• pathogenic bacteria
  • There are many mechanisms by which pathogenic bacteria can be transmitted from person to person, including airborne infection, direct contact, contact with animals, transmission by insect vectors, or indirect transmission in drinking water, milk, or food or on inanimate objects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2, and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria, having a symbiotic relationship. (wikipedia.org)
  • rRNA
  • this is the largest number of rRNA genes found in any bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, using 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing (cDNA) we determined the composition of actively transcribing bacteria from spring waters experimentally exposed through the day (morning, noon, and afternoon) to variable levels of solar radiation and light quality, and evaluated their influence on nutrient recycling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Archaea are identified as being separate from bacteria and eukaryotes based on ribosomal RNA (rRNA) analysis and certain defining characteristics that separate the three domains of life as described by Woese in 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • motile
  • and Burkholderia cepacia, an important pathogen of pulmonary infections in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). The Burkholderia (previously part of Pseudomonas) genus name refers to a group of virtually ubiquitous Gram-negative, obligately aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are motile by means of single or multiple polar flagella, with the exception of Burkholderia mallei which is nonmotile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei (also known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei) is a Gram-negative, bipolar, aerobic, motile rod-shaped bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Individual bacterial cells cannot be seen without the use of a microscope, however, large populations of bacteria become visible as aggregates in liquid, as biofilms on plants, as viscous suspensions plugging plant vessels, or colonies on petri dishes in the laboratory. (apsnet.org)
  • transformation (absorption of naked DNA), transduction (transfer by a virus), and conjugation (transfer by independently replicating DNA molecules, called plasmids , which can be inserted into the bacterial DNA). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We further demonstrate that wild type bacteria that survived ciprofloxacin treatment contain higher levels of T3SS proteins and display increased cytotoxicity to macrophage compared to vegetative bacterial cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Alphaproteobacteria is a class of bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria (See also bacterial taxonomy). (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural genetic transformation is a sexual process involving DNA transfer from one bacterial cell to another through the intervening medium, and the integration of the donor sequence into the recipient genome by homologous recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • and refs therein] Highly abundant bacterial small RNAs have been shown to be present in the bacteria subjected to chronic nutrient limitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterial sRNAs regulatory mechanisms are typically based on direct RNA-RNA interaction with a target mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Results obtained from RNA-seq experiments revealed a complex expression pattern with a group of 22 genes having expression profiles similar to OmpH that is an outer membrane protein transcribed in response to high hydrostatic pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, RNA-seq allowed a deep characterization of the transcriptional landscape that led to the identification of 460 putative small RNA genes and the detection of 298 protein-coding genes previously unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome-wide prediction of the operon structure, the transcription start and termination sites, revealed an unexpected high number of genes (992) with large 5'-UTRs, long enough to harbor cis-regulatory RNA structures, suggesting a correlation between intergenic region size and UTR length. (wikipedia.org)
  • For maximal usefulness, such as unequivocal identification of an organism and determination of the number of its virulence genes and their locations, a fully annotated genome sequence is needed (Fraser et al. (apsnet.org)
  • Virulence and pathogenicity genes may be harbored in different replicons (independent replicating units), such as spread throughout the chromosome(s) or in specialized areas termed genomic or pathogenicity islands (Arnold et al. (apsnet.org)
  • The functions of most genes, including those on extra-chromosomal elements, aren't known and it's estimated that each bacterium has about 40% of its genome devoted to unique genes. (apsnet.org)
  • The GC content of H. turkmenica was determined to be 64% for its draft genome with 49 RNA genes predicted using RAST. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • This bacterium was originally isolated in 1986 from the Sulu Sea and there are currently 4 cultured wild-type strains of P. profundum, (strains SS9, 3TCK, DJS4 and 1230). (wikipedia.org)
  • These new and evolving techniques are enabling the study of virulence (the disease severity) and pathogenicity (the ability to cause disease), strain (descendants of a single isolation in culture) identification and typing (similarity or difference analysis relative to other strains), evolution and spread of bacteria, gene expression and gene regulation. (apsnet.org)
  • E. coli and other facultative anaerobes constitute about 0.1% of gut flora, and fecal-oral transmission is the major route through which pathogenic strains of the bacterium cause disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthase
  • Two complete F1F0 ATP synthase pathways (one on each Chromosome) are also present in this bacterium: this might explain its ability to produce ATP at both high and low pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • unicellular
  • A large number of generations are required for adaptive mutation to occur, and experimental evolution via mutation is carried out in viruses or unicellular organisms with rapid generation times, such as bacteria and asexual clonal yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • phylum
  • The phylum Bacteroidetes is composed of three large classes of Gram-negative, nonsporeforming, anaerobic or aerobic, and rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, including in soil, sediments, and sea water, as well as in the guts and on the skin of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Life functions through the specialized chemistry of carbon and water and is largely based upon four key families of chemicals: lipids (fatty cell walls), carbohydrates (sugars, cellulose), amino acids (protein metabolism), and nucleic acids (self-replicating DNA and RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • First discovered in Gram-negative bacteria, both Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP Receptor Protein (CRP) function in sucrose phosphorylase regulation (Reid and Abratt 2005). (wikipedia.org)
