• glucose
  • However, its main function is to be a reserve of lipids, which can be oxidised to meet the energy needs of the body and to protect it from excess glucose by storing triglycerides produced by the liver from sugars, although some evidence suggests that most lipid synthesis from carbohydrates occurs in the adipose tissue itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central resistin also modulates glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and food intake and impairs liver insulin sensitivity ( 24 - 27 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To examine whether the accumulation of visceral fat (VF) could play a direct role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, we monitored insulin action, glucose tolerance, and the expression of adipo-derived peptides after surgical removal of VF in aging (20-month-old) F344/Brown Norway (FBN) and in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A hallmark of these diseases is insulin resistance, i.e., when a maximal dose of the hormone is incapable of optimally eliciting its pleiotropic biological effects (e.g., stimulation of glucose uptake and glycogen, protein, and lipid synthesis in skeletal muscle). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Skeletal muscle is the principal site of whole-body glucose disposal, and along with adipose tissue, becomes severely insulin resistant during the latter half of pregnancy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • metabolic
  • Increased circulating free fatty acids, derived from highly metabolic visceral fat, can cause insulin resistance and promote hepatic steatosis. (asahq.org)
  • Accumulating evidence suggests that the communication pathways linking the brain, gut and adipose tissue might be promising intervention points for metabolic disorders. (biologists.org)
  • Two major groups of metabolic inputs inform the brain about the peripheral energy state: short-term signals produced by the gut system and long-term signals produced by adipose tissue. (biologists.org)
  • This poster article overviews current knowledge about communication pathways between the brain, gut and adipose tissue, and discusses potential research directions that might lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying metabolic disorders. (biologists.org)
  • In this article and the accompanying poster, we provide an overview of current knowledge regarding coordinated system-wide connections that maintain energy homeostasis, highlighting how disruptions in metabolic sensing and integration between the brain, white adipose tissue (WAT) and the gastrointestinal system can contribute to metabolic disorders. (biologists.org)
  • Human pregnancy is characterized by a series of metabolic changes that promote adipose tissue accretion in early gestation, followed by insulin resistance and facilitated lipolysis in late pregnancy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • hypothalamic
  • The neurohypophysis stores and releases two hypothalamic hormones: Oxytocin stimulates powerful uterine contractions, which trigger labor and delivery of an infant, and milk ejection in nursing women. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the current study, we report that chronic resistin infusion in the lateral cerebral ventricle of normal rats markedly affects both hypothalamic and peripheral insulin responsiveness. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • More recently, it has been shown that resistin is expressed in the hypothalamus ( 22 ) and activates specific hypothalamic neurons ( 23 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • adiposity
  • The underlying belief among those in support of this theory is that serum resistin levels will increase with increased adiposity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, serum resistin levels have been found to decline with decreased adiposity following medical treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • In further support of its inflammatory profile, resistin has been shown to increase transcriptional events, leading to an increased expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines including (but not limited to) interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in an NF-κB-mediated (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells-mediated) fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • thyroid hormones
  • Thyroid tissue consists of follicles with stored protein called colloid, containing thyroglobulin, a precursor to other thyroid hormones, which are manufactured within the colloid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thyroid hormones increase the rate of cellular metabolism, and include thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thyroid hormones are also crucial for the regulation of total energy consumption and body composition besides their roles in normal growth, development, and reproduction. (hindawi.com)
  • This review suggests a complex interaction between thyroid hormones and adipocytokines. (hindawi.com)
  • serum
  • Passage 0 synovial MSCs derived from four donors were cultured with 10 % conventional rapid preparation serum or modified slow preparation serum from four different donors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compared with rapid preparation serum, slow preparation serum resulted in a significantly higher total colony number and twofold higher expression levels of nine proteins (angiopoietin-1, BDNF, EGF, ENA-78, IGFBP-2, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA, PDGF-AB/BB, RANTES and TfR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A positive correlation between serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and body mass index (BMI) is suggested as thyroid dysfunction is associated with weight changes [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • increases
  • resistin increases the production of LDL in human liver cells and also degrades LDL receptors in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • hPGH increases six- to eightfold during gestation and replaces normal pituitary growth hormone in the maternal circulation by ∼20 weeks' gestation ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • marrow
  • The marrow adipose tissue depot is poorly understood in terms of its physiologic function and relevance to bone health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, marrow adipose tissue response to exercise approximates that of WAT exercise reduces both adipocyte size as well as MAT volume as quantified by MRI or μCT imaging of bone stained with the lipid binder osmium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral
  • Further investigation into the unique nature of peri-vascular adipose may provide meaningful guidance in managing peripheral vascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Miscommunication between the gut, brain and adipose tissue, or the degradation of input signals once inside the brain, lead to the brain misunderstanding the peripheral energy state. (biologists.org)
  • pathways
  • It has also been demonstrated that resistin upregulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) vascular cell-adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM1) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), all of which are occupied in chemotactic pathways involved in leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypothalamus
  • It consists of a hormone-producing glandular portion (anterior pituitary) and a neural portion (posterior pituitary), which is an extension of the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypothalamus regulates the hormonal output of the anterior pituitary and creates two hormones that it exports to the posterior pituitary for storage and later release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most anterior pituitary hormones exhibit a diurnal rhythm of release, which is subject to modification by stimuli influencing the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there are conflicting data about the associations between the thyroid hormone and TSH levels with the body composition, it is clear that arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus has the major role in regulation of appetite. (hindawi.com)
  • glands
  • Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parathyroid glands, of which there are 4-6, are found on the back of the thyroid glands, and secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), which causes an increase in blood calcium levels by targeting bone, the intestine, and the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adrenal glands produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACTH
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACTH release is triggered by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and inhibited by rising glucocorticoid levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • depot
  • The variation of body fat distribution resulting from normal growth is influenced by nutritional and hormonal status in dependence on intrinsic differences in cells found in each adipose depot. (wikipedia.org)