• therapeutic
  • Founded in 1987, Cephalon, Inc. is an international biopharmaceutical company dedicated to the discovery, development and commercialization of many unique products in four core therapeutic areas: central nervous system, inflammatory diseases, pain and oncology. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Physical medicine and rehabilitation employs diverse physical techniques such as thermal agents and electrotherapy, as well as therapeutic exercise and behavioral therapy, alone or in tandem with interventional techniques and conventional pharmacotherapy to treat pain, usually as part of an interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary program. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acupuncture involves the insertion and manipulation of needles into specific points on the body to relieve pain or for therapeutic purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cimetidine inhibits ALA synthase activity and hence may have some therapeutic value in preventing and treating acute porphyria attacks. (wikipedia.org)
  • opiate
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is warning patients and healthcare providers to examine any bottles of opiate pain medications made by Endo Pharmaceuticals to ensure all of the tablets are the same. (drugs.com)
  • noxious
  • Most pain resolves once the noxious stimulus is removed and the body has healed, but it may persist despite removal of the stimulus and apparent healing of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nociceptive pain is caused by stimulation of sensory nerve fibers that respond to stimuli approaching or exceeding harmful intensity (nociceptors), and may be classified according to the mode of noxious stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • nociceptive pain
  • Woolf suggests three classes of pain: nociceptive pain, inflammatory pain which is associated with tissue damage and the infiltration of immune cells, and pathological pain which is a disease state caused by damage to the nervous system or by its abnormal function (e.g. fibromyalgia, peripheral neuropathy, tension type headache, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nociceptive pain may also be divided into "visceral", "deep somatic" and "superficial somatic" pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Individuals who have been vocal about pain levels and received negative responses may feel angry, refusing treatment as an expression of emotional pain. (caregiver.com)
  • Your doctor may prescribe additional pain relievers that act more quickly for treatment of acute or 'breakthrough' pain. (pharmasave.com)
  • Dr. James Gorman, CEO and Chief Medical Officer for BDC commented, "The Cephalon commitment to develop CEP 37247 for non-operative treatment of sciatic pain is encouraging news for the patients, physicians and payors urgently seeking a more effective non-operative treatment for this prevalent, debilitating condition. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 1.HYSIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY OF P ACUTE PAIN 1.1 Applied physiology of pAin Dib-Hajj SD, Binshtok AM, Cummins TR et al (2009) Voltage-gated sodium channels in pain states: Role in pathophysiology and targets for treatment. (com.ee)
  • Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a painful injury or pathology is resistant to treatment and persists, when pain persists after the injury or pathology has healed, and when medical science cannot identify the cause of pain, the task of medicine is to relieve suffering. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a continuing risk in many types of pain management for the patient to take treatment which is less effective than needed or which causes other difficulty and side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • A goal of pain management for the patient and their health care provider to identify the amount of treatment which addresses the pain but which is not too much treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes pain management covers a problem, and the patient might be less aware that they need treatment for a deeper problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • brand name Duragesic, made by Alza Corp.) through an FTC consent agreement derailing the possibility of a monopoly in the treatment of breakthrough chronic pain by Alza Corp. In some cases, physicians instruct patients to apply more than one patch at a time, giving a much wider range of possible dosages. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with any medical treatment, medications used in the management of MS may have several adverse effects, and many possible therapies are still under investigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • prescribe
  • Under a marketing strategy that Arthur Sackler had pioneered decades earlier, the company aggressively pressed doctors to prescribe the drug, wooing them with free trips to pain-management seminars and paid speaking engagements. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • When pain resurfaces before the next scheduled dose of medication and isn't associated with a voluntary or involuntary action, the physician can be notified to examine the timing and amount of around the clock medication. (caregiver.com)
  • Tolerance occurs when a dose that used to provide acceptable pain relief is no longer effective, and higher doses are required to achieve the same level of pain relief. (pharmasave.com)
