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  • discovery of the presen
  • The discovery of the presence of acrylamide in food first occurred when environmental contamination from a Swedish construction project caused widespread death of livestock. (ifst.org)
  • data on acrylamide
  • As part of its full risk assessment, EFSA also updated its European exposure assessment (last carried out in 2011) based on more recent data on acrylamide levels in food. (europa.eu)
  • 2013 - EFSA launched a call to food business operators and other stakeholders to submit additional analytical data on acrylamide levels in foods and beverages collected from 2010 onwards. (europa.eu)
  • Large databases of occurrence data are maintained by the European Commission (European Union Acrylamide Monitoring Database) (European Commission 2006) and the US Food and Drug Administration (Survey Data on Acrylamide in Food: Individual Food Products) (US FDA 2006). (ifst.org)
  • gels
  • Immobilized pH gradient (IPG) gels are the acrylamide gel matrix co-polymerized with the pH gradient, which result in completely stable gradients except the most alkaline (>12) pH values. (wikipedia.org)
  • A high reproducibility in gel pore size and a high-yield electroelution of proteins performed by this highly reliable technique strongly correlate with the polymerization time of the acrylamide gels representing an inherent stability constant of the separation system. (wikipedia.org)
  • potato
  • Acrylamide is found in products such as potato crisps, French fries, bread, biscuits and coffee. (europa.eu)
  • One reason for the high acrylamide content of potato crisps is that a crisp is essentially two surfaces with very little matter between them. (ifst.org)
  • Acrylamide is not present in the native (raw) ingredients ( e.g . raw potato) and is not formed during boiling or microwaving (although some exceptions appear to occur for the latter). (ifst.org)
  • Potato and cereal food products tend to have the highest amounts of acrylamide among commonly consumed foods. (ifst.org)
  • Acrylamide has been measured in bread and candy at low μg/Kg (ppb) concentrations, and in coffee, biscuits and potato chips at high μg/Kg (ppb) concentrations 3 . (caslab.com)
  • Determination of acrylamide in potato chips by a reversed-phase LC-MS method based on a stable isotope dilution assay. (caslab.com)
  • Formation
  • Storing raw potatoes in the fridge may lead to the formation of more free sugars in the potatoes (a process sometimes referred to as 'cold sweetening') and can increase overall acrylamide levels especially if the potatoes are then fried, roasted or baked. (food.gov.uk)
  • It has been shown that the reducing sugars are the limiting factors in acrylamide formation in potatoes, while asparagine appears to be the limiting factor in cereal products (Stadler 2006). (ifst.org)
  • Meat products are very low in acrylamide content, lacking the precursors required for its formation. (ifst.org)
  • Hydration of acrylonitrile results in formation of acrylamide molecule (C3H5NO). (wikipedia.org)
  • Complete acrylamide removal is probably not possible due to other, minor asparagine-independent formation pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • analytical
  • Using this prep and analytical approach, ALS Environmental is able to achieve method reporting limits (MRL) of 0.1 μg/L in water and 1 μg/kg for acrylamide in paperboard and foodstuff. (caslab.com)
  • Occurrence and analytical methods of acrylamide in heat-treated foods - review and recent developments. (caslab.com)
  • sugars
  • Acrylamide is a chemical substance formed by a reaction between amino acids and sugars. (food.gov.uk)
  • Acrylamide forms from sugars and amino acids (mainly one called asparagine) that are naturally present in many foods. (europa.eu)
  • reaction
  • it is primarily a surface reaction, i.e . acrylamide in bread is primarily located in the crust with very low or no amounts in the crumb. (ifst.org)
  • EFSA
  • Most recently, in 2015, the EFSA published its first full risk assessment of acrylamide in food , which confirms that acrylamide levels found in food potentially increases the risk of cancer for all age groups. (food.gov.uk)
  • On 4 June 2015, EFSA published its first full risk assessment of acrylamide in food. (europa.eu)
  • 2015 - EFSA publishes its first full risk assessment of acrylamide in food, which experts conclude potentially increases the risk of developing cancer for consumers in all age groups. (europa.eu)
  • 2014 - Together with national partners in the Member States, EFSA published an infographic on acrylamide in food to help increase awareness about this issue. (europa.eu)
  • 2013 - EFSA accepted a request from the European Commission to provide a scientific opinion on the potential risks for human health of acrylamide in food. (europa.eu)
  • 2009-2012 - EFSA published four consecutive reports on acrylamide levels in food, comparing data from 2007 to 2010 over the series. (europa.eu)
  • risks
  • While we can't completely avoid risks like acrylamide in food, eating a healthy, balanced diet that includes basing meals on starchy carbohydrates and getting your 5 A Day will help reduce your risk of cancer. (food.gov.uk)
  • An important aim of the EPIC Acrylamide Working Group is therefore to evaluate the foods that contribute to dietary AA intake, and to determine risks of developing cancer (endometrial, ovarian, pancreatic, breast, oesophageal, and other sites) in individuals with higher dietary consumption of AA. (iarc.fr)
  • Much research has focused on the human health risks of the levels of acrylamide found in foods and on ways of reducing those levels. (ifst.org)
  • potatoes
  • Acrylamide is a chemical created when some foods, particularly starchy foods like potatoes and bread, are cooked for long periods at high temperatures, such as when baking, frying, grilling, toasting and roasting. (food.gov.uk)
