• bioreactor
  • The term bioreactor, which originally meant a tank in which cells, cell extracts, or enzymes carried out a biological reaction, now often refers to a growth chamber (fermenter or fermentation vessel) for cells or microorganisms used in the production of recombinant proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • Although direct comparison of the production costs associated with these different systems is rather difficult, a previous study suggested that building a large-scale (10,000 liter bioreactor) manufacturing facility for mammalian cells takes 3-5 years and costs US$ 250-500 million, whereas a transgenic farm with a single purification facility should not cost more than US$ 80 million and would most likely cost less [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Approximately 300 spheroids are usually cultured per bioreactor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell culture bioreactor-known commercially as the Rotary Cell Culture System (RCCS) -- boasts several advantages that exceed typical laboratory methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NASA researchers who led the development of the cell culture bioreactor were named co-recipients of the 1991 NASA Inventor of the Year Award because of their work on the project. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fed-batch culture is, in the broadest sense, defined as an operational technique in biotechnological processes where one or more nutrients (substrates) are fed (supplied) to the bioreactor during cultivation and in which the product(s) remain in the bioreactor until the end of the run. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have estimated main factors in the success of a microalgae hatchery system as the dimensions of the container/bioreactor where microalgae is cultured, exposure to light/irradiation and concentration of cells within the reactor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitro
  • Network with industry experts, gain insight into how the pharmaceutical industry is utilizing 3D Cell Culture technologies to enhance research and development, discuss the potential for novel in-vitro cell culture models to replace animal models, and discover novel 3D cell culture systems, organ-on-chip, 3D imaging of organoids and other technologies in development. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • The report addresses the whole market for cell culture including the research segment, production segment, contract segment, and "others" segment, which includes the in vitro diagnostics and educational sector. (gii.co.jp)
  • Unlike 2D environments (e.g. a petri dish), a 3D cell culture allows cells in vitro to grow in all directions, similar to how they would in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early studies in the 80's, led by Mina Bissell from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, highlighted the importance of 3D techniques for creating accurate in vitro culturing models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eric Simon, in a 1988 NIH SBIR grant report, showed that electrospinning could be used to produced nano- and submicron-scale polystyrene and polycarbonate fibrous mats (now known as scaffolds) specifically intended for use as in vitro cell substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • These tissues provide a unique in vitro model to study cardiac physiology with a species-specific advantage over cultured animal cells in experimental studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This refers to the in vitro assessment of material to determine whether it releases toxic chemicals in sufficient quantities to kill cells either directly or indirectly through the inhibition of cell metabolic pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro biomaterials testing yields fundamental information about the behaviour of materials in contact with living cells, but cannot qualify or even accurately predict the performance of a material in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organ culture is a development from tissue culture methods of research, the organ culture is able to accurately model functions of an organ in various states and conditions by the use of the actual in vitro organ itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parts of an organ or a whole organ can be cultured in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells can therefore be grown for prolonged periods in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other immortalised cell lines are the in vitro equivalent of cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalised cell lines have undergone similar mutations allowing a cell type which would normally not be able to divide to be proliferated in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalized cell lines find use in biotechnology where they are a cost-effective way of growing cells similar to those found in a multicellular organism in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • 10,000 cells are harvested and grown in vitro for approximately six weeks until the population reaches 10-12 million cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • To test if stimulation of beta-catenin induces regeneration, we used hydrodynamic delivery of Wnt-1 naked DNA to control mice, which prompted an increase in Wnt-1, beta-catenin, and known targets, glutamine synthetase (GS) and cyclin-D1, along with a concomitant increase in cell proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • This enhances the ability for scientists to study basic biological mechanisms such as cell number monitoring, cell viability, proliferation and morphology. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • As the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is important in the survival, proliferation, differentiation and migration of the cells, different hydrogel matrices mimicking natural ECM structure are considered as potential approaches towards in vivo -like cell culturing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer occurs when a somatic cell which normally cannot divide undergoes mutations which cause de-regulation of the normal cell cycle controls leading to uncontrolled proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves and then differentiate into the cell types needing replacement in the damaged tissue Macrophages can self-renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Peptides or proteins regulate most human physiology through the endocrine/paracrine systems and serve as hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors, enzymes, and also as structural components of cells. (genengnews.com)
