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  • Pathogens
  • Yet it has become evident that complement not only acts as a sensor of pathogens but also recognizes diseased and damaged host cells, and it closely collaborates with other immune and defense systems to eliminate potential danger ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The past decade revealed a new perception of complement that reaches beyond the elimination of pathogens and includes key functions in immune surveillance, homeostasis, and mediation of inflammatory responses ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • cleave
  • MASP1 can cleave proenzyme MASP2, leading to complement activation (Heja et al. (reactome.org)
  • When the carbohydrate-recognising heads of MBL bind to specifically arranged mannose residues on the surface of a pathogen, MASP-2 is activated to cleave complement components C4 and C2 into C4a, C4b, C2a, and C2b. (wikipedia.org)
  • C4b2a
  • Moreover, T. cruzi promotes secretion of plasma membrane-derived vesicles from host cells, which prevent the activity of C3 convertase C4b2a and thereby may hinder complement. (frontiersin.org)
  • C4b2a is the widely used short‐hand nomenclature for the C4b-C2a complex in the complement field, and similar nomenclature is used for the remaining complexes in the following). (embopress.org)
  • deposition
  • Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a pattern of disease characterized by the deposition of immunoglobulins, complement factors, or both along capillary walls and within the glomerular mesangium. (hindawi.com)
  • Patients' T lymphocytes show increased complement activation causing surface deposition of complement and the generation of soluble C5a. (nih.gov)
  • inhibition
  • Although the exact involvement of complement needs to be carefully investigated for each disease, therapeutic modulation of complement activity emerges as an attractive target for upstream inhibition of inflammatory processes. (jimmunol.org)
  • CR2-targeted complement inhibition has been proved to be a potential therapeutic strategy for many diseases, such as influenza virus-induced lung tissue injury, postischemic cerebral injury and spinal cord injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CR2-Crry is expressed in CHO cells, and its biological activity is determined by complement inhibition assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CR2-Crry-mediated targeting complement inhibition will alleviate the local inflammation and provide an effective treatment for the severe neurological diseases associated with EV71 infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • infection
  • This infers resistance to complement-mediated cell lysis, allowing parasite survival and infection. (genecards.org)
  • In this context, the complement, as one of the first line of host defense against infection was shown to play an important role in recognizing T. cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes and in controlling parasite invasion. (frontiersin.org)
  • An important step during T. cruzi infection is when intracellular trypomastigotes are release to bloodstream where they may be target by complement. (frontiersin.org)
  • Substrate
  • These contain a non‐catalytic substrate contacting subunit (C3b or C4b) in complex with a protease subunit (Bb or C2a). (embopress.org)