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  • ligands
  • CD44 is a receptor for hyaluronic acid and can also interact with other ligands, such as osteopontin, collagens, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Splice variants of CD44 on colon cancer cells display sialofucosylated HCELL glycoforms that serve as P-, L-, and E-selectin ligands and fibrin, but not fibrinogen, receptors under hemodynamic flow conditions pertinent to the process of cancer metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytotoxic activity of the NK-cells is controlled by the balance between inhibitory and activating receptors, whose ligands are self-Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I molecules and molecules expressed on stressed, viral infected, and tumor cells. (hindawi.com)
  • This homing is a multistep process requiring an interaction of lymphocyte surface molecules recognizing their ligands distributed in a tissue-specific manner in the body [ 2 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • While this may be the case to some extent, it is now widely held that the main driver in lymphocyte homing is the interactions between T cell adhesion molecules (lymphocyte homing receptors) and ligands (addressins) on the tissue high endothelial venules (HEVs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Two ligands have been identified for this receptor: the chemokines (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19/ELC) and (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21). (wikipedia.org)
  • He and his research team have shown that lymphocytes use a variety of different adhesion molecules or "homing receptors" to recognize organ (and/or inflammation)-specific vascular ligands or "addressins" that define the tissue position (address) of blood vessels in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nat Immunol 2006 Zabel BA, Ohyama T, Zuniga L, Kim JY, Johnston B, Allen SJ, Guido DG, Handel TM, Butcher EC "Chemokine-like receptor 1 expression by macrophages in vivo: Regulation by TGF-beta and TLR ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunol
  • Y-H. Chin, R.A. Rasmussen, J.J. Woodruff, and T.G. Easton, A monoclonal anti-HEBF antibody with specificity for lymphocyte surface molecules mediating adhesion to Peyer's patch high endothelium of the rat, J. Immunol. (springer.com)
  • J.J. Woodruff, M. Katz, E. Lucas, and H.B. Stamber Jr, An in vitro model of lymphocyte homing.II.Membrane and cytoplasmic events involved in lymphocyte adherence to specialized high-endothelial venules of lymph nodes, J. Immunol. (springer.com)
  • D.M. Lewinsohn, R.F. Bargatze, and E.C. Butcher, Leukocyte-endothelial cell recognition: evidence of a common molecular mechanism shared by neutrophils, lymphocytes, and other leukocytes, J. Immunol. (springer.com)
  • Nat Immunol 2007 Staton TL, Habtezion A, Winslow MM, Sato T, Love PE, Butcher EC "CD8(+) recent thymic emigrants home to and efficiently repopulate the small intestine epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • This family member is lymphocyte specific and negatively regulates Toll-like-receptor (TLR) signaling that is central to the activation of innate and adaptive immune systems. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, organ-specific homing receptors are thought to play an essential role in determining the characteristics of local immune responses 2,5 . (springer.com)
  • T lymphocytes found in other locations in the intestine, including those in the large intestinal epithelium ( 4 , 15 , 16 , 17 ) and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) of the small and large intestines ( 18 , 19 ) (our unpublished observations), share some of the unique features of SI-IEL, although there clearly are regional differences within the intestinal mucosal immune system. (jimmunol.org)
  • The phenotypic and functional specialization of intestinal mucosal T lymphocytes probably reflects their close association with both the external environment and epithelial cells, but the precise role of these lymphocytes in host defense and immune regulation remains to be determined. (jimmunol.org)
  • Gut-specific homing is the mechanism by which activated T cells and antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) are targeted to both inflamed and non-inflamed regions of the gut in order to provide an effective immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of human T cells rearrange their alpha and beta chains on the cell receptor and are termed alpha beta T cells (αβ T cells) and are part of the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized gamma delta T cells, (a small minority of T cells in the human body, more frequent in ruminants), have invariant T-cell receptors with limited diversity, that can effectively present antigens to other T cells and are considered to be part of the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, also known as chimeric immunoreceptors, chimeric T cell receptors, artificial T cell receptors or CAR-T) are engineered receptors which graft an arbitrary specificity onto an immune effector cell (T cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • To this end, they are studying the specialized homing mechanisms and