  • In this paper, we compared different systems capable of producing therapeutic proteins (bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and transgenic animals) and found that transgenic animals were potentially ideal bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutical protein complexes. (hindawi.com)
  • The ability of transgenic animals to produce complex, biologically active proteins in an efficient and economic manner is superior to those of bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and insects [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Plant-produced proteins also offer advantages for cell culture and bioprocessing use because they replace animal derived components, which have become unpopular due to concerns about prion contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells are used for a wide variety of purposes, from testing toxicity of compounds or drugs to production of eukaryotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial expression of key proteins required for immortality, for example telomerase which prevents degradation of chromosome ends during DNA replication in eukaryotes Hybridoma technology, specifically used for the generation of immortalized antibody-producing B cell lines, where an antibody-producing B cell is fused with a myeloma (B cell cancer) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both cysteine proteases and a majority of translocation regions harbor hydrophobic proteins, which show access to TcdB and other toxins crossing the cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • However, in vivo studies may neither allow the adequate probing of the cellular basis of ESWL injury nor aid the understanding of the mechanism by which cells of the kidney are damaged. (springer.com)
  • 3D cell culture enables cells to grow and interact with their surroundings in all three dimensions, better mimicking the in-vivo conditions in which the cells are naturally present. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • Standard 2D, or monolayer, cell cultures are inadequate representations of this environment, which often makes them unreliable predictors of in vivo drug efficacy and toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extraction conditions are used which are appropriate for the type of exposure which the cells would receive in the in vivo environment if the material were to be implanted. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major advantage of explant culture is the maintenance of near in vivo environment in the laboratory for a short duration of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The composition of extracellular matrix, for example, must be precisely similar to that of in vivo conditions in order to induce naturally observed behaviors of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Explant culture can also refer to the culturing of the tissue pieces themselves, where cells are left in their surrounding extracellular matrix to more accurately mimic the in vivo environment e.g. cartilage explant culture, or blastocyst implant culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The explant culture has been used as an ex vivo model to investigate linear bone growth, bone and cartilage metabolism, cancer cells-induced bone disease, stem cell behavior in bone repair, and bone response to mechanical loading. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibroblasts
  • This early use of electrospun fibrous lattices for cell culture and tissue engineering showed that various cell types including Human Foreskin Fibroblasts (HFF), transformed Human Carcinoma (HEp-2), and Mink Lung Epithelium (MLE) would adhere to and proliferate upon the fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • hESCs can be generated by SCNT using dermal fibroblasts nuclei from both a middle-aged 35-year-old male and an elderly, 75-year-old male, suggesting that age-associated changes are not necessarily an impediment to SCNT-based nuclear reprogramming of human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • beta-Catenin overexpression offers growth advantage during liver regeneration. (nih.gov)
  • Sterile microbiological techniques for the maintenance and growth of bacterial and yeast cell cultures. (visualcv.com)
  • Professor Przyborski is developing new and innovative ways to manage the growth and function of cultured cells. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • InVitria's Director of Cell Culture, Dr. Steve Pettit, presented at the meeting and revealed data from a study entitled, 'Recombinant Human Serum Albumin Expressed in Plants Improves the Productivity and Growth Kinetics of CHO. (bio-medicine.org)
  • InVitria's Cellastim and Lacromin are animal free components used to enhance cell growth, reduce doubling times and optimize productivity in cell culture media. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Besides whole plants, plant cells can be cultivated as cell cultures in synthetic growth media and this way they offer a great potential for various biotechnological applications. (frontiersin.org)
  • The global market for media, sera and reagents used in cell culture will grow from nearly $3.6 billion in 2016 to $4.6 billion by 2021 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.5% between 2016 and 2021. (gii.co.jp)
