• THORIUM
  • The approach introduced by Gruen was fruitful not only in helping to provide a fundamental understanding of fused salt chemistry, but also in its implications for the eventual development of a homogeneous thermal breeder reactor based on fused salt solutions containing the relatively plentiful element thorium. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation state
  • In relation to the oxide or halide, for a given oxidation state of an element A, if two halogen atoms replace one oxygen atom, or vice versa, the overall charge on the molecule is unchanged and the coordination number of the central atom decreases by one. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand field
  • After a brief apprenticeship in applying standard versions of ligand field modelling to transition metal complexes, tackling single-crystal polarized spectra and magnetic anisotropy of Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes in the less usual five-coordination states, Werner Urland conceived his own "trademark" devising a ligand-field potential for f electrons in the frame of Angular Overlap Model. (wikipedia.org)
  • IUPAC
  • In 1994 a committee of IUPAC recommended that element 107 be named bohrium, not nielsbohrium, since there was no precedence for using a scientist's complete name in the naming of an element. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IUPAC/IUPAP Joint Working Party (JWP) recognised the GSI team as discoverers in their 2001 report, giving them the right to suggest a name for the element. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1994 a committee of IUPAC recommended that element 108 be named hahnium (Hn) after the German physicist Otto Hahn, after an older suggestion of ottohahnium (Oh) in spite of the long-standing convention to give the discoverer the right to suggest a name, so that elements named after Hahn and Lise Meitner (meitnerium) would be next to each other, honoring their joint discovery of nuclear fission. (wikipedia.org)
  • The priority of the discovery and therefore the naming of the element was disputed between Soviet and American scientists, and it was not until 1997 that International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) established seaborgium as the official name for the element. (wikipedia.org)
  • The priority of the discovery and therefore the naming of the element was disputed between Soviet and American scientists, and it was not until 1997 that International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) established rutherfordium as the official name for the element. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1992, the IUPAC/IUPAP Transfermium Working Group (TWG) assessed the claims of discovery and concluded that both teams provided contemporaneous evidence to the synthesis of element 104 and that credit should be shared between the two groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) adopted unnilquadium (Unq) as a temporary, systematic element name, derived from the Latin names for digits 1, 0, and 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1994, IUPAC suggested the name dubnium (Db) to be used since rutherfordium was suggested for element 106 and IUPAC felt that the Dubna team should be rightly recognized for their contributions. (wikipedia.org)
  • given to element 105
  • The Soviet scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia had suggested this name be given to element 105 (which was finally called dubnium) and the German team wished to recognise both Bohr and the fact that the Dubna team had been the first to propose the cold fusion reaction to solve the controversial problem of the naming of element 105. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name dubnium was given to element 105 at the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Periods
  • The standard form of the table consists of a grid of elements with rows called periods and columns called groups The history of the periodic table reflects over a century of growth in the understanding of chemical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • The first is the element hydrogen, which is a group 1 element. (reference.com)
  • It contained a list of "simple substances" that Lavoisier believed could not be broken down further, which included oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorus, mercury, zinc and sulfur, which formed the basis for the modern list of elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dubna
  • The element was officially named dubnium in 1997 after the town of Dubna, the site of the JINR. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first report of discovery of element 105 came from the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Moscow Oblast, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, in 1968. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dubna team agreed with the German group's naming proposal for element 107. (wikipedia.org)
  • The synthesis of element 108 was first attempted in 1978 by a Russian research team led by Yuri Oganessian and Vladimir Utyonkov at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, using reactions that would generate the isotopes hassium-270 and hassium-264. (wikipedia.org)
  • This statement came in spite of the combined data also supporting the Russian 1983 discovery claim and the TWG also acknowledging that "very probably element 108 played a role in the Dubna experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence of element 106 was first reported in 1974 by a Russian research team in Dubna led by Yuri Oganessian, in which targets of lead-208 and lead-207 were bombarded with accelerated ions of chromium-54. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemically
  • It implies that the elements A and O are chemically bound together by a σ bond and a π bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Definition of Triad law:-"Chemically analogous elements arranged in increasing order of their atomic weights formed well marked groups of three called Triads in which the atomic weight of the middle element was found to be generally the arithmetic mean of the atomic weight of the other two elements in the triad. (wikipedia.org)
  • respectively
  • Depending on where these adjacent groups are judged to begin and end, there are at least five competing proposals for which elements to include: the three most common contain six, ten and thirteen elements, respectively (see image). (wikipedia.org)
  • electrons
  • These elements differ only in the number of f-electrons which do not take part in chemical bonding (difference from d-block elements in which differentiating d-electrons are involved in chemical interaction). (googlegalaxyscience.com)
  • Under normal conditions, these elements have no tendency to attract electrons nor any tendency to lose them because they have a full valence shell. (reference.com)
