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  • MyD88
  • The MyD88 pathway activates the transcription factor NF‐κB to induce pro‐inflammatory gene expression. (embopress.org)
  • On the other hand, TLR3 depends on TRIF (TIR‐domain‐containing adapter inducing IFN‐β) for downstream signaling, and TLR4 can signal both through MyD88 and TRIF. (embopress.org)
  • Like the MyD88 pathway, the TRIF pathway activates NF‐κB, but in addition activates the transcription factor IRF3. (embopress.org)
  • kinase
  • In addition to activating Ras/AKT and ERK/MAP kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway and STAT transcription factors, phosphotyrosines also serve as docking sites for phosphatases that negatively affect EpoR signaling in order to prevent overactivation that may lead to such disorders as erythrocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • OBJECTIVE- Tall-like receptor (TLR)4 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of free fatty acid (FFA)-induced insulin resistance by activating inflammatory pathways, including inhibitor of κB (IκB)/nuclear factor κB (NFκB). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Their target receptor, the GC receptor (GR), is a multi-tasking transcription factor, changing its role and function depending on cellular and organismal needs. (jci.org)
  • acute
  • For example, LPS, a principal constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, is an important factor in the development of acute renal failure and acceleration of chronic nephritis, often leading to renal insufficiency ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • induces
  • It is unknown whether EpoR signaling plays a permissive (i.e. induces only survival) or an instructive (i.e. upregulates erythroid markers to lock progenitors to a predetermined differentiation path) role in early, multipotent progenitors in order to produce sufficient erythroblast numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • Such data, though sometimes circumstantial, argue that there is limited capacity to proliferate specifically in response to Epo (and not other factors). (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • The brain and spinal cord, which make up the CNS, are not usually accessed directly by pathogenic factors in the body's circulation due to a series of endothelial cells known as the blood-brain barrier, or BBB. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Together, these data suggest that EpoR in erythroid differentiation may function primarily as a survival factor, while its effect on the cell cycle (for example, rate of division and corresponding changes in the levels of cyclins and Cdk inhibitors) in vivo awaits further work. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Based on current evidence, it is still unknown whether Epo/EpoR directly cause "proliferation and differentiation" of erythroid progenitors in vivo, although such direct effects have been described based on in vitro work. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogene
  • The discovery of BCR/ABL as a driver oncogene in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) resulted in the development of Imatinib, which, in fact, demonstrated the potential of targeting the kinase in cancers by effectively treating the CML patients. (jove.com)
  • cytokine
  • On the other hand, GM-CSF deficiency leads to various immune dysfunctions and the current utilization of GM-CSF as haematopoietic factor might be an accurate but very incomplete indication for a cytokine with vast clinical potential. (springer.com)
  • Cytokine levels in cell-free supernatants were quantified by using the cytometric bead array, and mRNA expression of transcription factors and cytokines was determined by using quantitative PCR. (nih.gov)
  • In allergic patients the immune profile of the tonsils represents the atopic status of patients, with low expression of the TH1 cell-specific transcription factor T-bet and the cytokine IFN-γ, as well as IL-10. (nih.gov)
  • Adaptive
  • Several studies indicate that, in the tumor microenvironment, TAMs acquire an M2-polarized phenotype and promote angiogenesis, metastasis, and suppression of adaptive immunity through the expression of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and matrix metalloproteases. (hindawi.com)
  • Many factors modulate innate and adaptive immune responses and link the two branches of immunity during infection. (rupress.org)
  • TRAF6
  • We hypothesized that inhibiting NKCC1 would attenuate ALI after ischemia-reperfusion (IR) by modulating pathways that are mediated by tumor necrosis-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). (frontiersin.org)
  • cytokines
  • In this paper, we discuss the current knowledge about the role of TAMs in HCC development, highlighting the role of TAM-derived cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in the initiation and progression of liver cancer and outlining the signaling pathways involved in the interplay between cancer cells and TAMs. (hindawi.com)
  • molecular
  • Sheridan JW, Metcalf D. A low molecular weight factor in lung-conditioned medium stimulating granulocyte and monocyte colony formation in vitro. (springer.com)
  • pathways
  • We then discuss the opportunities for using aptamers in other complex pathways, including Wnt/β-catenin, and focus on Transforming Growth Factor-β/Smad family signaling. (mdpi.com)
  • chronic
  • Several studies have shown that chronic infections with hepatitis viruses (hepatitis B virus, HBV and hepatitis C virus, HCV) are major risk factors for HCC development. (hindawi.com)
  • Other risk factors to liver carcinogenesis include chronic alcohol abuse, biliary disease, metabolic disorders, drugs, toxins, and genetic conditions, such as hereditary hemochromatosis and 1-antitrypsin deficiency [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • survival
  • Subsequent differentiation stages (proerythroblast to orthochromatic erythroblast) involve a decrease in cell size and eventual expulsion of the nucleus, and are likely dependent upon EpoR signaling only for their survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, these data suggest that EpoR in erythroid differentiation may function primarily as a survival factor, while its effect on the cell cycle (for example, rate of division and corresponding changes in the levels of cyclins and Cdk inhibitors) in vivo awaits further work. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essential
  • In addition, c-Ret and its ligand glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) play essential roles in embryogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • role
  • Harvesting and enrichment of hematopoietic progenitor cells mobilized into the peripheral blood of normal donors by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or G-CSF: potential role in allogeneic marrow transplantation. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, Tumor-Necrosis-Factor-alpha (TNF- α )-induced Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF- κ B) activation plays a key role in hepatocarcinogenesis [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • human
  • improved ERK phosphorylation rapidly in 1C3 h and caused differentiation of human being myeloblastic leukemia ML-1 cells and Jurkat and MOLT-4 Capital t cells (12, 32). (bioinbrief.com)
  • binds
  • The N-terminal SH3 domain binds to proline-rich peptides and can bind to the Ras-guanine exchange factor SOS. (wikipedia.org)
  • domain
  • In addition, we identify phosphoTyr317 in Shc-1 as a high-affinity substrate for the SOCS5-SH2 domain and suggest that SOCS5 may negatively regulate EGF and growth factor-driven Shc-1 signaling by binding to this site. (jove.com)
  • This TRIF-dependent pathway involves the recruitment of the adaptor proteins TIR-domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-β (TRIF) and TRIF-related Adaptor Molecule (TRAM). (wikipedia.org)
  • colony
  • Burgess AW, Camakaris J, Metcalf D. Purification and properties of colony-stimulating factor from mouse lung-conditioned medium. (springer.com)
  • particular
  • JRFL was particular to end up being the preliminary HIV package used to develop this operational program for multiple factors. (bioinbrief.com)
  • In particular, myeloid DCs and stimulations that activate them broke the tolerance of allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells, whereas plasmacytoid DCs and stimulations that activate them, such as TLR7 and TLR9, did not have any effect. (nih.gov)
  • usually
  • The brain and spinal cord, which make up the CNS, are not usually accessed directly by pathogenic factors in the body's circulation due to a series of endothelial cells known as the blood-brain barrier, or BBB. (wikipedia.org)