• cytokines
  • In further support of its inflammatory profile, resistin has been shown to increase transcriptional events, leading to an increased expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines including (but not limited to) interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in an NF-κB-mediated (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells-mediated) fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accumulating evidence indicates that changes in adipose-secreted factors in obesity, including release of inflammatory cytokines, dramatically affect insulin sensitivity ( 3 - 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Resistin also regulates the synthesis and secretion of key proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-12 in macrophages via a nuclear factor-κB-dependent pathway promoting insulin resistance ( 4 , 6 , 28 , 29 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • however, it is now recognised that the adipocyte produces and secretes a wide variety of hormones and cytokines (termed that influence many biological processes, including substrate metabolism. (oakleyoutlet.net)
  • hypothalamic
  • The neurohypophysis stores and releases two hypothalamic hormones: Oxytocin stimulates powerful uterine contractions, which trigger labor and delivery of an infant, and milk ejection in nursing women. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the current study, we report that chronic resistin infusion in the lateral cerebral ventricle of normal rats markedly affects both hypothalamic and peripheral insulin responsiveness. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • More recently, it has been shown that resistin is expressed in the hypothalamus ( 22 ) and activates specific hypothalamic neurons ( 23 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • humans
  • This idea primarily stems from studies demonstrating that serum resistin levels increase with obesity in several model systems (humans, rats, and mice). (wikipedia.org)
  • Obesity or being overweight in humans and most animals does not depend on body weight but on the amount of body fat-specifically, adipose tissue. (phys.org)
  • Obesity or being overweight in humans and most animals does not depend on body weight, but on the amount of body fat-to be specific, adipose tissue [ citation needed ] . (wikia.com)
  • adiposity
  • The underlying belief among those in support of this theory is that serum resistin levels will increase with increased adiposity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, serum resistin levels have been found to decline with decreased adiposity following medical treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Thyroid tissue consists of follicles with stored protein called colloid, containing thyroglobulin, a precursor to other thyroid hormones, which are manufactured within the colloid. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hallmark of these diseases is insulin resistance, i.e., when a maximal dose of the hormone is incapable of optimally eliciting its pleiotropic biological effects (e.g., stimulation of glucose uptake and glycogen, protein, and lipid synthesis in skeletal muscle). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • parathyroid hormone
  • The parathyroid glands, of which there are 4-6, are found on the back of the thyroid glands, and secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), which causes an increase in blood calcium levels by targeting bone, the intestine, and the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • However, its main function is to be a reserve of lipids, which can be oxidised to meet the energy needs of the body and to protect it from excess glucose by storing triglycerides produced by the liver from sugars, although some evidence suggests that most lipid synthesis from carbohydrates occurs in the adipose tissue itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central resistin also modulates glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and food intake and impairs liver insulin sensitivity ( 24 - 27 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • serum
  • A positive correlation between serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and body mass index (BMI) is suggested as thyroid dysfunction is associated with weight changes [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Peripheral
  • Further investigation into the unique nature of peri-vascular adipose may provide meaningful guidance in managing peripheral vascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Two major groups of metabolic inputs inform the brain about the peripheral energy state: short-term signals produced by the gut system and long-term signals produced by adipose tissue. (biologists.org)
  • Miscommunication between the gut, brain and adipose tissue, or the degradation of input signals once inside the brain, lead to the brain misunderstanding the peripheral energy state. (biologists.org)
  • proinflammatory
  • Interestingly, we also report for the first time, to our knowledge, the direct binding of resistin to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 receptors in the hypothalamus, leading to the activation of the associated proinflammatory pathways. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • thyroid hormones
  • The thyroid hormones increase the rate of cellular metabolism, and include thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thyroid hormones are also crucial for the regulation of total energy consumption and body composition besides their roles in normal growth, development, and reproduction. (hindawi.com)
  • This review suggests a complex interaction between thyroid hormones and adipocytokines. (hindawi.com)
  • metabolism
  • Our research is directed towards understanding the molecular and cellular regulation of fat metabolism, in adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle, and how aberrations in fat metabolism lead to the development of insulin resistance (precursor to type 2 diabetes). (oakleyoutlet.net)
  • marrow
  • The marrow adipose tissue depot is poorly understood in terms of its physiologic function and relevance to bone health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, marrow adipose tissue response to exercise approximates that of WAT exercise reduces both adipocyte size as well as MAT volume as quantified by MRI or μCT imaging of bone stained with the lipid binder osmium. (wikipedia.org)
  • excess
  • Just as individuals around the world altruistically participate in "blood drives" to donate their circulatory cells for the medical treatment of others, future citizens may undergo liposuction to remove excess adipose tissue in "fat drives. (ahajournals.org)
  • white
  • In this article and the accompanying poster, we provide an overview of current knowledge regarding coordinated system-wide connections that maintain energy homeostasis, highlighting how disruptions in metabolic sensing and integration between the brain, white adipose tissue (WAT) and the gastrointestinal system can contribute to metabolic disorders. (biologists.org)
  • ATGL is highly expressed in white adipose tissue with less expression in skeletal muscle, accounts for 60 70% of triglyceride lipase activity in adipose and appears to be essential for the control of normal weight. (oakleyoutlet.net)
  • 3T3-F4424 cells when implanted into an athymic (nude) mice gave rise to fat pads that were similar to endogenous white adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • It has also been demonstrated that resistin upregulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) vascular cell-adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM1) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), all of which are occupied in chemotactic pathways involved in leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipose tissue represents an abundant and accessible source of adult stem cells with the ability to differentiate along multiple lineage pathways. (ahajournals.org)
  • Accumulating evidence suggests that the communication pathways linking the brain, gut and adipose tissue might be promising intervention points for metabolic disorders. (biologists.org)
  • This poster article overviews current knowledge about communication pathways between the brain, gut and adipose tissue, and discusses potential research directions that might lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying metabolic disorders. (biologists.org)
  • hypothalamus
  • It consists of a hormone-producing glandular portion (anterior pituitary) and a neural portion (posterior pituitary), which is an extension of the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypothalamus regulates the hormonal output of the anterior pituitary and creates two hormones that it exports to the posterior pituitary for storage and later release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most anterior pituitary hormones exhibit a diurnal rhythm of release, which is subject to modification by stimuli influencing the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there are conflicting data about the associations between the thyroid hormone and TSH levels with the body composition, it is clear that arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus has the major role in regulation of appetite. (hindawi.com)