• esters
  • Soaps are not made directly from stearic acid, but indirectly by saponification of triglycerides consisting of stearic acid esters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Esters of stearic acid with ethylene glycol , glycol stearate , and glycol distearate are used to produce a pearly effect in shampoos, soaps, and other cosmetic products. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrochloric acid
  • Alternatively, a solution of HAuCl4 can be produced by electrolysis of gold metal in hydrochloric acid: 2 Au + 8 HCl → 2 HAuCl4 + 3H2 To prevent the deposition of gold on the cathode, the electrolysis is carried out in a cell equipped with a membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • A solution of HAuCl4 can also be obtained by the action of chlorine or chlorine water on metallic gold in hydrochloric acid: 2 Au + 3 Cl2 + 2 HCl → 2 HAuCl4 This reaction is widely used for extracting gold from electronic and other "rich" materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • DCA is prepared from chloral hydrate also by the reaction with calcium carbonate and sodium cyanide in water followed by acidifying with hydrochloric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • This method avoids needing a highly nucleophilic aniline or other amine to initiate an amide-forming acyl substitution, but requires synthesis and handling of the unstable thiocarboxylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • adipic acid
  • This species decomposes to adipic acid and nitrous oxide: HO2C(CH2)4C(NO2)=NOH → HO2C(CH2)4CO2H + N2O This conversion is thought to be the largest anthropogenic route to N2O. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H + ), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • The acid is often said to contain " naked protons ", but the "free" protons are, in fact, always bonded to hydrogen fluoride molecules to make the fluoronium cations (similar to the hydronium cation in aqueous solution). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoroantimonic acid thermally decomposes at higher temperatures, generating hydrogen fluoride gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that chemists often write H+(aq) and refer to the hydrogen ion when describing acid-base reactions but the free hydrogen nucleus, a proton, does not exist alone in water, it exists as the hydronium ion, H3O+. (wikipedia.org)
  • With hydrogen chloride it forms chloroacrylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be prepared by the reaction of sulfuric acid with barium chlorate, the insoluble barium sulfate being removed by precipitation: Ba(ClO3)2 + H2SO4 → 2HClO3 + BaSO4 Another method is the heating of hypochlorous acid, producing chloric acid and hydrogen chloride: 3HClO → HClO3 + 2 HCl Chlorate Hypochlorous acid Chlorous acid Perchloric acid Oxidizing acid Greenwood, Norman N. (wikipedia.org)
  • soluble
  • The acid is highly soluble in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents, and this reflects on why shikimic acid is active only against gram-positive bacteria, due to outer membrane impermeability of gram-negatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • Terephthalic acid was produced by oxidation of p -xylene with dilute nitric acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of oxidation involved the use of air in the initial oxidation step to minimize the consumption of nitric acid and difficulty in purification. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxidation of the methyl group takes place in two steps where p -xylene is converted to p -toluic acid and the byproduct undesirable 4-carboxybenzaldehyde along with crude p -toluic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • One exception is the compound HO2C(CH2)4C(NO2)=NOH, which is produced by the oxidation of cyclohexanone with nitric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • CH 3COOH + 3Cl 2 → CCl 3COOH +3HCl Another route to trichloroacetic acid is the oxidation of trichloroacetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Precipitation of sodium chloride thus drives the formation of the oxonium acid compound, which is isolable as a solid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the context of databases, a sequence of database operations that satisfies the ACID properties, and thus can be perceived as a single logical operation on the data, is called a transaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, an Arrhenius acid can also be described as a substance that increases the concentration of hydronium ions when added to water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, an Arrhenius acid could also be said to be one that decreases hydroxide concentration, while an Arrhenius base increases it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus at neutral pH, the acids are fully ionized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, for dithiobenzoic acid pKa = 1.92. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compound
  • Although it is generally believed that usnic acid is exclusively restricted to lichens, in a few unconfirmed isolated cases the compound was found in kombucha tea and non-lichenized ascomycetes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Terephthalic acid is a organic compound with formula C 6 H 4 (CO 2 H) 2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Coumalic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C6H4O4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vinylphosphonic acid is an organophosphorus compound with the formula C2H3PO3H2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thiosalicylic acid is an organosulfur compound containing carboxyl and sulfhydryl functional groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peroxynitric acid is the chemical compound with the formula HNO 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dichloroacetic acid (DCA), sometimes called bichloroacetic acid (BCA), is the chemical compound with formula CHCl 2COOH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Propiolic acid is the organic compound with the formula HC2CO2H. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxamic acid is the organic compound with the formula H2NC(O)CO2H. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastric acid
  • Intrinsic dental erosion, also known as perimolysis, is the process whereby gastric acid from the stomach comes into contact with the teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1983
