• angiogenesis
  • Defibrotide, an endothelial protective drug based on a polydisperse mixture of single-stranded deoxyribonuleotides, has turned out to inhibit tumor angiogenesis in in vitro and in vivo models. (ucd.ie)
  • Excessive activation of the TWEAK pathway in chronic injury has been described to promote pathological tissue changes including chronic inflammation, fibrosis and angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Acetaldehyde, increased redox cellular state and ROS activate transcription factors, which in turn activate genes for lipid biosynthesis and offer protection of hepatocytes from alcohol toxicity. (mdpi.com)
  • Resolution of increased reactive oxygen species requires increased expression of genes responsible for dismutation of increased ROS which is partially achieved by IL-6 mediated activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). (mdpi.com)
  • immune
  • Under ethanol exposure, due to increased gut permeability, there is release of gram-negative bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from intestine causing activation of immune response. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, together with pregnancy-specific hormones, adequate participation of placental cytokines in immune control is crucial for normal intrauterine growth of the fetus [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cassatella MA, Pereira-da-Silva G, Tinazzi I, Facchetti F, Scapini P, Calzetti F, Tamassia N, Wei P, Nardelli B, Roschke V et al (2007) Soluble TNF-like cytokine (TL1A) production by immune complexes stimulated monocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. (springer.com)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that show strong cytolytic function against physiologically stressed cells such as tumor cells and virus-infected cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are a group of innate immune cells that show spontaneous cytolytic activity against cells under stress such as tumor cells and virus-infected cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD40 - This molecule, found on a variety of immune system cells including antigen presenting cells has CD40L, otherwise known as CD154 and transiently expressed on the surface of activated CD4+ T cells, as its ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • The American biotechnology company Nektar Therapeutics is working on NKTR-214, a CD122-biased immune-stimulatory cytokine Phase I results announced in Nov 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • A2AR - The Adenosine A2A receptor is regarded as an important checkpoint in cancer therapy because adenosine in the immune microenvironment, leading to the activation of the A2a receptor, is negative immune feedback loop and the tumor microenvironment has relatively high concentrations of adenosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines modulate the balance between humoral and cell-based immune responses, and they regulate the maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • ICAM-1 possesses binding sites for a number of immune-associated ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • RANTES, or Regulated upon Activation Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted, is a cytokine that is an inflammatory mediator chemotactic for a variety of inflammatory immune cells such as granulocytes and macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, immune cells detect major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine release, causing lysis or apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • proinflammatory
  • Since many mediators of inflammation are angiogenic, any disorder associated with the shift in the precise quantitative balance between proinflammatory cytokines and their inhibitors may influence the development of placental vessels [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Uncoupling the proinflammatory from the immunosuppressive properties of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) at the p55 TNF receptor level: implications for pathogenesis and therapy of autoimmune demyelination. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • IL-1α and IL-1β are the most studied members, because they were discovered first and because they possess strongly proinflammatory effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • solid tumors
  • Besides solid tumors, osteolysis is present in other pathologies, such as psoriatic arthritis, periodontal disease, and multiple myeloma ( 10 - 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the results are encouraging only in hematological malignancies but not very promising in solid tumors. (frontiersin.org)
  • TNFSF15
  • Over the past decade significant progress has been made in defining the characteristics of this receptor, including the identification of its ligand, TNFSF15 (TL1A). (springer.com)
  • microenvironment
  • The differentiation of osteoclast precursors to osteoclast is regulated by the bone microenvironment, which includes stromal cells, osteoblasts, and other local factors ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Increasing evidence suggests that tumor microenvironment regulate the phenotype and function of NK cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we discussed the NK cell phenotypes and its effector function and impact of the tumor microenvironment on effector and cytolytic function of NK cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • differentiation
  • Phosphorylation occurs in responseto extracellular signals (hormones, neurotransmitters, growth and differentiation factors, etc), cell cycle checkpoints, and environmental or nutritional stresses and is roughly analogous to turning on a molecular switch. (patentgenius.com)
  • CD40 signaling is known to 'license' dendritic cells to mature and thereby trigger T-cell activation and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like CD27, OX40 promotes the expansion of effector and memory T cells, however it is also noted for its ability to suppress the differentiation and activity of T-regulatory cells, and also for its regulation of cytokine production. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • They represent 2-7% of lymphocytes in mouse peripheral blood (PB) and 5-15% of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). (frontiersin.org)
  • CD27's activity is governed by the transient availability of its ligand, CD70, on lymphocytes and dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphokines: produced by lymphocytes Monokines: produced exclusively by monocytes Interferons: involved in antiviral responses Colony stimulating factors: support the growth of cells in semisolid media Chemokines: mediate chemoattraction (chemotaxis) between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • signal transduction
