• ligands
  • This homing is a multistep process requiring an interaction of lymphocyte surface molecules recognizing their ligands distributed in a tissue-specific manner in the body [ 2 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The cytotoxic activity of the NK-cells is controlled by the balance between inhibitory and activating receptors, whose ligands are self-Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I molecules and molecules expressed on stressed, viral infected, and tumor cells. (hindawi.com)
  • CD44 is a receptor for hyaluronic acid and also interacts with other ligands, such as osteopontin, collagens, and matrix metalloproteinases. (prospecbio.com)
  • Splice variants of CD44 on colon cancer cells display sialofucosylated HCELL glycoforms that serve as P-, L-, and E-selectin ligands and fibrin, but not fibrinogen, receptors under hemodynamic flow conditions pertinent to the process of cancer metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • While this may be the case to some extent, it is now widely held that the main driver in lymphocyte homing is the interactions between T cell adhesion molecules (lymphocyte homing receptors) and ligands (addressins) on the tissue high endothelial venules (HEVs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Two ligands have been identified for this receptor: the chemokines (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19/ELC) and (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21). (wikipedia.org)
  • He and his research team have shown that lymphocytes use a variety of different adhesion molecules or "homing receptors" to recognize organ (and/or inflammation)-specific vascular ligands or "addressins" that define the tissue position (address) of blood vessels in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nat Immunol 2006 Zabel BA, Ohyama T, Zuniga L, Kim JY, Johnston B, Allen SJ, Guido DG, Handel TM, Butcher EC "Chemokine-like receptor 1 expression by macrophages in vivo: Regulation by TGF-beta and TLR ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD44
  • CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on the surface of most cells, which serves as a receptor for hyaluronan. (thermofisher.com)
  • Fibronectin
  • Thrombopoietin promotes adhesion of primitive human hemopoietic cells to fibronectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1: role of activation of very late antigen (VLA)-4 and VLA-5. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In the present study we demonstrate that Tpo can stimulate the adhesion of the Mo7e progenitor cell line to fibronectin (Fn) as well as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 through activation of very late antigen (VLA)-4 and VLA-5, adhesion molecules previously demonstrated to be involved in regulation of steady state hemopoiesis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Finally, Tpo stimulated adhesion of primitive (CD34+ CD38-) human bone marrow cells to fibronectin, predominantly through activation of VLA-5, whereas no such effect could be observed on CD34+ CD38+ bone marrow cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 169: 529-539, 2002 Rosemblatt M., Gaugler M.H., Leroy C., Coulombel L. Coexpression of two fibronectin receptors, VLA-4 and VLA-5 on immature erythroblastic precursor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • Specific interactions between the naïve T cells and their cognate antigens result in T cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial theories that the T cells were targeted not to the tissue but to the antigens were disproved, as work by Cahill showed that purified T cells would relocate to the region of activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized gamma delta T cells, (a small minority of T cells in the human body, more frequent in ruminants), have invariant T-cell receptors with limited diversity, that can effectively present antigens to other T cells and are considered to be part of the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Michigan dairy farmers exposed to PBBs had significant immune system abnormalities including reduced numbers of circulating blood lymphocytes, increases in lymphocytes with no detectable surface markers, and reduced functional response to specific test antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Cellular activation causes a conformational change which results in the cell flattening against the vessel wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein negatively regulates cellular proliferation, activation, and homeostasis of T cells, in a similar fashion to CTLA-4 and PD-1 and has been reported to play a role in Treg suppressive function. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotaxis
  • CXCR7 was originally called RDC-1 (an orphan receptor) but has since been shown to cause chemotaxis in T lymphocytes in response to CXCL12 (the ligand for CXCR4) prompting the renaming of this molecule as CXCR7. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • This family member is lymphocyte specific and negatively regulates Toll-like-receptor (TLR) signaling that is central to the activation of innate and adaptive immune systems. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, organ-specific homing receptors are thought to play an essential role in determining the characteristics of local immune responses 2,5 . (springer.com)