  • If you plan on stopping the medication, your doctor may want you to reduce the dose gradually to reduce the severity of withdrawal effects. (pharmasave.com)
  • Many things can affect the dose of medication that a person needs, such as body weight, other medical conditions, and other medications. (pharmasave.com)
  • If your doctor has recommended a dose different from the ones listed here, do not change the way that you are taking the medication without consulting your doctor. (pharmasave.com)
  • Do not stop taking this medication without talking to your doctor first, and do not increase the dose of this medication without consulting your doctor. (pharmasave.com)
  • intense
  • Pain that causes intense mental or physical distress, that may feel "knife-like. (nyhq.org)
  • Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • To define the pain problem, a health care provider will likely ask questions such as these: How intense is the pain? (wikipedia.org)
  • People experiencing pain may have difficulty recognizing or describing what they feel and how intense it is. (wikipedia.org)
  • unpleasant
  • Pain is an unpleasant sensory or emotional experience. (nyhq.org)
  • The International Association for the Study of Pain's widely used definition defines pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage", however, due to it being a complex, subjective phenomenon, defining pain has been a challenge. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major identifying characteristics include alterations of visual perception, psychotherapeutic breakthrough experiences leading to personal growth, experiences of religious epiphany/mystical transcendence, and 'bad trips' - negative/unpleasant panic-attack control-loss experiences (note: these three characteristics of psychedelic tripping are not mutually exclusive, there is a wide overlap between them). (wikipedia.org)
  • Visceral
  • Visceral structures are highly sensitive to stretch, ischemia and inflammation, but relatively insensitive to other stimuli that normally evoke pain in other structures, such as burning and cutting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visceral pain is diffuse, difficult to locate and often referred to a distant, usually superficial, structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • physicians
  • In both acute and chronic health conditions, pain is top on the list of concerns for patients, caregivers and physicians. (caregiver.com)
  • Fortunately, pain control centers, physicians and other healthcare personnel have become more aware over the years. (caregiver.com)
  • Physicians have a specific protocol, or pathway, to follow when managing pain for adults and children. (caregiver.com)
  • Drug-seeking tactics that addicts undergo to obtain the medication include "doctor shopping", which is visiting a number of different physicians to obtain additional prescriptions and refusal to follow up with appropriate examinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opioids
  • There are also some discrepancies between guidelines, which recommend the use of lower doses of opioids in older patients, and the findings in the literature which suggest that pain is often undertreated in this age group. (frontiersin.org)
  • All 116 patients were pre-treated with opioids according to WHO III standards for symptomatic pain control. (ons.org)
  • Oxymorphone extended-release tablets are indicated for the management of chronic pain and only for people already on a regular schedule of strong opioids for a prolonged period. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experts are divided regarding use for non-cancer-related chronic pain, as most opioids have great potential for dependence and have also been alleged to create paradoxical pain sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • anesthesia
  • He completed his Anesthesiology residency at Yale University, with specialty training in chronic pain management, obstetric and peripheral vascular anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • patient's
  • Over time, medications are adjusted to account for changes in the pain cycle, including a patient's tolerance to a given dosage. (caregiver.com)
  • Healthcare professionals have an ethical obligation to ensure that, whenever possible, the patient or patient's guardian is well-informed about the risks and benefits associated with their pain management options. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Healthcare practitioners and patients have a closer relationship in deciding pain management routes, incorporating "natural" and prescribed medications and "alternative" methods of pain relief. (caregiver.com)
  • Patients who take it are usually already on other medications, thus increasing the risk of drug interactions. (wtvr.com)
  • As part of the acquisition, Cephalon will gain rights to the BDC intellectual property estate covering the use of cytokine inhibitors, including TNF inhibitors, for sciatic pain in patients with intervertebral disk herniation, as well as other spinal disorders. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Here, we discuss how the approval of extended-release formulations of hydrocodone and the emotionally charged controversy over their release may affect physician prescribing and the care available to patients in need of chronic opioid therapy for the management of pain. (dovepress.com)
