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  • vitro
  • In order to address some of these issues we have investigated the interaction between Hsp27 and actin, in vitro , using fluorescence probes attached to Hsp27. (hindawi.com)
  • helix
  • The half pitch of the helix is 35 nm and within this length, there are 13 G-actins. (springer.com)
  • The lateral association of the protofilaments generates a pseudo-helical structure, with one turn of the helix containing 13 tubulin dimers, each from a different protofilament. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two main types of secondary structure, the α-helix and the β-strand or β-sheets, were suggested in 1951 by Linus Pauling and coworkers. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • ATP -bound actin then itself binds the barbed end, and the ATP is subsequently hydrolyzed . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of Ca2+, Tn that is tightly bound to Tpm binds actin and holds the Tpm strand in the blocked, or B, state, where Tpm shields actin from the binding of myosin heads. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The data show that a small fraction of actin-bound myosin heads is sufficient for supporting the O-state and, therefore the C-state is not occupied in fully activated skeletal muscle that produces mechanical work at low load. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • A study by Garner and Campbell has suggested that the unit at the end of the ParM strand must have GTP bound to maintain the stability of the polymer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is suggested by their experiment in which they cut growing ParM polymer strands exposing ADP bound ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, this unique helical domain of Inositol Trisphosphate 3 Kinase blocks access to the active site by membrane-bound phosphoinositides, explaining the structural basis for soluble inositol polyphosphate specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • five-stranded
  • In Aquifex aeolicus it contains a ribonuclease H-like motif that is made up of a five-stranded ß-sheet with the second strand antiparallel to the rest. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the N-terminal, the sheet has three strands, whereas in the C-terminal there is a five-stranded sheet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each subdomain is composed of a five-stranded β-sheet, flanked by two α-helices, one positioned perpendicular with respect to the strands and one positioned parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Many of these processes are mediated by extensive and intimate interactions of actin with cellular membranes . (wow.com)
  • Cryo-EM structure of the bacterial actin AlfA reveals unique assembly and ATP-binding interactions and the absence of a conserved subdomain. (semanticscholar.org)
  • SUPERFAMILY
  • The structure of PPX is characterized by the actin-like ATPase domain that is a part of this superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gelsolin is one of the most potent members of the actin-severing gelsolin/villin superfamily, as it severs with nearly 100% efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • ParMs from different bacterial plasmids can form astonishingly diverse helical structures comprising two or four strands to maintain faithful plasmid inheritance. (wikipedia.org)
  • dynamics
  • Hsp27 has been implicated in numerous physiological and pathological processes that involve its interaction with actin and its control of actin dynamics [ 11 - 25 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Actin rate dynamics is well characterized, both experimentally and via modeling. (bradleymonk.com)
  • Additionally
  • Additionally, actin is present at the active zone and plays a role in moving vesicles to the active zone for exocytosis into the synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lastly
  • Lastly, actin plays an important role in the control of gene expression . (wow.com)
  • prokaryotic
  • ParM is a prokaryotic actin homologue which provides the force to drive copies of the R1 plasmid to opposite ends of rod shaped bacteria before cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • The WH2 domain is an ~18-21 amino acids actin-binding motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • In E. coli, this region contains a loop between strands beta-1 and beta-2 with the amino acids glutamate and aspartate (E121, D143, and E150). (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • The polypeptide also contains proline-rich sequences, which may bind profilin-actin heterodimers, and selected Ser residues are phosphorylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • These residues, along with K197 are critical for phosphate binding and ion binding which is commonly seen among other ASKHA (acetate and sugar kinases, Hsp70, actin). (wikipedia.org)
  • archaea
  • However the in-strand contacts and nucleotide binding sites are preserved in prokaryotes and in archaea. (wow.com)
  • fibroblasts
  • Dermal cells differentiate into myofibroblasts by altering their actin gene expression (which is silenced in dermal fibroblasts). (wikipedia.org)
  • When dermal fibroblasts express actin, the cells can slowly contract. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • As might be supposed from its structure, F-actin is rather stiff. (springer.com)
  • Cryo-EM reconstruction of AlfA from Bacillus subtilis reveals the structure of a simplified actin-like filament at 3.4-Å resolution. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Alternatively the actin filament can be considered to have a right-handed helical structure with two strands slowly twisting around each other. (bradleymonk.com)
  • Recently an actin-like protein has been found in a gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, which forms a microtubule-like structure and is involved in plasmid segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • severs
  • ADP -actin dissociates slowly from the pointed end, but this process is greatly accelerated by ADP- cofilin , which severs ADP-rich regions nearest the (-)-ends. (thefullwiki.org)
  • S2 and S3 bind to the actin before the binding of S1 severs actin-actin bonds and caps the barbed end. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoforms
  • In vertebrates, three main groups of actin isoforms , alpha , beta , and gamma have been identified. (wow.com)
  • Residue
  • These toxins (including C. perfringens iota toxin and C. botulinum C2 toxin) attach a ribosyl-ADP moiety to surface arginine residue 177 of G-actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • slowly
  • Subsequently, ADP -actin dissociates slowly from the pointed end, a process significantly accelerated by the actin-binding protein, cofilin . (wikipedia.org)
  • muscle contraction
