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  • vaccine
  • Another reason someone might contract the flu even after receiving vaccination is if the strain they were infected with wasn't included in the vaccine in the first place. (businessinsider.com)
  • If no urgent need arises and the woman has previously received tetanus vaccine, Td vaccination should be delayed until the postpartum period. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is recommended for pregnant women who have never received tetanus vaccine (i.e., have never received DTP, DTaP or DT as child or Td or TT as adult) to receive a series of three Td vaccinations starting during pregnancy to ensure protection against maternal and neonatal tetanus. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the vaccine is rehydrated by adding the diluent as directed the resulting single product is recommended for the vaccination of healthy cattle as an aid in prevention of disease due to Bovine Virus Diarrhea virus. (drugs.com)
  • Vaccination of 1-7 days old broilers with live attenuated ND vaccine provides significant protection against field vNDV, despite the presence of MDA. (jscimedcentral.com)
  • A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or reduce the effects of infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, yellow fever vaccination is on the routine vaccine schedule of French Guiana, is recommended in certain regions of Brazil but in the United States is only given to travelers heading to countries with a history of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrewala has been involved in clinical investigations such as the Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research-sponsored project, Novel Vaccine Delivery Systems that Elicit Robust and Enduring T Cell Memory Responses: Alternatives to BCG Vaccination in Tuberculosis Endemic Regions Grant, under the aegis of Australia-India Strategic Research Fund (AISRF) during 2012-16. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The terms vaccine and vaccination are derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Edward Jenner to denote cowpox. (wikipedia.org)
  • The efficacy or performance of the vaccine is dependent on a number of factors: the disease itself (for some diseases vaccination performs better than for others) the strain of vaccine (some vaccines are specific to, or at least most effective against, particular strains of the disease) whether the vaccination schedule has been properly observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines are typically imperfect as some individuals' immune systems may not generate an adequate immune response to vaccines to confer long-term immunity, so a portion of those who are vaccinated may lack immunity.Lastly, vaccine contraindications may prevent certain individuals from becoming immune. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional relative contraindications to the use of cyclophosphamide include lactation, active infection, neutropenia or bladder toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • His current research interests are centered on prophylactic and therapeutic aspects of immunity, the causal factors for developing active tuberculosis, the role played by macrophages in protecting the host and nurturing bacteria at the same time, the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis from infection to clinical disease status and the signal transmissions between macrophages and effector T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, even a partial, late, or weak immunity, such as a one resulting from cross-immunity to a strain other than the target strain, may mitigate an infection, resulting in a lower mortality rate, lower morbidity, and faster recovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herd immunity (also called herd effect, community immunity, population immunity, or social immunity) is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1796, Edward Jenner, a doctor and scientist who had practiced variolation, performed an experiment based on the folk-knowledge that infection with cowpox, a disease with minor symptoms which was never fatal, also conferred immunity to smallpox. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social immunity also affects epidemiology, as it can impact both the course of an infection at the individual level, as well as the spread of disease within the group. (wikipedia.org)
  • tetanus
  • Using US population derived figures, following vaccination, 95% of people are protected from diphtheria, 80% to 85% of people are protected from pertussis, and 100% of people are protected from tetanus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1888 Emile Roux and Alexandre Yersin showed that the clinical effects of diphtheria were caused by diphtheria toxin and, following the 1890 discovery of an antitoxin-based immunity to diphtheria and tetanus by Emil Adolf von Behring and Kitasato ShibasaburĊ, antitoxin became the first major success of modern therapeutic immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the restriction of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetanus, for example, is infectious but not contagious, so herd immunity does not apply. (wikipedia.org)
  • However the tetanus toxin is easily denatured losing its ability to produce disease, but leaving it able to induce immunity to tetanus when injected into subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • social immunity
  • Social immunity (also termed collective immunity) describes the additional level of disease protection arising in social groups from collective disease defences, performed either jointly or towards one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social immunity is a recently developed concept used to describe the evolution of an additional level of immunity in the colonies of eusocial insects (some bees and wasps, all ants and termites). (wikipedia.org)
