• gastrointestinal
  • SMA syndrome is thus considered only after patients have undergone an extensive evaluation of their gastrointestinal tract including upper endoscopy, and evaluation for various malabsorptive, ulcerative and inflammatory instestinal conditions with a higher diagnostic frequency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inflammatory response leads to the secondary manifestations of pancreatitis: hypovolemia from capillary permeability, acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulations, renal failure, cardiovascular failure, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. (wikipedia.org)
  • As opposed to traditional imaging modalities like upper gastrointestinal and mesenteric arteriography, which depict either the bowel or vasculature respectively, CT enables direct visualization of obstructed bowel owing to duodenal compression by the SMA. (ctisus.com)
  • The cause of the obstruction may be external to the bowel (extrinsic), within the wall of the bowel (intrinsic), or due to a luminal defect that prevents the passage of gastrointestinal contents. (uptodate.com)
  • proximal
  • Diagnosis may follow x-ray examination revealing duodenal dilation followed by abrupt constriction proximal to the overlying SMA, as well as a delay in transit of four to six hours through the gastroduodenal region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advanced small bowel obstruction leads to bowel dilation and retention of fluid within the lumen proximal to the obstruction, while distal to the obstruction, as luminal contents pass, the bowel decompresses. (uptodate.com)
  • A type of complete obstruction, a closed-loop obstruction, occurs when the intestine is obstructed at two locations, creating a segment with no proximal or distal outlet. (uptodate.com)
  • Obstructive physiology - Obstruction leads to progressive dilation of the intestine proximal to the blockage, while distal to the blockage the bowel will decompress as luminal contents pass. (uptodate.com)
  • 1861
  • SMA syndrome was first described in 1861 by Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky in victims at autopsy, but remained pathologically undefined until 1927 when Wilkie published the first comprehensive series of 75 patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • causes
  • The final common etiologic factor in all causes of short-bowel syndrome is the functional or anatomic loss of extensive segments of small intestine so that absorptive capacity is severely compromised. (medscape.com)
  • Other less common causes include tobacco smoking, stress due to serious illness, Behcet disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, Crohn disease and liver cirrhosis, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • SMAS
  • SMAS is more frequently found in females than males, can be found in every age category including infants, and typically affects slender individuals after acute weight loss. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Vascular
  • [ 1 ] Any disease, traumatic injury, vascular accident, or other pathology that leaves less than 200 cm of viable small bowel or results in a loss of 50% or more of the small intestine places the patient at risk for developing short-bowel syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • ulcers
  • Resect and discard the bay area could be effective in reducing diabetic macular edema if one of the interaction of cytochrome b, an inguinal approach is to assess the clonality of duodenal ulcers depression prostate diseases menstrual and menopausal disorders skin disorder loss of control of diabetes may help in prevention, as do other antibodies. (buffalo.edu)
  • Peritonitis
  • Other conditions associated with short-bowel syndrome include congenital short small bowel, gastroschisis, and meconium peritonitis. (medscape.com)
  • Patients
  • In severe cases, patients may present with acute metabolic acidosis, dehydration, and altered mental status from profuse vomiting. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Patients with profuse or chronic vomiting should have a basic metabolic panel to rule out electrolyte abnormalities or an acid/base disturbance. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Food fear" is a common development among patients with the chronic form of SMA syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2) Many motility mavens do not believe in SMA syndrome - they see all the post op patients who don't get better. (for-surgeons.com)
  • On fancy gastro-duodenal-jejunal motility testing (don't even try to get reimbursed for it) this subset of patients has motor abnormalities and thus are a varient of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. (for-surgeons.com)
  • Various nonoperative procedures can leave patients with a functional short-bowel syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • The subset of patients with clinically significant malabsorption and malnutrition are said to have developed short-bowel syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Although resection of the colon alone typically does not result in short-bowel syndrome, the condition's presence can be a critical factor in the management of patients who lose significant amounts of small intestine. (medscape.com)
  • Not all patients with loss of significant amounts of small intestine develop short-bowel syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with short-bowel syndrome are now routinely treated with TPN, especially early in their course. (medscape.com)
  • typically
  • however, the SMA syndrome is typically managed conservatively in the first instance, consistent with the approach described in this case. (hindawi.com)
  • small bowel
  • Important cofactors that help to determine whether the syndrome will develop or not include the premorbid length of small bowel, the segment of intestine that is lost, the age of the patient at the time of bowel loss, the remaining length of small bowel and colon, and the presence or absence of the ileocecal valve. (medscape.com)
  • Nutcracker
  • We report a case of SMA syndrome and Nutcracker phenomenon in a 19-year-old female who presented to our emergency department with a short history of epigastric pain and emesis. (hindawi.com)
  • We describe a rare emergency presentation of SMA syndrome with coexisting Nutcracker phenomenon. (hindawi.com)
  • cause
  • Acute pandysautonomia may cause emotional instability and has been misdiagnosed as various psychiatric disorders including hysterical neurosis and anorexia nervosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • To our knowledge, there are few reports in the literature describing the coexistence of these two conditions and so we take this opportunity to highlight a rare cause of the acute abdomen that might otherwise be overlooked in cases of nonspecific abdominal findings and potentially unremarkable initial investigations. (hindawi.com)
  • It did not reveal any cause for the obstruction. (ispub.com)
  • Laparoscopic Duodenojejunostomy for the Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: Surgical Management for an Irreversible Cause? (blogs.com)
  • severe
  • If, however, the caspases are depleted due to either chronic ethanol exposure or through a severe insult then necrosis can predominate. (wikipedia.org)