  • Microfluidics refers to a set of technologies for the manipulation for the small fluid volumes within artificially fabricated microsystems.And cell culture refers to the maintenance and growth of cells in a controlled laboratory environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third dimension of cell growth provides more contact space for mechanical inputs and for cell adhesion, which is necessary for integrin ligation, cell contraction and even intracellular signalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2D, the cells must undergo regular trypsinization in order to provide them with sufficient nutrients for normal cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3D spheroids have been cultured in a lab setting for up to 302 days while still maintaining healthy, non-cancerous growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting device enables the growth of tissue, cancer tumors and virus cultures outside the body, both in space and on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxygen, required by cells for growth, is fed into the liquid medium through a porous wall in the chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • By adding such substrates properly lag-time can be shortened and the inhibition of the cell growth markedly reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • In aerobic cultures of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, organic acids such as acetic acid, (and in lesser amounts, lactic acid and formic acid), are produced as byproducts when sugar concentration is high, and these acids inhibit cell growth as well as show deteriorating effect on the metabolic activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • A powerful method of overcoming the catabolite repression in the enzyme biosynthesis is a fed-batch culture in which glucose concentration in the culture liquid is kept low, where growth is restricted, and the enzyme biosynthesis is derepressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5. Auxotrophic mutants In a microbial process employing an auxotrophic mutant (nutritionally requiring mutant), excess supply of the required nutrient results in abundant cell growth with little accumulation of the desired metabolite due to feedback inhibition and /or end-product repression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Starvation of the required nutrient, however, lowers cell growth as well as the overall production of the desired metabolite, as the production rate is usually proportional to the cell concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keeping the concentration of this compound as low as possible (while still allowing for sufficient cell growth) permits continued expression of the regulated gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The samples are often minced, and the pieces are placed in a cell culture dish containing growth media. (wikipedia.org)
  • These transgenic labels can help researchers observe growth of specific cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to analysis, YTXs must be isolated from the sample medium whether this is the digestive gland of a shellfish, a water sample, or a growth-culture medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies that examine the growth rate of microorganisms (in other words: how fast they divide to create new cells) require cell counting. (wikipedia.org)
  • To quantify the number of cells in a culture, the cells can be simply plated on a petri dish with growth medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancerous cells
  • Telomerase lengthens telomeres in DNA strands, thereby allowing senescent cells that would otherwise become postmitotic and undergo apoptosis to exceed the Hayflick limit and become potentially immortal, as is often the case with cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • artificial
  • This work focused on the importance of the extracellular matrix and the ability of cultures in artificial 3D matrices to produce physiologically relevant multicellular structures, such as acinar structures in healthy and cancerous breast tissue models. (wikipedia.org)
  • An artificial kidney has been cultured by H. David Humes at the University of Michigan. (wikipedia.org)
  • bioreactors
  • Compared with other mammalian species (pig, goat, sheep, and cow) that are currently being studied as bioreactors, rabbits offer many advantages: high fertility, easy generation of transgenic founders and offspring, insensitivity to prion diseases, relatively high milk production, and no transmission of severe diseases to humans. (hindawi.com)
  • concentration
  • The advantage of the fed-batch culture is that one can control concentration of fed-substrate in the culture liquid at arbitrarily desired levels (in many cases, at low levels). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. High cell density (High cell concentration) In a batch culture, to achieve very high cell concentrations, e.g. 50-100 g of dry cells/L, high initial concentrations of the nutrients in the medium are needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • To cultivate the mutant on a low concentration of the required nutrient, it is fed to the batch culture at a controlled rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The agar diffusion method is good for materials with high densities and offers an even concentration gradient for potential toxicants, but there is a serious risk of the cells going into thermal shock when they are overlaid with agar. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxin concentration of the supernatant is proportional to the organism cell count. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell counts within liquid media (such as blood, plasma, lymph, or laboratory rinsate) are usually expressed as a number of cells per unit of volume, thus expressing a concentration (for example, 5,000 cells per milliliter). (wikipedia.org)
  • By the counting of cells in a known small volume, the concentration can be mediated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of the need for cell counting include: In medicine, the concentration of various blood cells, such as red blood cells and white blood cells, can give crucial information regarding the health situation of a person (see: complete blood count). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell concentration needs to be known for many experiments in molecular biology, in order to adjust accordingly the amount of reagents and chemicals that are to be applied in the experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The separating distance between the chamber and the cover is predefined, thus the volume of the counted culture can be calculated and with it the concentration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The colonies can then be counted, and based on the known volume of culture that was spread on the plate, the cell concentration can be calculated. (wikipedia.org)
  • nutrients
  • Generally speaking, fed-batch culture is superior to conventional batch culture when controlling concentrations of a nutrient (or nutrients) affect the yield or productivity of the desired metabolite. (wikipedia.org)