  • In 1983, Andreas Reuter and Theo Härder coined the acronym ACID as shorthand for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability, building on earlier work by Jim Gray who enumerated Atomicity, Consistency, and Durability but left out Isolation when characterizing the transaction concept. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1983 the US Food and Drug Administration approved acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) as an orphan drug for "prevention of so-called struvite stones" under the newly enacted Orphan Drug Act of 1983. (wikipedia.org)
  • aqueous solution
  • An aqueous solution of an acid has a pH less than 7 and is colloquially also referred to as 'acid' (as in 'dissolved in acid'), while the strict definition refers only to the solute . (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • This reaction proceeds through a p -toluic acid intermediate which is then oxidized to terephthalic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gold nanostructures can be made from chloroauric acid in a two-phase redox reaction whereby metallic clusters are amassed through the simultaneous attachment of self-assembled thiol monolayers on the growing nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • sulfuric acid
  • Fluoroantimonic acid is 10 16 (10 quadrillion) times stronger than 100% sulfuric acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • Its melting point is around 210 °C. In laboratory coumalic acid may be obtained by self-condensation of malic acid in fuming sulfuric acid : Richard H. Wiley and Newton R. Smith (1963). (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • Lewis considered this as a generalization of the Brønsted definition, so that an acid is a chemical species that accepts electron pairs either directly or by releasing protons (H + ) into the solution, which then accept electron pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern definitions are concerned with the fundamental chemical reactions common to all acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The -oic acid nomenclature detail is based on the name of the previously-known chemical benzoic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is defined as the irreversible loss of tooth structure due to chemical dissolution by acids not of bacterial origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • stearic
  • The triglyceride derived from three molecules of stearic acid is called stearin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Stearic acid is obtained from fats and oils by the saponification of the triglycerides using hot water (about 100 °C). The resulting mixture is then distilled. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, the applications of stearic acid exploit its bifunctional character, with a polar head group that can be attached to metal cations and a nonpolar chain that confers solubility in organic solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stearic acid is mainly used in the production of detergents, soaps, and cosmetics such as shampoos and shaving cream products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detergents are obtained from amides and quaternary alkylammonium derivatives of stearic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arrhenius
  • In the special case of aqueous solutions, proton donors form the hydronium ion H 3 O + and are known as Arrhenius acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Aqueous Arrhenius acids have characteristic properties which provide a practical description of an acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, many Lewis acids are not Arrhenius or Brønsted-Lowry acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most acids encountered in everyday life are aqueous solutions , or can be dissolved in water, so the Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry definitions are the most relevant. (wikipedia.org)
  • An Arrhenius acid is a substance that, when added to water, increases the concentration of H + ions in the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Usnic acid is a naturally occurring dibenzofuran derivative found in several lichen species with the formula C 18 H 16 O 7 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Usnic acid has been found to have adrenergic activity in both frog and earthworm nerve junction models in preliminary research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tranexamic acid has been found to decrease the risk of death in people who have significant bleeding due to trauma . (wikipedia.org)
  • Both vinylphosphonic acid homopolymer and its copolymers are the basis of many products which have found applications in scale and corrosion treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 18 to 25% of levopimaric acid is found in pine oleoresin. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • It is believed that usnic acid protects the lichen from adverse effects of sunlight exposure and deters grazing animals with its bitter taste. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to sunlight converts it into trimesic acid (benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other possible sources of erosive acids are from exposure to chlorinated swimming pool water, and regurgitation of gastric acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • reduction
  • Usnic acid and its salt form, sodium usniate, have been marketed in the US as an ingredient in food supplements for use in weight reduction, although this effect is unsupported by scientific evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies revealed this acid is a competitive inhibitor of fumarate reduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • DCA is typically prepared by the reduction of trichloroacetic acid (TCA). (wikipedia.org)
  • vinegar
  • Foods such as fresh fruits, ketchup and pickled food in vinegar have been implicated in causing acid erosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxonium
  • Brookhart's acid is the salt of the diethyl ether oxonium ion and tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate (BAr'4). (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • As in other phosphonic acids, the phosphorus center is tetrahedral, being bonded to an organic group (vinyl in this case), two OH groups, and an oxygen. (wikipedia.org)