  • This led to investigation of food as a possible source, and the discovery that acrylamide was formed when potatoes were heated above 120̊C. (ifst.org)
  • food
  • Acrylamide is not deliberately added to foods, it is a natural by-product of the cooking process and has always been present in our food. (food.gov.uk)
  • New legislation will require food businesses operators to put in place simple practical steps to manage acrylamide within their food safety management systems. (food.gov.uk)
  • The FAO/WHO Consultation on Health Implications of Acrylamide in Food has undertaken a preliminary evaluation of new and existing data and research on acrylamide. (who.int)
  • Acrylamide also has many non-food industrial uses and is present in tobacco smoke. (europa.eu)
  • Experts from EFSA's Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) reconfirmed previous evaluations that acrylamide in food potentially increases the risk of developing cancer for consumers in all age groups. (europa.eu)
  • The Authority has also consulted consumer organisations, NGOs and the food industry through its Stakeholder Consultative Platform to find out about on-going and recent research related to acrylamide in food. (europa.eu)
  • The reports generally did not reveal any considerable differences from previous years in the levels of acrylamide in most food categories assessed. (europa.eu)
  • The acrylamide content of food(s) varies widely within the same food product, within the same manufacturing facility at different times, and between manufacturers (using different formulations and processing conditions). (ifst.org)
  • The FDA is currently conducting research studies to determine whether acrylamide in food is a potential risk to human health. (doctoroz.com)
  • While some studies have shown that acrylamide in very high doses caused cancer in animals and nerve damage in people exposed to very high levels at work, acrylamide levels in food are much lower. (doctoroz.com)
  • The FDA intends to issue draft guidance for industry concerning acrylamide in food. (doctoroz.com)
  • The FDA's best advice for consumers regarding acrylamide is eating a balanced diet, avoiding too much fried food, and following a few simple steps for storing and/or preparing certain foods. (doctoroz.com)
  • ALS Environmental has developed special prep procedures for water, paperboard and complex food matrices, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the analysis of acrylamide . (caslab.com)
  • In food manufacturing it is used to decrease acrylamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • This raised worldwide public concern because studies in laboratory animals suggested acrylamide had the potential to cause cancer in humans. (food.gov.uk)
  • Acrylamide has also been found to have neurotoxic effects in humans who have been exposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental results that are based on feeding acrylamide to animals might not be applicable to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Laboratory tests show that acrylamide in the diet causes cancer in animals. (food.gov.uk)
  • As of 2016[update] it is still not clear whether acrylamide consumption affects people's risk of developing cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2014[update] it is still not clear whether dietary acrylamide consumption affects people's risk of developing cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrylamide is also a skin irritant and may be a tumor initiator in the skin, potentially increasing risk for skin cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The substance has raised health concerns but it is not clear whether acrylamide consumption affects people's risk of getting cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • substance
  • Acrylamide is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C. 11002), and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrylamide is toxic to human nervous system, therefore all safety measures must be followed while working with this substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Workers were tested for the content of acrylamide-haemoglobin adduct in blood samples, and low levels were unexpectedly found in the non-smoking control group of non-exposed workers. (ifst.org)
  • Samples of commercially available foods in Sweden were then analysed and acrylamide was found in a number of foods commonly consumed, particularly carbohydrate rich foods prepared by heating at high temperature. (ifst.org)
  • Laboratory research has found that some phytochemicals may have the potential to be developed into drugs which could alleviate the toxicity of acrylamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrylamide is found at high levels in dark-colored baked, roasted and fried high-carbohydrate foods, as well as in roasted coffee and barbecued meat. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperatures
  • The duration and temperature of cooking determines the amount of acrylamide produced: long durations and higher temperatures form more acrylamide than short durations and lower temperatures. (food.gov.uk)
  • foods
  • Since acrylamide is present in a wide range of everyday foods, this health concern applies to all consumers but children are the most exposed age group on a body weight basis. (europa.eu)
  • Acrylamide occurs in carbohydrate (reducing sugar)-containing foods prepared by heating above 120°C, e.g. frying, grilling, baking, broiling. (ifst.org)
  • An improved LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of acrylamide in processed foods. (caslab.com)
  • Acrylamide is often formed in the cooking of starchy foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • products
  • in fact, they are based on the 85th centile of the reported distribution of acrylamide in each product type, so the inference is that 15% of products will exceed them. (ifst.org)