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  • IUPAC
  • The name "polylactic acid" does not comply with IUPAC standard nomenclature, and is potentially ambiguous or confusing, because PLA is not a polyacid ( polyelectrolyte ), but rather a polyester. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxamic acid inhibits Lactate dehydrogenase A. Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthesis
  • Here, we show how interference with CYP enzymes acts synergistically with disruption of the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids by gut bacteria, as well as impairment in serum sulfate transport. (mdpi.com)
  • In 1999, using 13 C - and 14 C -labelled precursors, the biosynthesis of domoic acid in the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia was examined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E ) is an α- amino acid that is used by almost all living beings in the biosynthesis of proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis
  • This method avoids needing a highly nucleophilic aniline or other amine to initiate an amide-forming acyl substitution, but requires synthesis and handling of the unstable thiocarboxylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • This is achieved by changes in the rate and depth of breathing (i.e. by hyperventilation or hypoventilation ), which blows off or retains carbon dioxide (and thus carbonic acid) in the blood plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the context of databases, a sequence of database operations that satisfies the ACID properties, and thus can be perceived as a single logical operation on the data, is called a transaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, an Arrhenius acid can also be described as a substance that increases the concentration of hydronium ions when added to water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, an Arrhenius acid could also be said to be one that decreases hydroxide concentration, while an Arrhenius base increases it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus at neutral pH, the acids are fully ionized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, for dithiobenzoic acid pKa = 1.92. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbonic acid
  • The second line of defence of the pH of the ECF consists of controlling of the carbonic acid concentration in the ECF. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bicarbonate is derived from metabolic carbon dioxide which is enzymatically converted to carbonic acid in the renal tubular cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly an excess of H + ions is partially neutralized by the bicarbonate component of the buffer solution to form carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ), which, because it is a weak acid, remains largely in the undissociated form, releasing far fewer H + ions into the solution than the original strong acid would have done. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitric acid
  • Aqua regia , a mixture consisting of hydrochloric and nitric acids, prepared by dissolving sal ammoniac in nitric acid, was described in the works of Pseudo-Geber , a 13th-century European alchemist. (wikipedia.org)
  • One exception is the compound HO2C(CH2)4C(NO2)=NOH, which is produced by the oxidation of cyclohexanone with nitric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aqueous
  • In the special case of aqueous solutions, proton donors form the hydronium ion H 3 O + and are known as Arrhenius acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Aqueous Arrhenius acids have characteristic properties which provide a practical description of an acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • An aqueous solution of an acid has a pH less than 7 and is colloquially also referred to as 'acid' (as in 'dissolved in acid'), while the strict definition refers only to the solute . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most acids encountered in everyday life are aqueous solutions , or can be dissolved in water, so the Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry definitions are the most relevant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acid is often said to contain " naked protons ", but the "free" protons are, in fact, always bonded to hydrogen fluoride molecules to make the fluoronium cations (similar to the hydronium cation in aqueous solution). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloric acid is stable in cold aqueous solution up to a concentration of approximately 30%, and solution of up to 40% can be prepared by careful evaporation under reduced pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • decomposes
  • It is now known that dithionous acid spontaneously decomposes to SO 2 and S(OH) 2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoroantimonic acid thermally decomposes at higher temperatures, generating hydrogen fluoride gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • This species decomposes to adipic acid and nitrous oxide: HO2C(CH2)4C(NO2)=NOH → HO2C(CH2)4CO2H + N2O This conversion is thought to be the largest anthropogenic route to N2O. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidation
  • Oxidation of the ortho isomer gives the benzoic acid derivative that then is cyclized with ammonia and neutralized with base to afford saccharin. (wikipedia.org)
  • CH 3COOH + 3Cl 2 → CCl 3COOH +3HCl Another route to trichloroacetic acid is the oxidation of trichloroacetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidation of the terminal aldehyde instead yields an aldonic acid, while oxidation of both the terminal hydroxyl group and the aldehyde yields an aldaric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • Chebulagic acid inhibits the LPS-induced expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in endothelial cells by suppressing MAPK activation. (medchemexpress.com)
  • gastric acid
  • Intrinsic dental erosion, also known as perimolysis, is the process whereby gastric acid from the stomach comes into contact with the teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1983