  • For female cancer patients especially, a drug that doesn't touch their body's reserve of quiescent eggs could be a huge breakthrough. (healthcanal.com)
  • With competent management, cancer pain can be eliminated or well controlled in 80% to 90% of cases, but nearly 50% of cancer patients in the developed world receive less than optimal care. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some patients, however, may be unable to give verbal feedback about their pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Health care providers and patients may have difficulty communicating with each other about how pain responds to treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different therapies are used for patients experiencing acute attacks, for patients who have the relapsing-remitting subtype, for patients who have the progressive subtypes, for patients without a diagnosis of MS who have a demyelinating event, and for managing the various consequences of MS. The primary aims of therapy are returning function after an attack, preventing new attacks, and preventing disability. (wikipedia.org)
  • routine
  • Administration of high doses of intravenous corticosteroids, such as methylprednisolone, is the routine therapy for acute relapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • Examples of injuries that produce superficial somatic pain include minor wounds and minor (first degree) burns. (wikipedia.org)
  • onset
  • Noticing the time of pain onset and keeping a record can help the doctor make a decision about keeping pain relief consistent. (caregiver.com)
  • oxycodone
  • Oxycodone is available as single-ingredient medication in immediate release and controlled release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serious side effects of oxycodone include reduced sensitivity to pain (beyond the pain the drug is taken to reduce), euphoria, anxiolysis, feelings of relaxation, and respiratory depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • relief
  • Medication for this type of pain is generally around the clock to provide continuity of relief. (caregiver.com)
  • Today's viewpoint incorporates consistent pain relief with keeping the patient alert and functioning. (caregiver.com)
  • Tablets or capsules are to be taken every 12 or 24 hours on a regular schedule in order to achieve and maintain pain relief. (pharmasave.com)
  • Addiction is defined as a psychological need to use the medication for reasons other than pain relief. (pharmasave.com)
  • According to the National Cancer Institute, the answers you give to the following questions can help your doctor locate the cause of the pain and develop a plan to provide you with as much relief as possible. (nyhq.org)
  • Pain relief after injection begins after about 5-10 minutes and 15-30 minutes after rectal administration, and lasts about 3-4 hours for immediate-release tablets and 12 hours for extended-release tablets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Warrants
  • Based on the information in the nerve impulses, the brain is able to identify the location and intensity of the pain and what kind of reaction it warrants. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensory
  • Although there has not been adequate evidence based research on acute sensory TENS, chronic conditions are efficacious in relieving pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essentially, the gate control theory states that sensory fibers carry their signal faster than pain fibers, and thus make their way to the dorsal root ganglion of the spine (the gate) much faster. (wikipedia.org)
  • This in turn causes the pain signal to be blocked by the sensory TENS signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • treat
  • It is important to assess the pain, treat, and evaluate it. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sustained-release pain relievers should only be used when chronic pain control is necessary and should not be used to treat acute, or short-term pain. (pharmasave.com)
  • The Company's lead initiative focuses on the development of a TNF inhibitor therapy to treat the underlying cause of pain in sciatica. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Intranasal Calcitonin, calcitonin-salmon is used to treat Hypercalcaemia arising out of malignancy, Paget's disease of bone, post menopausal and steroid induced osteoporosis, Phantom limb pain and other metabolic bone abnormalities, available as Rockbone, Fortical and Miacalcin Nasal Spray. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doctors James Elam, Peter Safar and Archer S. Gordon set to educating the world about rescue breathing, preventive measures and trying to discover a way to treat acute cardiac arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimuli
  • Transduction is when the thermal, mechanical, or chemical energy from the pain-causing stimuli is converted into electrical energy so it can be transmitted through the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Significant
  • The researchers found that TENS therapy given twice a day for 3 days resulted in significant pain reduction and was found to be more effective than NSAID or placebo. (wikipedia.org)
  • anxiety
  • Intranasal oxytocin is also being actively investigated for many psychiatric conditions including alcohol withdrawal, anorexia nervosa, PTSD, autism, anxiety disorders, pain sensation and schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)