  • Relativistic effects also "increase the binding energy", and hence ionisation energy, of the electrons in "the 6s shell in gold and mercury, and the 6p shell in subsequent elements of period 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • metallic
  • Classified as a semi-metallic element, Arsenic is probably best known as a poison. (chem4kids.com)
  • It is a metallic element found in many minerals of the Earth's crust. (chem4kids.com)
  • Being close to the metal-nonmetal border, their crystalline structures tend to show covalent or directional bonding effects, having generally greater complexity or fewer nearest neighbours than other metallic elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • discoverer
  • Debierne, who is now considered by the vast majority of historians as the discoverer, lost interest in the element and left the topic. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • The American team in 1997 proposed the name hahnium after Otto Hahn (previously this name had been used for element 105). (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Seventeen elements are known to form binary hexafluorides. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of physical elements (such as platinum, tin and zinc) have been known from antiquity, as they are found in their native form and are relatively simple to mine with primitive tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using Mendeleev's nomenclature for unnamed and undiscovered elements, meitnerium should be known as eka-iridium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GSI team originally also considered naming the element wixhausium, after the suburb of Darmstadt known as Wixhausen where the element was discovered, but eventually decided on darmstadtium. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was theorized in order to explain the extreme radiation damage in some minerals that could not have been caused by any known natural radioisotopes, but could have been caused by superheavy elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are currently 118 known chemical elements exhibiting a large number of different physical and chemical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Americans, however, proposed rutherfordium (Rf) for the new element to honor Ernest Rutherford, who is known as the "father" of nuclear physics. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical properties
  • The safe management of fission energy depends in large part on a knowledge of the chemical properties of the actinide elements, many of which are man-made. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a comparison of the substances half-lives determined by Debierne, Harriet Brooks in 1904, and Otto Hahn and Otto Sackur in 1905, Debierne's chosen name for the new element was retained because it had seniority, despite the contradicting chemical properties he claimed for the element at different times. (wikipedia.org)
  • controversy
  • The naming of meitnerium was discussed in the element naming controversy regarding the names of elements 104 to 109, but meitnerium was the only proposal and thus was never disputed. (wikipedia.org)
  • 249 98Cf + 18 8O → 263m 106Sg + 4 1 0n → 259 104Rf + α → 255 102No + α A dispute thus arose from the initial competing claims of discovery, though unlike the case of the synthetic elements up to element 105, neither team of discoverers chose to announce proposed names for the new elements, thus averting an element naming controversy temporarily. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a consequence of the initial competing claims of discovery, an element naming controversy arose. (wikipedia.org)
  • cobalt
  • 12. A lithium-ion electrochemical cell according to claim 10, wherein the transition metal is selected from titanium, cobalt, iron, and combinations thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Calculations on its ionization potentials and atomic and ionic radii are similar to that of its lighter homologue iridium, thus implying that meitnerium's basic properties will resemble those of the other group 9 elements, cobalt, rhodium, and iridium. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Lead is a bluish metal found as an element and in many minerals. (chem4kids.com)
  • Technetium is an element that is not found in nature. (chem4kids.com)
  • These have yielded isotope ratios of heavy elements in presolar SiC grains found in meteorites, data that are important for an understanding of the origin of the presolar nebula from which the sun condensed five billion years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1829, he found that he could form some of the elements into groups of three, with the members of each group having related properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amongst this diversity, scientists have found it useful to use names for various sets of elements, that illustrate similar properties, or their trends of properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Instead, the element is prepared, in milligram amounts, by the neutron irradiation of 226Ra in a nuclear reactor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first discovery of the element was claimed by the Soviet Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in 1968, followed in 1970 by the American University of California. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the Soviets claimed to have first detected the new element they suggested the name kurchatovium (Ku) in honor of Igor Kurchatov (1903-1960), former head of Soviet nuclear research. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • They claimed to have synthesized the element by bombarding a californium-249 target with nitrogen-15 ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • name
  • Each team proposed its own name for element 110: the American team proposed hahnium after Otto Hahn in an attempt to resolve the situation on element 105 (which they had long been suggesting this name for), the Russian team proposed becquerelium after Henri Becquerel, and the German team proposed darmstadtium after Darmstadt, the location of their institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name darmstadtium (Ds) was suggested by the GSI team in honor of the city of Darmstadt, where the element was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • we were given credit for the discovery and the accompanying right to name the new element. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Russian scientists proposed the name kurchatovium and the American scientists suggested the name rutherfordium for the new element. (wikipedia.org)
  • This name had been used in books of the Soviet Bloc as the official name of the element. (wikipedia.org)