  • One major goal of this research project is to unravel the signal transduction mechanisms of Defibrotide and its yet to be identified receptor(s) in order to optimize anti-tumor angiogenic strategies. (ucd.ie)
  • transmembrane
  • 6 Although factors associated with the expression of transmembrane adhesion molecules and their dysregulation in atherosclerosis have been studied, 7 the mechanisms involved in the release of these adhesion molecules from the cell surface by controlled cleavage or shedding are not well-understood. (ahajournals.org)
  • Both forms of TNF are known to induce cell signaling events, with transmembrane TNF (tmTNF) acting through cell-cell contacts to promote juxtacrine signaling and solTNF acting in a paracrine fashion. (jimmunol.org)
  • cellular
  • The results showed that pretreatment with red wine has preventive effects on the acute vascular and systemic inflammation, together with other indicators of cellular aging process induced by smoking. (genscript.com)
  • The widespread distribution of cellular sources for cytokines may be a feature that differentiates them from hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • They bind viral ligands such as hemagglutinins and hemagglutinin neuraminidases, some bacterial ligands and cellular ligands related with tumour growth such as PCNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • His major research focus is on endothelial and mesenchymal stem cells in transplant medicine and oncology, i.e. the monitoring and preventing endothelial-specific adverse immunological reactions in transplant settings and the development of new tumour-specific anti-angiogenic strategies in cancer. (ucd.ie)
  • Identification of subepithelial mesenchymal cells that induce IgA and diversify gut microbiota. (nih.gov)
  • These Kupffer cells and circulating macrophages secrete various cytokines. (mdpi.com)
  • This sesquiterpene also inhibited the osteoclast formation induced by human breast tumor cells and by multiple myeloma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Many bone-related diseases, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Paget's disease, and cancer-induced osteolysis, are characterized by excessive bone resorption by osteoclast, multinucleated cells derived from hematopoietic cells ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Apoptosis was also effectively induced by A771726 in clinically refractory CLL cells with and without a defective p53 pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interactions between CLL cells and CD40 ligand (CD40L) expressing T cells ( 11, 12 ), bone marrow stromal cells ( 13 ), and nurse-like cells producing stromal cell-derived factors ( 14 ) have been shown to increase the apoptotic threshold in CLL cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We previously showed that increased density of the villous vascular network in class C human diabetic placenta was correlated with higher histamine and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations and increased number of placental mast cells [ 10 , 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • TWEAK-induced loss of the cIAP1-TRAF2 complex sensitizes immortalized and minimally passaged tumor cells to TNFα-induced death, whereas primary cells remain resistant. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Despite its name, most tumor cells do not die when exposed to TNFα but must also be treated with inhibitors of translation or transcription, such as actinomycin D or cycloheximide. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • DN-TNFs blocked solTNF activity in human and mouse cells, a human blood cytokine release assay, and two mouse arthritis models. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, susceptibility to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is controlled differently by central and peripheral T cells. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • p53-dependent radiation-induced crypt intestinal epithelial cells apoptosis is mediated in part through TNF-TNFR1 system. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Radiation induces apoptosis of crypt intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) through a pathway that is largely dependent on p53. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • NK cells have been used in several clinical trials to control tumor growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • Multiple factors such as cell-intrinsic signals (transcription factors) and external signals (cytokines and growth factors) govern the development of NK cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Binding with its two ligands are CD80 and CD86, expressed on dendritic cells, prompts T cell expansion. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD137-mediated signaling is also known to protect T cells, and in particular, CD8+ T cells from activation-induced cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ligand for GITR is mainly expressed on antigen presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its ligand is ICOSL, expressed mainly on B cells and dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • NK cells provide rapid responses to viral-infected cells, acting at around 3 days after infection, and respond to tumor formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • They were named "natural killers" because of the initial notion that they do not require activation to kill cells that are missing "self" markers of MHC class 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • In accordance, cells deficient in FADD induce necroptosis as they are unable to recruit and activate procaspase 8. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • In contrast, some cytokines (such as IL-6) circulate in picomolar (10-12 M) concentrations that can increase up to 1,000 times during trauma or infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunity
  • Mounting evidence from clinical observations in humans and experimental studies in rodents suggests that paracrine signaling by solTNF is associated with chronic inflammation ( 6 , 7 ), whereas juxtacrine signaling by tmTNF plays an essential role in resolving inflammation ( 8 , 9 , 10 ) and maintaining immunity to pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes ( 11 , 12 ) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • nuclear
  • Increased ROS, IL-1β, acetaldehyde, and increased hepatic iron, all activate nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor. (mdpi.com)