  • At such high concentrations, the nutrients become inhibitory, even though they have no such effect at the normal concentrations used in batch cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum-free, nutritious medium provides all the nutrients for the cells to grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor
  • Over time, progenitor cells migrate out of the tissue onto the surface of the dish. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are classified as either totipotent (iTC), pluripotent (iPSC) or progenitor (multipotent-iMSC, also called an induced multipotent progenitor cell-iMPC) or unipotent-(iUSC) according to their developmental potential and degree of dedifferentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Each plant cell has the whole genetic potential for differentiation into e.g., root, stem, leaf, or flower tissue. (frontiersin.org)
  • This meant that the cells can change their differentiation pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila imaginal discs, cells have to choose from a limited number of standard discrete differentiation states. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact that transdetermination (change of the path of differentiation) often occurs for a group of cells rather than single cells shows that it is induced rather than part of maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • In the early 1990s, NASA researchers began developing hardware that would let them study the cell tissues of mammals-including humans-in microgravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to further test applications to humans as a cure, a way to transform human stem cells into heart tissue would have to be found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today cultured microalgae is used as direct feed for humans and land-based farm animals, and as feed for cultured aquatic species such as molluscs and the early larval stages of fish and crustaceans. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Sanford KK, Parshad R, Gantl R: Responses of human cells in culture to hydrogen peroxide and related free radicals generated by visible light: relationship to cancer susceptibility. (springer.com)
  • Researchers globally are realizing the potential of 3D cell culture for various applications, including testing and discovering new drugs to treat cancer, organ-on-chip models to study the human physiology in an organ specific context, and 3D cell printing to produce organ models. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • Tests have shown that Cellastim outperforms plasma-derived human serum albumin and can result in improved doubling time and an average 50% increase in productivity across a variety of chemically defined cell culture media. (bio-medicine.org)
  • There are similar possibilities for AIDS research: the RCCS can produce human HIV host cells that can be infected and studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016, another test was done in which human cells were used to assemble intricately structured hearts. (wikipedia.org)
  • They then introduced human stem cells inside the pig embryo to have the human DNA fill in the gaps. (wikipedia.org)
  • The origins of some immortal cell lines, for example HeLa human cells, are from naturally occurring cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalized cell lines are widely used as a simple model for more complex biological systems, for example for the analysis of the biochemistry and cell biology of mammalian (including human) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major examples include human HeLa cells that were obtained from a cervical cancer, mouse Raw 264.7 cells that were subjected to mutagenesis and then selected for cells which are able to undergo division. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • He has over 25 years experience in cell biology with specific interests in cell culture technology, neuroscience and stem cell research. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • Microfluidic cell culture attempts to develop devices and techniques of culturing, maintaining, analyzing and experimenting in cells in micro scale volumes and facilitate simultaneous manipulation and analysis of cultured cells.The use of integrated microfluidic devices has advanced the fields of quantitative and systems in biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, explant culture is a technique to organotypically culture cells from a piece or pieces of tissue or organ removed from a plant or animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortal cell lines are a very important tool for research into the biochemistry and cell biology of multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This simplifies analysis of the biology of cells which may otherwise have a limited lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can alter the biology of the cell and must be taken into consideration in any analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous procedures in biology and medicine require the counting of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chamber
  • A closed tubular cylinder forms the system's cell culture chamber, which is filled with a liquid medium in which cells grow on micrometre-size beads. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chamber rotates around a horizontal axis, allowing the cells to develop in an environment similar to the free-fall of microgravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A counting chamber,(also known as hemocytometer), is a microscope slide that is especially designed to enable cell counting. (wikipedia.org)
  • A drop of cell culture is placed in the space between the chamber and the glass cover, filling it by capillarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • An immortalized cell line is a population of cells from a multicellular organism which would normally not proliferate indefinitely but, due to mutation, have evaded normal cellular senescence and instead can keep undergoing division. (wikipedia.org)
  • An immortalized cell line should not be confused with stem cells, which can also divide indefinitely, but form a normal part of the development of a multicellular organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • These samples can be cells, bacteria, yeast or tissue sections… The acquisitions can be made in three spatial dimensions (X, Y and Z), over time in transmitted or reflected light mode. (necker.fr)
  • Approximately