  • Social immunity provides an integrated approach for the study of disease dynamics in societies, combining both the behaviour and physiology (including molecular-level processes) of all group members and their social interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social immunity differs from similar phenomena that can occur in groups that are not truly social (e.g. herding animals). (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, although social immunity can be achieved through behavioural, physiological or organisational defences, these components are not mutually exclusive and often overlap. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, social immunity has evolved to reduce and mitigate this risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • They also study disease-causing organisms to determine how they injure the host and help to develop vaccines (see vaccination ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Proper vaccination using quality live and inactivated vaccines may significantly reduce incidence and severity of outbreaks of New castle disease (ND), a highly contagious disease of poultry. (jscimedcentral.com)
  • Over the past two decades, the recommended vaccination schedule has grown rapidly and become more complicated as many new vaccines have been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sample vaccination schedules discussed by the World Health Organization show a developed country using a schedule which extends over the first five years of a child's life and uses vaccines which cost over $700 including administration costs while a developing country uses a schedule providing vaccines in the first 9 months of life and costing only $25. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization monitors vaccination schedules across the world, noting what vaccines are included in each country's program, the coverage rates achieved and various auditing measures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals who are immunodeficient due to HIV/AIDS, lymphoma, leukemia, bone marrow cancer, an impaired spleen, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy may have lost any immunity that they previously had and vaccines may not be of any use for them because of their immunodeficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • It originates from medicine and early studies on the causes of immunity to disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • This and other observations of acquired immunity were later exploited by Louis Pasteur in his development of vaccination and his proposed germ theory of disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • For some illnesses, such as measles and chickenpox, having the disease usually leads to lifelong immunity to it. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • Vaccination is another way to become immune to a disease. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • As of 2009[update], the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now recommends vaccination against at least fourteen diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and are able to generate pathogens-specific immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first written descriptions of the concept of immunity may have been made by the Athenian Thucydides who, in 430 BC, described that when the plague hit Athens: "the sick and the dying were tended by the pitying care of those who had recovered, because they knew the course of the disease and were themselves free from apprehensions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first clinical description of immunity which arose from a specific disease causing organism is probably Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah ('A Treatise on Smallpox and Measles', translated 1848) written by the Islamic physician Al-Razi in the 9th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Pasteur provided support for a germ theory of infectious disease, we have increasingly induced immunity against a widening range of diseases to prevent the associated risks from the wild infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals with active tuberculosis were usually tuberculin positive, but many of those with disseminated and rapidly progressive of disease were negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • widespread
  • It often occurs in outbreaks in moderately developed countries where children are not exposed when young and vaccination is not widespread. (wikipedia.org)
  • This led to the widespread but erroneous belief that tuberculin reactivity is an indicator of immunity to tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • smallpox
  • Variolation had the disadvantage that the inoculating agent used was still an active form of smallpox and, although less potent, could still kill the inoculee or spread in its full form to others nearby. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • It is hoped that further understanding of the molecular basis of immunity will translate to improved clinical practice in the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • body's
  • The mechanisms of immunity are essentially concerned with the body's ability to recognize and dispose of substances which it interprets as foreign and harmful to its well-being. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The various and complex mechanisms of immunity are basic to the body's ability to protect itself against specific infectious agents and parasites, to accept or reject cells and tissues from other individuals, as in blood transfusions and organ transplants, and to protect against cancer, as when the immune system recognizes malignant cells as not-self and destroys them. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • complement
  • These collective defences complement the individual immunity of all group members and constitute an extra layer of protection at the group level, combining behavioural, physiological and organisational adaptations. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Since the gene rearrangement leads to an irreversible change in the DNA of each cell, all progeny (offspring) of that cell inherit genes that encode the same receptor specificity, including the memory B cells and memory T cells that are the keys to long-lived specific immunity. (wikipedia.org)