• intracellular
  • Recent evidence to suggest that tTG is inactive within the healthy cell has raised questions as to the exact conditions necessary for intracellular and extracellular activity of the enzyme. (bl.uk)
  • The endothelial cell line ECV304 however, showed a reduction in cell spreading with reduced intracellular tTG, concommitant with collapse of the microtubule network, an effect duplicated by inactivation of extracellular tTG using a monoclonal antibody (CUB7402) to neutralize its activity. (bl.uk)
  • A similar tTG activation was observed to occur in mechanically injured cells in-vitro and in-vivo, this time involving a re-distribution of tTG activity to the extracellular matrix from the intracellular compartment. (bl.uk)
  • Smokers' platelets also had correspondingly higher resting concentrations of intracellular calcium and transglutaminase activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Unlike other members of the transglutaminase family, tTG can be found both in the intracellular and the extracellular spaces of various types of tissues and is found in many different organs including the heart, the liver, and the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Using a specially adapted in-vitro technique (the FN-cell ELSA), cell surfacerelated tTG activity was found to be reduced in tTG antisense clones of ECV304 cells, and increased in tTG sense clones of Swiss 3T3 cells. (bl.uk)
  • An established, in vitro, biochemical cross-linking assay revealed that, although T109M is not pathogenic, G113C completely abolishes TG5 activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • A study published in Nature in 2001 found high levels of anti-transglutaminase antibodies in inflammatory bowel disease - specifically in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalytic
  • To establish whether TG2 transamidating activity is causally related to neurodegeneration, structurally diverse inhibitors have been developed that inhibit the cysteine catalytic site. (jneurosci.org)
  • Three-dimensional modeling of TG5 showed that G113C lies close to the catalytic domain, and, furthermore, that this glycine residue is conserved in all known transglutaminases, which is consistent with pathogenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cellular form is a dimer of two identical subunits, FXIII-A, each consisting of an activation peptide that is cleaved upon activation, a β-sandwich domain, a catalytic transglutaminase domain and two β-barrel domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The A subunits have catalytic function, and the B subunits do not have enzymatic activity and may serve as plasma carrier molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Inhibition of canonical β-catenin pathway or TG2 activity prevents warfarin-regulated calcification, identifying the TG2/β-catenin axis as a novel therapeutic target in vascular calcification. (ahajournals.org)
  • Transglutaminase 2 as a novel activator of LRP6/ß-catenin signaling. (abcam.com)
  • induces
  • Transglutaminase 2 overexpression induces depressive-like behavior and impaired TrkB signaling in mice. (abcam.com)
  • Cathepsin D enzymatic activity induces hydrolytic modification of apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins, including LDL, which means it may be involved in atherosclerosis as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation
  • This assay also revealed that the majority of extracellular tTG activity detected using standard techniques was present due to leakage resulting from cell manipulation such as trypsinization from culture surfaces and mechanical shear forces, or activation of the pre-existing matrix-bound enzyme through trypsin treatment, however a portion of the extracellular activity was attributable to the slow externalisation of the enzyme from the intact cell. (bl.uk)
  • As part of its activity in the coagulation cascade, thrombin also promotes platelet activation and aggregation via activation of protease-activated receptors on the cell membrane of the platelet. (wikipedia.org)
  • findings
  • Housing, neighbourhood and sociodemographic associations with adult levels of physical activity and adiposity: baseline findings from the ENABLE London study. (nih.gov)
  • oxidative
  • 5. It has previously been suggested that changes in the crystallins that occur during aging and with cataract may be due to oxidative reactions and to transglutaminase activity. (biochemj.org)
  • and second, to understand whether a common putative mediator of death, oxidative stress, could induce TG message levels and activity as part of a death cascade. (jneurosci.org)
  • found
  • The compounds, sarcovagine-D, alkaloid-C, and holaphylline isolated from Sarcococca saligna were found to possess immunosuppressive activities. (frontiersin.org)