  • Actin participates in many important cellular processes, including muscle contraction , cell motility , cell division and cytokinesis , vesicle and organelle movement, cell signaling , and the establishment and maintenance of cell junctions and cell shape. (wow.com)
  • The actin filament system that is involved in regulating these cellular pathways is more complex than the actin filament systems that regulates muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • When F-actin is unable to form, long-term depression (LTD) is induced, which promotes opposite results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Szent-Gyorgyi had previously described the more viscous form of myosin produced by slow muscle extractions as 'activated' myosin, and, since Straub's protein produced the activating effect, it was dubbed actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • carboxy-terminal
  • These results indicate that within the β-helical segment of the VacA p55 domain, there are regions of plasticity that tolerate alterations without detrimental effects on protein secretion or activity, as well as a carboxy-terminal region in which similar alterations result in protein misfolding and impaired secretion. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We propose that non-essential β-helical coils and a carboxy-terminal β-helical segment required for proper protein folding and secretion are features shared by numerous autotransporter passenger domains. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Additionally
  • Additionally, actin is present at the active zone and plays a role in moving vesicles to the active zone for exocytosis into the synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, this unique helical domain of Inositol Trisphosphate 3 Kinase blocks access to the active site by membrane-bound phosphoinositides, explaining the structural basis for soluble inositol polyphosphate specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • helix
  • The half pitch of the helix is 35 nm and within this length, there are 13 G-actins. (springer.com)
  • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) consists of two biopolymer strands, coiled around each other to form a double helix. (williamjewell.org)
  • The lateral association of the protofilaments generates a pseudo-helical structure, with one turn of the helix containing 13 tubulin dimers, each from a different protofilament. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two main types of secondary structure, the α-helix and the β-strand or β-sheets, were suggested in 1951 by Linus Pauling and coworkers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hsp70
  • These residues, along with K197 are critical for phosphate binding and ion binding which is commonly seen among other ASKHA (acetate and sugar kinases, Hsp70, actin). (wikipedia.org)
  • single stranded
  • Persistence length measurement of single stranded DNA is viable by various tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, two ends of single stranded DNA were tagged by donor and acceptor dyes to measure average end to end distance which is represented as FRET efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscle contraction
  • Actin participates in many important cellular processes, including muscle contraction, cell motility, cell division and cytokinesis, vesicle and organelle movement, cell signaling, and the establishment and maintenance of cell junctions and cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Actin therefore contributes to processes such as the intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles as well as muscular contraction and cellular migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • The polypeptide also contains proline-rich sequences, which may bind profilin-actin heterodimers, and selected Ser residues are phosphorylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • ParMs from different bacterial plasmids can form astonishingly diverse helical structures comprising two or four strands to maintain faithful plasmid inheritance. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • As might be supposed from its structure, F-actin is rather stiff. (springer.com)
  • The DNA backbone is resistant to cleavage, unless there is a mutation, and both pieces of the double-stranded structure store the same biological information. (williamjewell.org)
  • The double-stranded structure of DNA provides a simple mechanism for DNA replication. (williamjewell.org)
  • Recently an actin-like protein has been found in a gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, which forms a microtubule-like structure and is involved in plasmid segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of PPX is characterized by the actin-like ATPase domain that is a part of this superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • conformational
  • The GDP/GTP structural cycles of human Arf1 and Arf6 feature a unique conformational change that affects the beta2beta3 strands connecting switch 1 and switch 2 (interswitch) and also the amphipathic helical N-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • F-actin can be found in the presynaptic bouton surrounding synaptic vesicle clusters and acting as scaffolding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Postsynaptically, F-actin can be found in the postsynaptic density zone (PSDZ) and throughout the spine head and neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alpha actins, found in muscle tissues, are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isoform Inositol Trisphosphate 3 Kinase B is expressed more widely, and it is found in the cytosol in addition to the endoplasmic reticulum and actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • When F-actin is unable to form, long-term depression (LTD) is induced, which promotes opposite results. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Mutations in the different genes that regulate actin production in humans can cause muscular diseases, variations in the size and function of the heart as well as deafness. (wikipedia.org)
  • domain
  • A few of the strands are connected by helical segments that are longer in the C-terminal domain than in the N-terminal domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The helical domain is juxtaposed against one end of the cleft in the large domain There are three Inositol Trisphosphate 3 Kinases which are encoded by the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Cell surface (cortical) actin remodeling is a cyclic (9-step) process where each step is directly responsive to a cell signaling mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • Actin plays a role in the formation of new spines as well as stabilizing spine volume increase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin plays a role in the formation of new spines as well as stabilized spine volume increase. (wikipedia.org)