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  • tubule
  • They form via precipitation of Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein which is secreted by renal tubule cells, and sometimes also by albumin in conditions of proteinuria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Affected cells of the proximal tubule may be passed in the urine, but a kidney biopsy is the only sure way to make a diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cephaloridine is, however, highly cytotoxic to the proximal renal tubule, the segment of the nephron responsible for the secretion of organic anions, including para-am-minohippurate (PAH), as well as the various penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxins
  • These toxins are sent to the kidneys where they are dissolved in water, filtered out, and excreted from the body during urination. (shihtzu.org)
  • Healthy kidneys make highly concentrated urine, which means large amounts of toxins are being processed and excreted in a relatively small amount of water. (shihtzu.org)
  • A diseased kidney, on the other hand, requires an ever-increasing amount of water to handle the same amount of toxins. (shihtzu.org)
  • from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluid
  • There would have to watch out for the patient's fluid intake because too much fluid may result to the further weakening of the kidneys. (skinsheen.com)
  • Loss of fluid leads to failure of metabolic processes, in severe cases, to stop working of vital internal organs (kidneys, heart, lungs) and death. (medicalj-center.info)
  • Intervention
  • Identifies and discusses all levels of nursing management, including Health Promotion, Acute Intervention, and Ambulatory and Home Care, to prepare the nurse to effectively intervene at various stages of illness. (ecampus.com)
  • Mortality
  • Specifically, his work involves identifying reliable and practical tests for protein-caloric malnutrition, which is associated with heightened risks of mortality in renal failure patients, and using these tests to assess different treatment strategies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mortality after acute renal failure: models for prognostic stratification and risk adjustment. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxicity
  • Intrinsic renal diseases are the classic diseases of the kidney including drug toxicity and nephritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This hypothesis is supported by acute toxicity experiments, which demonstrate that despite a 50-fold range of LDse values for four Gd(III) complexes, all become lethally toxic when they release precisely the same quantity of Gd(III). (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Prerenal azotemia can be caused by decreased blood flow through the kidneys (e.g. low blood pressure, congestive heart failure, shock, bleeding, dehydration) or by increased production of urea in the liver via a high protein diet or increased protein catabolism (e.g. stress, fever, major illness, corticosteroid therapy or gastrointestinal bleeding). (wikipedia.org)
  • This may lead to severe liver damage and even death by acute liver failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • More often than not, acute renal failure patients are barred from any food that would increase the protein levels in his blood. (skinsheen.com)
  • However, evidence suggests NSF is associated with exposure to gadolinium (with gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents being frequently used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) in patients with severe kidney failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • injury
  • In the context of acute kidney injury, M-CSF has been implicated in promoting repair following injury, but also been described in an opposing role, driving proliferation of a pro-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute kidney injury: changing lexicography, definitions, and epidemiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • uremia
  • Acute kidney failure results in reduced output of urine , rapidly and abnormally increased levels of nitrogenous substances, potassium , sulfates, and phosphates in the blood , and abnormally low blood levels of sodium, calcium, and carbon dioxide ( see uremia ). (britannica.com)
  • Both uremia and the uremic syndrome have been used interchangeably to denote a very high plasma urea concentration that is the result of renal failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • A detailed and accurate history and physical will help determine if uremia is acute or chronic. (wikipedia.org)
  • fail
  • When kidneys fail to filter properly, waste accumulates in the blood and the body, a condition called azotemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the kidneys fail, they produce less erythropoietin, resulting in decreased production of red blood cells to replace the natural breakdown of old red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysts
  • There is, however, an increasing body of evidence that suggests the formation of renal cysts starts in utero. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysts initially form as small dilations in renal tubules, which then expand to form fluid-filled cavities of different sizes. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADPKD, together with many other diseases that present with renal cysts, can be classified into a family of diseases known as ciliopathies. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the early stages of cystogenesis, cysts are attached to their parental renal tubules and a derivative of the glomerular filtrate enters the cysts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinically, the insidious increase in the number and size of renal cysts translates as a progressive increment in kidney volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • 3.Aiping Lan, Yongfen Qi, Jie Du: Akt2 Mediates TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition by Deactivating GSK3β/Snail Signaling Pathway in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells. (54doctor.net)
  • The drug controls high blood pressure by binding the aldosterone hormone to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in epithelial tissues, such as the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epithelial cells of the renal tubules, including all the segments of the nephron and the collecting ducts (with the exception of intercalated cells) show the presence of a single primary apical cilium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, new mouse models homozygous for Pkd1 hypomorphic alleles 22 and 23 and the demonstration of increased renal epithelial cell proliferation in Pkd2+/− mice suggest that mechanisms other than the two-hit hypothesis also contribute to the cystic phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • impairment