  • phyla
  • Phylogenetic analyses and conserved indels in large numbers of other proteins provide evidence that Alphaproteobacteria have branched off later than most other phyla and Classes of Bacteria except Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sharing of these three proteins is significant because other than them, no proteins from either the Bacteroidetes or Chlorobi phyla are shared by any other groups of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • A complete biodegradation under aerobic conditions consists of two steps, primary biodegradation and ultimate biodegradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epidemiological cycle of bartonellae consists of a reservoir host with a chronic intravascular infection and sustained bacteremia, and a vector that transfers the bacteria from the reservoir to a susceptible host. (standardsingenomics.org)
  • Like other members in its family, it has a characteristic 16S ribosomal RNA which consists of 1474 base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme consists of four major domains, namely A, B, B', and C. Domains A, B' and C exist as dimers around the active site (Sprogoe et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • surfaces
  • Various types of pili are involved in conjugation and in the adherence of bacteria to mucosal surfaces. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because it thrives on moist surfaces, this bacterium is also found on and in medical equipment, including catheters, causing cross-infections in hospitals and clinics. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • The molecular biology of H. volcanii has been extensively studied for the last decade in order to discover more about DNA replication, DNA repair and RNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Two groups of prokaryotic organisms are sometimes not classified as bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The following organisms are the 5 closest relatives to H. turkmenica (similarity scores in bold): Haloterrigena borinquense DM 11551 (515) Haroarcula marimortui ATCC 43049 (506) Halomicrobium mukohataei DSM 12286 (501) Halorhabdus utahensis DS 12940 (497) Halquadratum walsbyi DSM 1679 (488) In 2016, Selim et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since many pathways in mixed-acid fermentation produce hydrogen gas, these pathways require the levels of hydrogen to be low, as is the case when E. coli lives together with hydrogen-consuming organisms, such as methanogens or sulphate-reducing bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • During the biodegradation, several specific bacteria and oxygen are required in both omega-oxidation of the alkyl chain and the benzene ring cleaving process, so this biodegradation can only happen in aerobic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability to continue growing in the absence of oxygen is an advantage to bacteria because their survival is increased in environments where water predominates. (wikipedia.org)
  • diversity
  • In total, our results reveal that both the structure and the diversity of the active bacteria community was extremely dynamic through the day, and showed marked shifts in composition that influenced nutrient recycling, highlighting how abiotic variation affects potential ecosystem functioning. (frontiersin.org)
  • The basal group is Magnetococcidae, which is composed by a large diversity of magnetotactic bacteria, but only one is described, Magnetococcus marinus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Temperature
  • The shifts in the contribution by Cyanobacteria also influenced the rate of change in nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate, highlighted by a high level of nitrate accumulation during hours of high radiation and temperature associated with nitrifying bacteria activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • the optimum growth temperature for H. turkmenica is 40 °C, while Saunders et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Moreover, the class includes (as an extinct member) the protomitochondrion, the bacterium that was engulfed by the eukaryotic ancestor and gave rise to the mitochondria, which are organelles in eukaryotic cells (See endosymbiotic theory). (wikipedia.org)
  • Infectious
  • For beneficial purposes or as pathogens, populations of 106 CFU (colony-forming units/milliliter) or higher are normally required for bacteria to function as biological control agents or cause infectious disease. (apsnet.org)
  • found
  • Methylobacillus is a group of methylotrophic aerobic bacteria, and they can be found in large numbers in marine and fresh water ecosystems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haloterrigena turkmenica is an aerobic chemo organotrophic archeon originally found in Turkish salt lakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2004). The size of the enzyme, as determined by sedimentation centrifugation, was found to be 55 KDa, consisting of 488 amino acids (Koga et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • After transfer, the strands may become properly grouped or assembled by DNA repair and recombination mechanisms using logic analogous to grammar- and syntax-checking in word processing programs. (panspermia.org)
  • Viruses and Other Gene Transfer Mechanisms is a related local webpage. (panspermia.org)
  • growth
  • Bacteria reproduce by cell division about every 20 minutes, giving them a very high rate of population growth and evolution. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These normal flora are harmless or even helpful, protecting their host by interference with the growth of harmful bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • P. aeruginosa growth within the human body can be asymptomatic until the bacteria form a biofilm, which overwhelms the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • 2002). Analyzing the expression of DNA through intermediate steps with microarrays is a powerful emerging tool (Hinds et al. (apsnet.org)
  • infections
  • The etiology of odontogenic infections is usually attributed to the endogenous flora of the mouth, and not to the introduction of non-resident bacteria. (cda-adc.ca)
  • Plant
  • Plant associated bacteria may be beneficial or detrimental. (apsnet.org)
  • The most exciting and current areas of research on plant-associated bacteria are the result of new intellectual discoveries, analyses and fields of study, new techniques and new instrumentation unavailable even a decade ago. (apsnet.org)