functional properties of tissue infiltrating lymphocytes involved in local immune, autoimmune and regulatory responses in the GI tract (intestines, liver), skin, lungs, and other sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The team is also exploring mechanisms that imprint lymphocyte homing and chemokine receptor expression during tissue-specific immune responses, and are developing techniques to recapitulate such regulation in vitro for cell targeting and therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an immune checkpoint receptor and as such is the target of various drug development programs by pharmaceutical companies seeking to develop new treatments for cancer and autoimmune disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Michigan dairy farmers exposed to PBBs had significant immune system abnormalities including reduced numbers of circulating blood lymphocytes, increases in lymphocytes with no detectable surface markers, and reduced functional response to specific test antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • Specific interactions between the naïve T cells and their cognate antigens result in T cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial theories that the T cells were targeted not to the tissue but to the antigens were disproved, as work by Cahill showed that purified T cells would relocate to the region of activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Cellular activation causes a conformational change which results in the cell flattening against the vessel wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein negatively regulates cellular proliferation, activation, and homeostasis of T cells, in a similar fashion to CTLA-4 and PD-1 and has been reported to play a role in Treg suppressive function. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • 169: 529-539, 2002 Rosemblatt M., Gaugler M.H., Leroy C., Coulombel L. Coexpression of two fibronectin receptors, VLA-4 and VLA-5 on immature erythroblastic precursor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD44
  • CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on the surface of most cells, which serves as a receptor for hyaluronan. (thermofisher.com)
  • chemotaxis
  • CXCR7 was originally called RDC-1 (an orphan receptor) but has since been shown to cause chemotaxis in T lymphocytes in response to CXCL12 (the ligand for CXCR4) prompting the renaming of this molecule as CXCR7. (wikipedia.org)
  • lamina propria
  • The majority of gut-originating antigen-specific plasmablasts found in the peripheral blood after oral vaccination [ 9 - 11 ] or in intestinal infections [ 14 ] have been shown to express the gut HR, α 4 β 7 , implying a preferential homing of these cells to the intestinal lamina propria. (hindawi.com)
  • molecules
  • This binding is mediated by specific lymphocyte surface molecules called homing receptors 2 . (springer.com)
  • For example, in mice, SI-IEL as a group constitutively express activation Ags such as CD69 ( 4 , 5 ) and a unique α E β 7 integrin ( 6 , 7 ), and they lack expression of molecules such as CD2, which characterize most other T cell populations ( 4 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Finally, they have shown that leukocytes can effectively navigate through complex chemoattractant arrays, and they are exploring the mechanisms that permit this surprising behavior through computer simulations of chemotactic behavior, and through experimental manipulation of the molecules and receptors involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • A) The expression of CCR4 in control (CTR) T cells and in T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding CCR4. (nih.gov)
  • Surface expression of CCR4 was evaluated by FACS analysis of CD3 + , CD4 + , and CD8 + T lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Among human B cells, naive and early memory B cells express small numbers of Kv1.3 and KCa3.1 channels when they are quiescent, and augment KCa3.1 expression after activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rivino L, Messi M, Jarrossay D, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F, Geginat J. Chemokine receptor expression identifies pre- T helper (Th)1, pre-Th2 and nonpolarized cells among human central memory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediates
  • All-trans retinoic acid mediates enhanced Treg growth, differentiation and gut homing in the face of high levels of co-stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursors
  • Collectively, these data suggest that IEL are a distinct population of T lymphocytes, some of which arise from precursors in the intestine, and the majority of which tend to remain at that site. (jimmunol.org)
  • thymus
  • Furthermore, these data suggest that the homing and/or expansion of typical, thymus-derived T cells in the intestine may be driven by luminal Ags such as those derived from bacterial flora. (jimmunol.org)
  • specificity
  • Their studies have shown that these adhesion receptors act coordinately with G protein-linked serpentine chemoattractant receptors in a multi-step process that controls the specificity and provides combinatorial diversity in leukocyte trafficking. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The intestine represents the largest immunological tissue in the body and carries the majority of all lymphocytes [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • antigen
