Loading...
  • intracellular
  • Recent evidence to suggest that tTG is inactive within the healthy cell has raised questions as to the exact conditions necessary for intracellular and extracellular activity of the enzyme. (bl.uk)
  • The endothelial cell line ECV304 however, showed a reduction in cell spreading with reduced intracellular tTG, concommitant with collapse of the microtubule network, an effect duplicated by inactivation of extracellular tTG using a monoclonal antibody (CUB7402) to neutralize its activity. (bl.uk)
  • A similar tTG activation was observed to occur in mechanically injured cells in-vitro and in-vivo, this time involving a re-distribution of tTG activity to the extracellular matrix from the intracellular compartment. (bl.uk)
  • Unlike other members of the transglutaminase family, tTG can be found both in the intracellular and the extracellular spaces of various types of tissues and is found in many different organs including the heart, the liver, and the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Using a specially adapted in-vitro technique (the FN-cell ELSA), cell surfacerelated tTG activity was found to be reduced in tTG antisense clones of ECV304 cells, and increased in tTG sense clones of Swiss 3T3 cells. (bl.uk)
  • The significance of transglutaminase in the early growth and development of Strongylus vulgaris , S. edentatus and S. equinus was tested by adding specific inhibitors, monodansylcadaverine (MDC) or cystamine (CS), to in vitro cultures of third (L3) and fourth stage larvae (L4). (parasite-journal.org)
  • L'impact de la transglutaminase dans la croissance précoce et le développement de Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus et S. equinus a été testé par l'addition d'inhibiteurs spécifiques, monodansylcadavérine(MDC) ou cystamine (CS) aux cultures in vitro de larves de troisième (L3) et de quatrième stade (L4). (parasite-journal.org)
  • An established, in vitro, biochemical cross-linking assay revealed that, although T109M is not pathogenic, G113C completely abolishes TG5 activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • A study published in Nature in 2001 found high levels of anti-transglutaminase antibodies in inflammatory bowel disease - specifically in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • This assay also revealed that the majority of extracellular tTG activity detected using standard techniques was present due to leakage resulting from cell manipulation such as trypsinization from culture surfaces and mechanical shear forces, or activation of the pre-existing matrix-bound enzyme through trypsin treatment, however a portion of the extracellular activity was attributable to the slow externalisation of the enzyme from the intact cell. (bl.uk)
  • antibody
  • This activity could also be neutralized by pre-incubating cells with the anti-tTG monoclonal antibody CUB7402. (bl.uk)
  • catalytic
  • Three-dimensional modeling of TG5 showed that G113C lies close to the catalytic domain, and, furthermore, that this glycine residue is conserved in all known transglutaminases, which is consistent with pathogenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cellular form is a dimer of two identical subunits, FXIII-A, each consisting of an activation peptide that is cleaved upon activation, a β-sandwich domain, a catalytic transglutaminase domain and two β-barrel domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The A subunits have catalytic function, and the B subunits do not have enzymatic activity and may serve as plasma carrier molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation
  • As part of its activity in the coagulation cascade, thrombin also promotes platelet activation and aggregation via activation of protease-activated receptors on the cell membrane of the platelet. (wikipedia.org)
  • deamidation
  • Aside from its crosslinking function, tTG catalyzes other types of reactions including deamidation, GTP-binding/hydrolyzing, and isopeptidase activities. (wikipedia.org)