  • oedema associated with liver cirrhosis, kidney impairment, nephrotic syndrome hypertension adjunct in cerebral/pulmonary oedema where rapid diuresis is required (IV injection) They are also sometimes used in the management of severe hypercalcemia in combination with adequate rehydration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eplerenone is contraindicated in patients with hyperkalaemia, severe renal impairment (creatinine Cl less than 30 ml/min), or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score C). The manufacturer of eplerenone also contraindicates ( relative C.I. ) concomitant treatment with ketoconazole, itraconazole or other potassium-sparing diuretics (though the manufacturer still considers taking these drugs to be absolute C.I.) Potential benefits should be weighted against possible risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • pulmonary
  • Cardiac arrest Cytokine release syndrome Tumor lysis syndrome, causing acute renal failure Infections Hepatitis B reactivation Other viral infections Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) Immune toxicity, with depletion of B cells in 70% to 80% of lymphoma patients Pulmonary toxicity Bowel obstruction and perforation Two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus died of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) after being treated with rituximab. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • In severe cases, permanent kidney failure or death may result. (wikipedia.org)
  • However within a few decades, an acute hypercalcemia syndrome with a relative good outcome was identified by Cuthbert Cope in 1936 (now called Cope syndrome), and in 1949 Charles H. Burnett identified a similar but more severe syndrome, with chronically high blood calcium levels and poor outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • When the body presents the accumulation of residues in the body, it can be noticed even though the texture and the color of the skin, an itching sensation, rashes and unhealthy skin are one of the many symptoms that may indicate that you are suffering from acute renal failure. (healthylifecenter.net)
  • Congenital heart defects are associated with an increased incidence of some other symptoms, together being called the VACTERL association: V - Vertebral anomalies A - Anal atresia C - Cardiovascular anomalies T - Tracheoesophageal fistula E - Esophageal atresia R - Renal (Kidney) and/or radial anomalies L - Limb defects Ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septal defects, and tetralogy of Fallot are the most common congenital heart defects seen in the VACTERL association. (wikipedia.org)
  • autoimmune
  • There is some evidence for efficacy, but not necessarily safety, in a range of other autoimmune diseases, and rituximab is widely used off-label to treat difficult cases of multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and autoimmune anemias. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion
  • Erythropoietin or EPO is a hormone that is produced in the kidney and controls the secretion of red blood cells, so that, when they stop working, the production of the same hormone is affected and causes fatigue and loss of energy. (healthylifecenter.net)
  • tissues
  • Unpurified blood results from malfunctioning of the kidneys and when this happens the count is low, the lower the red blood cells in the organism, the lower the oxygen that the cells and tissues receive and therefore, shortness of breath. (healthylifecenter.net)
  • Neprilysin is expressed in a wide variety of tissues and is particularly abundant in kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neprilysin is also associated with other biochemical processes, and is particularly highly expressed in kidney and lung tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nutrition
  • The site also mentions a role in informing policymakers about issues of relevant to kidney and nutrition communities and the patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • The official publication of the ISRNM is the Journal of Renal Nutrition, which is also the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition and of the National Kidney Foundation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several investigators, including Joel D. Kopple, Shaul G. Massry, and August Heidland, organized a scientific congress held in Wurzburg, Germany in 1977 to bring together investigators interested in the science of renal nutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism was formally organized in the early 1990s to organize the meetings, but remained a small organization until the mid-2000s. (wikipedia.org)
  • After that time, it began to co-publish the Journal of Renal Nutrition with the National Kidney Foundation and publish position papers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scientific meetings are referred to as the "International Congress in Renal Nutrition and Metabolism" and organized every second year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Am J Clin Nutr 31 :1739-1960, 1978 Vennegoor MA, The History of the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism, 1977-2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • limb
  • Loop diuretics are diuretics that act at the ascending limb of the loop of Henle in the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • 1.Xiaogang Peng, Zhicheng Xiao, Jing Zhang, Yulin Li, Yanjun Dong, Jie Du: IL-17A produced by both γδ T and Th17 cells promotes renal fibrosis via RANTES-mediated leukocyte infiltration after renal obstruction. (54doctor.net)
  • Diseases
  • Hematologic diseases in which it is positive include ALL, angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crisis (90%), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (variable), follicular center cells (70%), hairy cell leukemia (10%), and myeloma (some). (wikipedia.org)
  • lethal
  • Acute toxicity, if not lethal, may resolve in the spontaneous recovery of the affected animals provided further exposure is avoided. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Everolimus, also known by the brand name, Afinitor, is a biologic drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of kidney cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • HIV-infected patients 21 years of age and older with chronic hepatitis B infection and liver cirrhosis who have received lamivudine treatment for at least 1 year may be eligible for this 48-week study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • How long can you live after kidney failure if you receive no treatment? (healthtap.com)
  • If kidney failure is advanced then treatment for that is required, namely chronic dialysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drawbacks include a high degree of breakthrough seizures-due to the short half-life of midazolam-in over 50% of people treated, as well as treatment failure in 14-18% of people with refractory status epilepticus. (wikipedia.org)
  • potassium
  • The difference in voltage in both sides are set up by potassium recycling through renal outer medullary potassium channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • In Egyptians, LECT2 is second most common cause of renal amyloidosis, accounting for nearly 31% of all cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neprilysin (/ˌnɛprɪˈlaɪsɪn/), also known as membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME), neutral endopeptidase (NEP), cluster of differentiation 10 (CD10), and common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MME gene. (wikipedia.org)