• regulation
  • Owing to the role of this small leucine-rich proteoglycan in the regulation of fibril assembly and stability, this alteration may account for or is a result of a defective organization of the collagen and elastic fibers in this disease and contribute to the intrinsic distensibility and fragility of the myxomatous tissue. (ac.be)
  • RhoA specifically is regarded as a prominent regulatory factor in other functions such as the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics, transcription, cell cycle progression and cell transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In parallel with this experiment, Hall showed that the presence of Rac, another Ras-related GTP-binding protein, is implicated in the regulation of the actin organisation in presence of extracellular growth factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since LINGO-1 is a leucine-rich repeat protein, which are known for their important role in protein-protein interactions in a wide variety of cellular processes and their implication in important functions like neuronal differentiation and growth or the regulation of axon guidance and regeneration processes, it is logical to deduce that its functions are linked with the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • dynamics
  • RhoA is prevalent in regulating cell shape, polarity and locomotion via actin polymerization, actomyosin contractility, cell adhesion, and microtubule dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The changes in ARHGAP42 and RhoA activities were correlated with changes in RhoA-regulated actin cytoskeletal dynamics and cell motility in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • stabilization
  • In turn, membrane-bound APC allows the localization of the MACF1 to the cell membrane, which is required for microtubule capture and stabilization (By similarity). (rcsb.org)
  • membrane
  • Signal transduction pathways regulated via RhoA link plasma membrane receptors to focal adhesion formation and the subsequent activation of relevant actin stress fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, the release of mDia1 from autoinhibition seems to require nonspecific membrane-associated factors that cooperate with Rho-GTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • They consist of three functional layers: an ECM-associated integrin layer, a membrane associated force transduction layer, and an actin layer, which is made up of actin stress fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inhibition of Rho by C3 transferase ribosylation resulted in an inhibition of focal adhesion and stress fibre assembly, but had no effect on membrane ruffling. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a transmembrane protein, it can mostly be found on the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the tetramer has a very large surface area into the cell membrane, it is thought that this may serve as an efficient and stable binding platform, facilitating the interaction with NgR, p75, TROY complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • Heterotrimeric G proteins consist of a α subunit and a complex formed by β and γ subunits ( 21 , 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It has been implicated in the inhibition of axon regeneration through a ternary complex formed with NgR1/Nogo-66 (ligand-binding subunit) and p75 (signal transducing subunit). (wikipedia.org)
  • Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-13 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNA13 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regulatory subunit p85 binds to phosphorylated tyrosine residues on the activated receptor via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ras-GTP then activates the p110 subunit of PI3K. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition
  • The activity of the small GTPase RhoA is particularly high in cells adhering by α5β1, and inhibition of Rho signaling causes a switch from a β1- to a β3-associated mode of migration, whereas increased Rho activity has the opposite effect. (rupress.org)
  • Signal Transduction
  • 5-8 Importantly, recent accumulating evidence highlighted the significance of these small G proteins as essential molecular switches that trigger many of the signal transduction and functions of Ang II. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this review, we describe detailed mechanisms of signal transduction pathways of Ang II involving small G proteins in VSMCs together with their functional significances in mediating vascular remodeling. (ahajournals.org)
  • It cycles between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states and function as molecular switches in signal transduction cascades. (wikipedia.org)
  • ARHA
  • The specific gene that encodes RhoA, ARHA, is located on chromosome 3 and consists of four exons, which has also been linked as a possible risk factor for atherothrombolic stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular
  • The toxin acts by modifying host cell GTPase proteins by glucosylation, leading to changes in cellular activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interaction of chemokine receptor with their agonists elicits different cellular responses, which depend on initial receptor-heterotrimeric G-protein binding ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • As a consequence, RhoA is somehow involved in many cellular processes which emerged throughout evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stress fibers have been shown to play an important role in cellular contractility, providing force for a number of functions such as cell adhesion, migration and morphogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stress fibers play the following roles in cellular functioning: Stress fibers are necessary for the formation and maintenance of cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion, such as the formation of adherens junctions, tight junctions and focal adhesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytoskeletal changes that alter cellular morphogenesis and motility depend upon a complex interplay among molecules that regulate actin, myosin, and other cytoskeletal components. (nih.gov)
  • All these integrins bind the RGD motif in the central cell-binding domain of FN ( Pankov and Yamada, 2002 ), but it is still unclear if and how they mediate specific cellular responses to FN. (rupress.org)
  • interaction
  • Basally, Gβγ and GDP-bound Gα are associated, and upon interaction with an activated receptor, GTP replaces GDP and GTP-Gα dissociates from the Gβγ-dimer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • this interaction inactivates and stabilizes RHOA . (rcsb.org)
  • this interaction is direct, blocks the loading of GTP to RHOA and decreases upon chemokine CCL19 stimulation in primary T lymphocytes. (rcsb.org)
  • This interaction inhibits the ability of FH2 to nucleate actin assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rho-GTP binds to the GDB domain and disrupts the DAD-DID-interaction thus promoting actin assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, the interaction of p140 with Rho in vitro is nucleotide independent, whereas the interaction with Rac is completely GTP dependent. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2 LPP structure, like other members of this gene family, possesses multiple protein-protein interaction domains including C terminally located LIM domains, proline-rich motifs, and ENA/VASP-homology regions. (ahajournals.org)
  • polymerization
  • In addition, actin polymerization is involved in assembly of the cups ( Carman and Springer, 2004 ). (rupress.org)
  • The only tested short C-terminal fragment of IQGAP1 (aa 1503 to 1657) was not activating the mDia1 actin polymerization activity in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, by applying actin polymerization inhibitor cytochalasin D to sciatic nerve crushed rats, we studied the in vivo effect of cytochalasin D and demonstrated that inhibiting actin polymerization would delay the migration of Schwann cells and hinder the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. (frontiersin.org)
  • migration
  • In addition, defective stress fiber assembly and reduced migration speed underlay inefficient invasion of Gα 13 QL melanoma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 3 Also, various vasoactive factors stimulate RhoA and ROCK, leading to enhanced vasoconstriction and migration of VSMCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • In conclusion, LPP appears to be a myocardin-, RhoA/ROK-dependent SMC differentiation marker that plays a role in regulating SMC migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • RhoA and RhoC Have Distinct Roles in Migration and Invasion by Acting through Different Targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitors
  • Interestingly, inactivation of RhoA with C3-exoenzyme or treatment with ROK inhibitors strongly inhibited myocardin mRNA expression in retinoic acid-treated A404 cells or human iliac vein SMCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • guanine-nucleot
  • these states alternate between the active and inactive states via the exchange of GDP to GTP (conducted simultaneously via guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase activating factor). (wikipedia.org)