• enzymatic
  • The resulting enzyme is thermolabile and in homozygotes, enzymatic activity is depressed to 35% of its usual level. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetate can be summarized as follows: Acetaldehyde + NAD+ + Coenzyme A ↔ Acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+ In humans, there are three known genes which encode this enzymatic activity, ALDH1A1, ALDH2, and the more recently discovered ALDH1B1 (also known as ALDH5). (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence in support of this idea from animal work has also suggested that this cognitive deficit is due to functional and biochemical factors such as changes in enzymatic activity, chemical messengers, or gene expression in cortical circuits. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • This leads to 68% of the control values of enzyme activity, and it normally does not lead to low serum folate. (wikipedia.org)
  • An integrated microfluidic system that coupled lysis of two cell lines: L929 fibroblasts and A549 epithelial cells, with fluorescence-based enzyme assay was developed to determine β-glucocerebrosidase activity. (springer.com)
  • The method of enzyme activity determination described in this paper was adapted for flow measurements in the microdevice. (springer.com)
  • Almost every significant life process is dependent on enzyme activity (Ville et al. (springer.com)
  • Normal looking at birth and for the first few years, hypotonic (floppy), in particular difficulty to hold the head, possibly difficulty to thrive, possibly with delayed myelination (if so, some cases are reported with an MRI pattern similar to Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, known as PMD), possibly with decreased mitochondrial enzyme activities, possibly with fluctuating lactate level. (wikipedia.org)
  • This polymorphism has lower enzyme activity and has been tied to slower breakdown of the catecholamines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzyme assay tests of TSD patients revealed a few unusual false negative cases, patients who developed the disease, yet had normal enzyme activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Markedly inhibited 7-dehydrocholesterol-delta 7-reductase activity in liver microsomes from Smith-Lemli-Opitz homozygotes. (jci.org)
  • The introduction of the double bond in lathosterol at C-5 to form 7-dehydrocholesterol that is catalyzed by lathosterol-5-dehydrogenase was equally rapid in controls and homozygotes liver microsomes (120 +/- 8 vs 100 +/- 7 pmol/mg protein per min, P = NS). (jci.org)
  • Thus, lathosterol 5-dehydrogenase is equally active which indicates that homozygotes liver microsomes are viable. (jci.org)
  • Other acquired causes of decreased activity include kidney and liver disease, malignancy (cancer), malnutrition, and burns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assay of butyrylcholinesterase activity in plasma can be used as a liver function test as both hypercholinesterasemia and hypocholinesterasemia indicate pathological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • As discovered by site-directed mutagenesis, glutamate-268 is a key component of liver acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and is also critical to catalytic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals with deficient acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity are far less likely to become alcoholics, but seem to be at a greater risk of liver damage, alcohol-induced asthma, and contracting cancers of the oro-pharynx and esophagus due to acetaldehyde overexposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • wild-type
  • The ALDH2-deficient subunit is dominant in hybridization with a wild type subunit, resulting in inactivation of the isozyme by interfering with catalytic activity and increasing turnover. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • In the present study, cultured skin fibroblasts from 19 AS patients were compared with those from 3 normal subjects, 2 AT homozygotes, and 3 ATHs for their response to irradiation with respect to colony-forming ability and inhibition of DNA synthesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • extracellular
  • PTEN inactivation in K14.cre/PTEN flx/flx keratinocytes resulted in epidermal hyperplasia/hyperkeratosis and novel 12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted papillomas, whereas HK1.ras/K14.cre/PTEN flx/flx cohorts displayed a rapid onset of papillomatogenesis due to a synergism of increased AKT activity and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) elevation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • protein
  • However, in progression, reduced ras Ha -associated ERK protein and activity, increased Δ5PTEN-associated cyclin E2 expression, and unique K1/K13 profiles following TPA treatment suggest that PTEN loss, rather than ras Ha activation, gives rise to a population of cells with greater malignant potential. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Alternate mechanisms of PTEN-mediated tumorigenesis, possibly independent of AKT ( 12 , 13 ), show that PTEN directly associates with p53 increasing stability, protein levels, and transcriptional activity ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • neurons
  • Here, we emphasize the two-way communication that goes on between these cells, beginning with how neurons can modulate microglial state and activity, for example, by specific chemokine, classic neurotransmitters, and purinergic signaling. (hindawi.com)
  • This leads to sustained depolarizations in GABAergic neurons and reduced inhibitory activity in the central nervous system. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • survival
  • Spermine is a powerful regulator of erythrocyte cation channel cytosolic Ca2+ activity and, thus, cell survival. (deepdyve.com)
  • Fibroblast cell strains developed from healthy subjects and from AT homozygotes, ATHs, and atherosclerosis patients were compared for (1) survival, by the colony-forming assay and (2) DNA synthesis inhibition after irradiation, determined by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation, cell cycle distribution, and the expression of p 53 and p 21 proteins, analyzed by flow cytometry. (ahajournals.org)
  • cell
  • Cytosolic Ca2+ was estimated from Fluo-3 fluorescence, cell volume from forward scatter, cell membrane scrambling from annexin V binding and cation channel activity with whole-cell patch-clamp in human erythrocytes. (deepdyve.com)
  • However
  • However, A3 and A11 can process and load antigens even when proteosome activity is diminished suggesting an alternative mechanism for loading which may benefit in recovery from some disease but impair recovery of others. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Afterwards, determined β-glucocerebrosidase activity was recalculated with regard to 10 5 cells present in samples used for the tests. (springer.com)
  • human
  • Environmental factors that cause transgressive segregation can be influenced by human activity and climate change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both human activity and climate change have the capability to force species of a specific genome to interact with other species with different genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • Thus, during early papillomatogenesis, PTEN loss promotes ras Ha initiation via elevation of AKT activity and synergistic failures in cyclin regulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • disease
  • Glucocerebrosidase activity, the diagnostic marker for Gaucher's disease, is the most commonly measured in leukocytes and fibroblasts using 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucopyranoside as synthetic β-glucoside. (springer.com)
  • values
  • The lysosomal β-glucosidase activities determined in the microsystem were in good correlation with the values determined during macro-scale measurements. (springer.com)
  • expression
  • To determine the possible mechanism, NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox-1, Nox-4) mRNA expression, intracellular ROS level, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, NF-kappaB activity, and mRNA expression of AP-1 subunits (c-fos, c-jun) and c-myc were measured. (jove.com)