  • Establishing a commercial production herd of a company's transgenic goats could be accomplished at approximately a tenth of the cost of building a commercial cell-culture facility [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cell roundings by TcdB take no longer than 2 hours (Fig. 4), but as far as cell death goes, it can take approximately 24 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • One example is the transformation of iris cells to lens cells in the process of maturation and transformation of retinal pigment epithelium cells into the neural retina during regeneration in adult newt eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some types of mature, specialized adult cells can naturally revert to stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • animal
  • International supplier of animal free, productivity enhancing cell culture media components offers its customers the chance to improve performance of cell culture development and bioproduction. (bio-medicine.org)
  • InVitria is dedicated to working with customers to improve cell line development speed by improving doubling time and expediting the development process without the use of serum or other animal components,' Deeter said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Several different types of hydrogels from natural and synthetic materials are available for 3D cell culture, including e.g. animal ECM extract hydrogels, protein hydrogels, peptide hydrogels, polymer hydrogels, and wood-based nanocellulose hydrogel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell culture evaluations are the precursor to whole animal studies and are a way to determine if significant cytotoxicity exists for the given material. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1924 Spemann and Mangold demonstrated the key importance of cell-cell inductions during animal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • 3. Glucose effect (Crabtree effect) In the production of baker's yeast from malt wort or molasses it has been recognized since early 1900s that ethanol is produced even in the presence of sufficient dissolved oxygen (DO) if an excess of sugar is present in the culture liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Cell cultures deriving from plants offer a fascinating tool to study plant metabolic pathways and offer large scale production systems for valuable compounds - commercial examples include compounds such as paclitaxel. (frontiersin.org)
  • hepatocytes
  • However, TG hepatocytes upon culture exhibit a 2-fold increase in thymidine incorporation at day 5 (D5) when compared to hepatocytes from wildtype FVB mice (WT). (nih.gov)
  • stability
  • Hairy roots, a tumor tissue caused by infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a relevant alternative for plant secondary metabolite production for being fast growing, able to grow without phytohormones, and displaying higher stability than undifferentiated cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • sufficient
  • The downside of explant culture is that it does not provide sufficient time to study chronic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers were able to identify the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient for starting the cascade of molecular and cellular processes to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • A) Topflash reporter assay showing transcriptional response in HEK293 cells following transfection with various β-catenin mutant expression vectors. (nih.gov)
  • In biomaterials testing, a cell culture assay is any method which is used to assess the cytotoxicity of a material. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimental
  • However, an experimental FPR system in the 1980s used circulation within the culture from a gas exchange unit across horizontal panels. (wikipedia.org)
  • quantification
  • Cell counting is any of various methods for the counting or similar quantification of cells in the life sciences, including medical diagnosis and treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidney
  • Rindler MJ, Chuman LM, Shaffer L, et al: Retention of differentiated properties in an established dog kidney epithelial cell line (MDCK). (springer.com)
  • naturally
  • There are several methods for generating immortalized cell lines: Isolation from a naturally occurring cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • consist
  • Media solidified with agar are also used for organ culture and these media consist of 7 parts 1% agar in BSS, 3 parts chick embryo extract and 3 parts of horse serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • Such studies cannot precisely determine what role the various physical parameters of shock wave delivery play in producing cell injury. (springer.com)
  • This report focuses on the global market for media, sera and reagent products used in the cell culture industry and discusses the applications in various arenas of biomedical and life science research. (gii.co.jp)
  • Microfluidics provide high degree control over cell culture conditions in various aspects. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are various immortal cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telomerase are found specifically to target shorter telomere over longer telomere, due to various regulatory mechanisms inside the cells that reduce the affinity of telomerase to longer telomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • generally
  • Generally, when cells are infected with TcdB, they not only lose their structural integrity, but also diminutions of F-actin filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the cells are efficiently distributed on the plate, it can be generally assumed that each cell will give rise to a single colony or Colony Forming Unit (CFU). (wikipedia.org)
  • regenerative medicine
  • Fort Collins, CO (PRWEB) December 18, 2008 -- The 2008 Cell Engineering Conference, hosted by the Williamsburg BioProcessing Foundation, featured the products and supporting research data of InVitria , a company committed to delivering affordable, high-performing cell culture media components for bioproduction and regenerative medicine applications. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The regulation of hTERT is extremely important to the maintenance of stem and cancer cells and can be used in multiple ways in the field of regenerative medicine. (wikipedia.org)