  • In 1983, Andreas Reuter and Theo Härder coined the acronym ACID as shorthand for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability, building on earlier work by Jim Gray who enumerated Atomicity, Consistency, and Durability but left out Isolation when characterizing the transaction concept. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1983 the US Food and Drug Administration approved acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) as an orphan drug for "prevention of so-called struvite stones" under the newly enacted Orphan Drug Act of 1983. (wikipedia.org)
  • bases
  • The proper balance between the acids and bases (i.e. the pH) in the ECF is crucial for the normal physiology of the body, and cellular metabolism . (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium
  • Usnic acid and its salt form, sodium usniate, have been marketed in the US as an ingredient in food supplements for use in weight reduction, although this effect is unsupported by scientific evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • TCA-sodium in the Pesticide Properties DataBase (PPDB), accessed June 20, 2014 G. S. Rai and C. L. Hamner Persistence of Sodium Trichloroacetate in Different Soil Types Weeds 2(4) Oct. 1953: 271-279 OECD Trichloroacetic Acid CAS N°: 76-03-9 Accessed June 20, 2014 EPA December 1991. (wikipedia.org)
  • trichloroacetic acid (TCA) EPA Cancellation 12/91 Accessed June 20, 2014 PAN Trichloroacetic acid, sodium salt Dumas (1839). (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • It is believed that usnic acid protects the lichen from adverse effects of sunlight exposure and deters grazing animals with its bitter taste. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to sunlight converts it into trimesic acid (benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other possible sources of erosive acids are from exposure to chlorinated swimming pool water, and regurgitation of gastric acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidity
  • An acid-base imbalance is known as acidaemia when the acidity is high, or alkalaemia when the acidity is low. (wikipedia.org)
  • liquids
  • When you ingest foods and liquids, the end products of digestion and assimilation of nutrients often results in an acid or alkaline-forming effect - the end products are sometimes called acid ash or alkaline ash. (drbenkim.com)
  • So there are two main forces at work on a daily basis that can disrupt the pH of your body fluids - these forces are the acid or alkaline-forming effects of foods and liquids that you ingest, and the acids that you generate through regular metabolic activities. (drbenkim.com)
  • As these examples show, acids (in the colloquial sense) can be solutions or pure substances, and can be derived from acids (in the strict sense) that are solids, liquids, or gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Due to the chiral nature of lactic acid, several distinct forms of polylactide exist: poly- L -lactide ( PLLA ) is the product resulting from polymerization of L , L -lactide (also known as L -lactide). (wikipedia.org)
  • Iodosulfonic acid is not known to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viscous oleoresin secretion is composed of a complex mixture of terpenoids, consisting of roughly equal parts of volatile turpentine and rosin (also known as diterpene resin acids). (wikipedia.org)
  • Uronic acids derived from hexoses are known as hexuronic acids and uronic acids derived from pentoses are known as penturonic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetohydroxamic acid (also known as AHA or Lithostat) is a drug that is a potent and irreversible inhibitor of bacterial and plant urease usually used for urinary tract infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acid erosion, also known as dental erosion, is a type of tooth wear. (wikipedia.org)
  • strong
  • Domoic acid has a very strong affinity for these receptors, which results in excitotoxicity initiated by an integrative action on ionotropic glutamate receptors at both sides of the synapse, coupled with the effect of blocking the channel from rapid desensitization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorosulfonic acid , FSO 2 OH, is a related strong acid with a diminished tendency to evolve hydrogen fluoride . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a strong acid (pKa ≈ −1) and oxidizing agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • Phosphatidic acid consists of a glycerol backbone, with, in general, a saturated fatty acid bonded to carbon -1, an unsaturated fatty acid bonded to carbon -2, and a phosphate group bonded to carbon -3. (wikipedia.org)
  • This compound is more reactive than lactide, because its polymerization is driven by the loss of one equivalent of carbon dioxide per equivalent of lactic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • After addition of [1,2-13Cacetate, NMR spectroscopy showed enrichment of every carbon in domoic acid, indicating incorporation of the carbon isotopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • protons
  • Lewis considered this as a generalization of the Brønsted definition, so that an acid is a chemical species that accepts electron pairs either directly or by releasing protons (H + ) into the solution, which then accept electron pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • Different acyltransferases also have different intracellular distributions, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the mitochondria or peroxisomes, and local concentrations of activated fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Above these concentrations, chloric acid solutions decompose to give a variety of products, for example: 8HClO3 → 4HClO4 + 2H2O + 2Cl2 + 3 O2 3HClO3 → HClO4 + H2O + 2 ClO2 Chloric acid is a powerful oxidizing agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutamate
  • Domoic acid is a structural analog of kainic acid , proline , and endogenous excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate . (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of domoic acid have been attributed to several mechanisms, but the one of concern is through glutamate receptors . (wikipedia.org)