as defined within PACES Research Unit 1a deal with the quantification of different factors affecting Arctic climate change like changing synoptic patterns, increasing long wave radiation, boundary layer processes, or seasonal aerosol forcing. (awi.de)
  • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change AR4 regards stratospheric sulfate aerosols as having a low level of scientific understanding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aerosols and Radiation - NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory IPCC Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001 (TAR) Levin Z., Cotton W.R. (Eds), 2009, Aerosol pollution impact on precipitation: A scientific review Cavalli, F., Facchini, M.C., Decesari, S. et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of aerosol particles is important because of their major impacts on the global climate change, visibility, regional air pollution and human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • soot
  • The media often uses everyday terms that hint at aerosol sources, such as smoke, ash, and soot. (nasa.gov)
  • diameter
  • The size of particles has a major influence on their properties, and the aerosol particle radius or diameter (dp) is a key property used to characterise aerosols. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a monodisperse aerosol, a single number-the particle diameter-suffices to describe the size of the particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Size of sea salt aerosols ranges widely from ~0.05 to 10 µm in diameter, with most of masses concentrated in super-micron range (coarse mode), and highest number concentration in sub-micron range. (wikipedia.org)
  • Very small sea salt aerosols, which are below the critical diameter for droplet activation at low supersaturations, can serve as nuclei for the growth of sulfate particles, while larger sea salt particles serve as a sink for gaseous hydrogen sulfate (H2SO4) molecules, reducing the amount of sulfate available for the formation of accumulation mode particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to gaseous suppressants, which emit only gas, and dry chemical suppression agents, which are powder-like particles of a large size (25-150 micrometres), condensed aerosols are defined by the National Fire Protection Association as releasing finely-divided solids of less than 10 micrometres in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • combustion
  • Other technological applications of aerosols include dispersal of pesticides, medical treatment of respiratory illnesses, and combustion technology. (wn.com)
  • These four means of fire extinction are: Reduction or isolation of fuel Reduction of heat Reduction or isolation of oxygen Inhibiting the chain reaction of the above components Condensed aerosols' primary extinguishing mechanism involves the fourth element of the fire tetrahedron by means of chemical reactions with the free radicals of the flame, therefore interfering with the combustion process of the fire. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1941
  • Aerosol bombs were developed in 1941 by Lyle D. Goodhue and William N. Sullivan of the United States Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine and a patent was granted to the pair October 5, 1943 A public-service patent was issued on the invention and assigned to the Secretary of Agriculture for the free use of the people of the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patent No. 2,331,117 (Serial No. 413,474) for an aerosol "dispensing apparatus", filed by Lyle D. Goodhue and William N. Sullivan on October 3, 1941 (including dispenser drawing), and granted October 5, 1943. (wikipedia.org)
  • boundary layer
  • These results will aid the scientific community in understanding aerosol properties and boundary layer dynamics and in improving the incorporation of aerosol radiative effects into global climate models. (anl.gov)
  • pollutants
  • Shindell also thinks climate policy-makers need to pay much more attention to restricting short-lived pollutants, such as methane, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aerosols. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Methane, aerosols and other short-lived pollutants have a complicated chemical relationship, only some of which Shindell's models could capture. (scientificamerican.com)
  • subsequent
  • Goodhue and Sullivan received the first Erik Rotheim Gold Medal from the Federation of European Aerosol Associations on August 28, 1970, in Oslo, Norway in recognition of their early patents and subsequent pioneering work with aerosols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deodorant
  • There may be a smell of aerosol products such as deodorant around the affected area, the injury may itch or be painful, the skin may freeze and become hardened, blisters may form on the area, and the flesh can become red and swollen. (wikipedia.org)
  • fresheners
  • In rarer cases aerosol burns are reported to have been caused by air fresheners and other compressed aerosol canisters exploding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Household aerosol products such as air fresheners and deodorants can be a convenient, easily available means to satisfy the compulsions. (wikipedia.org)
  • stratosphere
  • In contrast to aerosol emissions in the lower troposphere ( see above Aerosols ), aerosols that enter the stratosphere may remain for several years before settling out, because of the relative absence of turbulent motions there. (britannica.com)
  • Furthermore, because of large-scale circulation patterns within the stratosphere, aerosols injected within tropical regions tend to spread out over the globe, whereas aerosols injected within midlatitude and polar regions tend to remain confined to the middle and high latitudes of that hemisphere. (britannica.com)
  • organic
  • 2004: Advances in characterization of size-resolved organic matter in marine aerosol over the North Atlantic, J. Geophys. (wikipedia.org)
  • sprays
  • In 1974, Drs. Frank Sherwood Rowland and Mario J. Molina proposed that chlorofluorocarbons, used as propellants in aerosol sprays, contributed to the depletion of Earth's ozone layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • propellant
  • Kahn's idea was to mix cream and a propellant from two sources to make whipped cream at home - not a true aerosol in that sense. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • This satellite data allowed Proctor and his colleagues to quantify aerosol concentrations. (wn.com)
  • The technique is particularly appropriate for situations where aerosol concentrations are changing on a timescale of 1 s or faster. (wikipedia.org)
  • gaseous
  • Condensed aerosol fire suppression is a particle-based form of fire extinction similar to gaseous fire suppression or dry chemical fire extinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Condensed aerosol suppressants, like gaseous suppressants, use four methods to extinguish fires. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, some condensed aerosol fire suppressants can extinguish a Class B flammable liquid pool fire with 1/5 the amount of Halon 1301 agent or 1/10 the amount of a hydrofluorocarbon or fluoroketone based clean agent gaseous fire suppression system in terms of kilogram mass of agent per cubic meter. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • Sea salt aerosols are mainly constituted of sodium chloride (NaCl), but other chemical ions which are common in sea water, such as K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42− and so on, can also be found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aerosol particles are very complex in structure and can contain thousand of different chemical compounds within a single particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas dry chemical systems must be directly aimed at the flame, condensed aerosols are flooding agents and therefore effective regardless of the location and height of the fire. (wikipedia.org)
  • pollution
  • Another example of early discussion of aerosols was in London (1273) and the prohibition of coal burning, because of the particulate air pollution that it was producing. (wikipedia.org)
  • measurement
  • Electrical aerosol spectrometry (EAS) is a technique for measurement of the number-size distribution of aerosol using a combination of electrical charging and multiple solid state electrometer detectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately aerosol science and measurement wasn't really established until the second half of the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • It wasn't until the 1960s that aerosol measurement methods started to get more complex and involve the technological and instrumentation advancements of the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The predecessor to the CAD, termed an evaporative electrical detector, was first described by Kaufman at TSI Inc in US patent 6,568,245 and was based on the coupling of liquid chromatographic approaches to TSI's electrical aerosol measurement (EAM) technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measurement of the aggregate charge of aerosol particles using a filter/electrometer. (wikipedia.org)
  • radiation
  • First, Ruckstuhl et al found that as aerosols have decreased in Europe over the last few decades (as a result of environmental standards legislation), the amount of solar radiation at the ground has increased while the amount reflected to space has decreased. (realclimate.org)
  • valve
  • When the container's valve is opened, the payload is forced out of a small hole and emerges as an aerosol or mist. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • The most common method for measuring the amount of these particles (commonly referred to as aerosols) is collecting them on a filter paper from a ground based station to give a measure of mass of the particles at that location. (anl.gov)
  • The most common cause of aerosol burns is patients' spraying deodorants for prolonged periods of time in close proximity to their skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Speed, portability, and permanence also make aerosol paint a common graffiti medium. (wikipedia.org)