  • Gut-specific homing is the mechanism by which activated T cells and antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) are targeted to both inflamed and non-inflamed regions of the gut in order to provide an effective immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of human T cells rearrange their alpha and beta chains on the cell receptor and are termed alpha beta T cells (αβ T cells) and are part of the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, also known as chimeric immunoreceptors, chimeric T cell receptors, artificial T cell receptors or CAR-T) are engineered receptors which graft an arbitrary specificity onto an immune effector cell (T cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • To this end, they are studying the specialized homing mechanisms and functional properties of tissue infiltrating lymphocytes involved in local immune, autoimmune and regulatory responses in the GI tract (intestines, liver), skin, lungs, and other sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an immune checkpoint receptor and as such is the target of various drug development programs by pharmaceutical companies seeking to develop new treatments for cancer and autoimmune disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • This binding is mediated by specific lymphocyte surface molecules called homing receptors 2 . (springer.com)
  • Finally, they have shown that leukocytes can effectively navigate through complex chemoattractant arrays, and they are exploring the mechanisms that permit this surprising behavior through computer simulations of chemotactic behavior, and through experimental manipulation of the molecules and receptors involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • A) The expression of CCR4 in control (CTR) T cells and in T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding CCR4. (nih.gov)
  • Surface expression of CCR4 was evaluated by FACS analysis of CD3 + , CD4 + , and CD8 + T lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
  • The expression of activation markers and of chemokine receptors on T cells homing to the nervous system (NS) may help define their functional state. (prohealth.com)
  • Studies of chemokine receptors (CKR) in natural killer- (NK-) cells have already been published, but only a few gave detailed information on its differential expression on blood NK-cell subsets. (hindawi.com)
  • Upon activation, naive and central memory T cells increase expression of the KCa3.1 channel to approximately 500 channels per cell, while effector-memory T cells increase expression of the Kv1.3 channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among human B cells, naive and early memory B cells express small numbers of Kv1.3 and KCa3.1 channels when they are quiescent, and augment KCa3.1 expression after activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rivino L, Messi M, Jarrossay D, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F, Geginat J. Chemokine receptor expression identifies pre- T helper (Th)1, pre-Th2 and nonpolarized cells among human central memory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediates
  • All-trans retinoic acid mediates enhanced Treg growth, differentiation and gut homing in the face of high levels of co-stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • hyaluronate
  • ab25224 can inhibit hyaluronate-dependent cell aggregation, prevent lympho-hemopoiesis in both Dexter and Whitlock-Witte Cultures, prevent the earliest intrathymic precursors from homing to the thymus, and costimulate the activation of freshly purified splenic CD4+ T cells. (abcam.com)
  • specificity
  • Typically, these receptors are used to graft the specificity of a monoclonal antibody onto a T cell, with transfer of their coding sequence facilitated by retroviral vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their studies have shown that these adhesion receptors act coordinately with G protein-linked serpentine chemoattractant receptors in a multi-step process that controls the specificity and provides combinatorial diversity in leukocyte trafficking. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The intestine represents the largest immunological tissue in the body and carries the majority of all lymphocytes [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • cells
  • T cells can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • T helper cells (TH cells) assist other white blood cells in immunologic processes, including maturation of B cells into plasma cells and memory B cells, and activation of cytotoxic T cells and macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells are removed from a patient and modified so that they express receptors specific to the patient's particular cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998 the Triebel group showed that, on T cells, LAG-3 down-modulates their proliferation and activation when LAG-3/MHC Class II co-caps with CD3/TCR complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCR3 is expressed predominantly on T cells (T lymphocytes), and also on other lymphocytes [some B cells (B lymphocytes) and NK cells] and is highly induced following cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCR4 (also known as fusin) is the receptor for a chemokine known as CXCL12 (or SDF-1) and, as with CCR5, is utilized by HIV-1 to gain entry into target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This receptor has also been identified on memory B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, class-switched memory B cells express high numbers of Kv1.3 channels per cell (about 1500/cell) and this number increases after activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, Kv1.3 blockers do not affect the homing to and motility within lymph nodes of naive and central memory T cells, most likely because these cells express the KCa3.1 channel and are, therefore, protected from the effect of Kv1.3 blockade. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells with other antigen specificities in these patients were naive or central memory T cells that upregulate the KCa3.1 channel upon activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sallusto F, Geginat J, Lanzavecchia A. Central memory and effector memory T cells: activation, maintenance and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • retinoic
  • The 5' region of the NEDD9 promoter is regulated by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), and contains a retinoic acid response element (RARE) that is specifically bound by a retinoid X receptor (RXR)/retinoic acid receptor (RAR) heterodimer. (wikipedia.org)