  • Two-dimensional dot plots illustrating the separation of monocytes and granulocytes (and lymphocytes) by their inherent light-scattering properties (forward-angle light scatter versus right-angle light scatter) (left) or the combination of a light-scattering property (right-angle light scatter) and a specific lineage-defining surface antigen (CD14-PE)(right). (asmscience.org)
  • Such mechanisms are further supported by the association between certain human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes and severity of the hantavirus disease. (springer.com)
  • Continuous proliferation of murine antigen-specific helper T lymphocytes in culture. (naver.com)
  • Based on original studies on the roles of T cell receptor triggering, sustained signalling and costimulation in T cell activation (12-14), Lanzavecchia also proposed a progressive model of T cell differentiation to explain the generation of central and effector memory T cells within a single clone of antigen-primed T cells (15). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes believed to be involved include those for thyroglobulin, thyrotropin receptor, protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemoattractant
  • Finally, they have shown that leukocytes can effectively navigate through complex chemoattractant arrays, and they are exploring the mechanisms that permit this surprising behavior through computer simulations of chemotactic behavior, and through experimental manipulation of the molecules and receptors involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • These DCs can be derived from bone marrow cells in the presence of GM-CSF, TNF, and IL-10, secrete high levels of IL-10 following activation, and induce Tr1 cells in vivo and in vitro. (jimmunol.org)
  • These results confirm the modulatory properties of Olimunostim towards lymphocytes bothin vitro andin vivo, which may form a basis for its clinical application. (naver.com)
  • Nat Immunol 2006 Zabel BA, Ohyama T, Zuniga L, Kim JY, Johnston B, Allen SJ, Guido DG, Handel TM, Butcher EC "Chemokine-like receptor 1 expression by macrophages in vivo: Regulation by TGF-beta and TLR ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • McCauley LK , Rosol TJ, Capen CC, Horton JE, Shanfeld J. Investigations on in vitro bone resorbing activity from athymic (nude) and euthymic mouse splenic lymphocytes. (dentisty.org)
  • human
  • CD2, also known as LFA-2, is a receptor for CD58 in the human and is expressed on the cell surface of 80-90% of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, a subset of NK cells, and all mature T cells. (tonbobio.com)
  • There are at least two other forms of ST receptors in addition to ST2L, including secreted soluble ST2 (sST2) that can serve as an allurement receptor for IL-33 [ 20 ] and a ST2V variant that is present primarily in the human gut [ 21 ]. (transpopmed.org)
  • Since Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease which appears suddenly, often later in life, a viral or bacterial infection may trigger antibodies which cross-react with the human TSH receptor, a phenomenon known as antigenic mimicry. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica bears structural similarity with the human thyrotropin receptor and was hypothesized to contribute to the development of thyroid autoimmunity arising for other reasons in genetically susceptible individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • 284. Urban-Ciecko J., Jouhanneau J-S., Myal S.E., Poulet J.F.A., and Barth A.L. Precisely-timed nicotinic activation drives SST inhibition in neocortical circuits. (gov.pl)
  • regulatory
  • Key to this chromosome-wide activation is a regulatory complex containing long, non-coding RNA and three enzymes. (lmu.de)
  • type
  • A full classification includes histopathological type, grade, stage (TNM), receptor status, and the presence or absence of genes as determined by DNA testing: Histopathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • Activation of EP4 promotes bone remodeling and deposition (see EP4, bone) and EP4 is highly expressed at vertebral column sites involved in ankylosing spondylitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Immunobiological activity of the polybacterial lysate Olimunostim (P. acnes, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus) was examined by investigating its effects on murine lymphocytes. (naver.com)
  • CB1 receptors, the bigger of the two, are extraordinarily abundant in the brain: 10 times more plentiful than μ-opioid receptors, the receptors responsible for the effects of morphine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complex
  • S381DHE motif of TNFR1-death domain as well as S215LKD and S296LAE motifs of TRADD-death domain) are phosphorylated, and this is required for stable TNFR1-TRADD complex formation and subsequent activation of NF-κB. (jimmunol.org)
  • disease
  • A genetic predisposition for Graves' disease is seen, with some people more prone to develop TSH receptor activating antibodies due to a genetic cause. (wikipedia.org)