• Calcium
  • Muscle cramping The cause of cramping is unknown, but may be related to elevated lactate, increased calcium signaling across the sarcoplasmic reticulum caused by membrane instability from reduced levels of ATP, or increased levels of free adenosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle
  • Fatigue and sedation after heavy exertion can be caused by excess adenosine in the cells which signals muscle fiber to feel fatigued. (wikipedia.org)
  • MADD causes an increase of free adenosine during heavy activity which may cause exercise-induced muscle pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over time, excess free adenosine down-regulates primary A1 adenosine receptors, leading to increased muscle pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In persons with a defective enzyme, 5'-nucleotidase removes the ribose and phosphorus from AMP, increasing levels of adenosine measured in muscle cells by ~16-25×, after exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite lack of clinical evidence that it improves muscle development, inosine remains an ingredient in some fitness supplements. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • When designing primers for polymerase chain reaction, inosine is useful in that it can pair with any natural base. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction requires aspartate, glutamine, bicarbonate, and 2 ATP molecules (to provide energy), as well as PRPP which provides the ribose-monophosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • coronary
  • This feature allows physicians to use adenosine to test for blockages in the coronary arteries, by exaggerating the difference between the normal and abnormal segments. (omicsgroup.org)
  • typically
  • Fast rhythms of the heart that are confined to the atria (e.g., atrial fibrillation , atrial flutter ) or ventricles (e.g., monomorphic ventricular tachycardia ) and do not involve the AV node as part of the re-entrant circuit are not typically converted by adenosine. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Progression
  • In 2003, a study was initiated at the University of Pennsylvania MS Center to determine whether raising the levels of uric acid by the administration of inosine would slow the progression of MS. The study was completed in 2006 but the results were not reported to NIH. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • Inosine has also been found to be an important feed stimulant by itself or in combination with certain amino acids in some species of farmed fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • Adenosine has an indirect effect on atrial tissue, causing a shortening of the refractory period. (omicsgroup.org)
  • When administered via a central lumen catheter, adenosine has been shown to initiate atrial fibrillation because of its effect on atrial tissue. (omicsgroup.org)
  • levels
  • Increased levels of free adenosine temporarily decrease pain, allowing over-exertion without awareness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trial uses inosine to raise urate levels in those with levels lower than the population mean (6 mg/dL). (wikipedia.org)