• fatty acids
  • The oxidation of fatty acids by liver prevents ectopic lipid accumulation and improves both insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. (hindawi.com)
  • Common in the tropics, and unusual in composition, with medium chain fatty acids dominant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brazil nut oil contains 75% unsaturated fatty acids composed mainly of oleic and linolenic acids, as well as the phytosterol, beta-sitosterol, and fat-soluble vitamin E. Extra virgin oil can be obtained during the first pressing of the nuts, possibly for use as a substitute for olive oil due to its mild, pleasant flavor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aluminium - color (silver) Aluminium ammonium sulfate - mineral salt Aluminium potassium sulfate - mineral salt Aluminium silicate - anti-caking agent Aluminium sodium sulfate - mineral salt Aluminium sulfate - mineral salt Amaranth - color (red) (FDA: [DELISTED] Red #2) Note that amaranth dye is unrelated to the amaranth plant Amaranth oil - high in squalene and unsaturated fatty acids - used in food and cosmetic industries. (wikipedia.org)
  • extract
  • HPLC-DAD analysis of Citrus macroptera extract showed the great presence of caffeic acid and (−) epicatechin. (springer.com)
  • includes acid and base Baking soda - food base Balm, lemon - Balm oil[disambiguation needed]- Balsam of Peru - used in food and drink for flavoring Barberry - Barley flour - Basil (Ocimum basilicum) - Basil extract - Bay leaves - Beeswax - glazing agent Beet red - color (red) Beetroot red - color (red) Ben oil - extracted from the seeds of the moringa oleifera. (wikipedia.org)
  • juice
  • Amino acids found in orange juice may provide keys to detecting citrus greening disease and combating this stealthy and costly threat to U.S. citrus groves. (phys.org)
  • For a 2012 study in the Journal of Proteome Research , the scientists used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the amino acid composition of juice from oranges grown on HLB-positive or HLB-negative trees. (phys.org)
  • But the researchers found that juice squeezed from oranges of HLB-positive trees had significantly higher concentrations of phenylalanine, which suggests that the HLB pathogen may have interfered with the tree's conversion of phenylalanine to cinnamic acid. (phys.org)
  • Amino acids in orange juice may hold clues to the mostly secret, highly successful attack strategy of a powerful plant pathogen. (unl.edu)
  • Agricultural Research Service chemist Andrew P. Breksa III and University of California-Davis professor Carolyn M. Slupsky have compared the amino acid composition of juice from commercially grown oranges. (unl.edu)
  • d-Limonene levels in the juice and perillic acid levels in plasma were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This substance is present at very low concentrations in common foodstuffs such as orange juice and other orange (Citrus species) products, both of the "sweet" and "bitter" variety. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is made by mixing 28 percent sodium chlorite solution with an acid such as citrus juice. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • These common names refer to their host plants, which are usually citrus species such as the cultivated lime. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this compound is found predominantly in a number of Citrus species, including "bitter" and "sweet" orange varieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has many credits on different citrus species, and general agriculture as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lewis considered this as a generalization of the Brønsted definition, so that an acid is a chemical species that accepts electron pairs either directly or by releasing protons (H+) into the solution, which then accept electron pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Studies of these amino acids by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) chemist Andrew P. Breksa III and University of California-Davis professor Carolyn M. Slupsky may pave the way to a safe, effective, environmentally friendly approach to undermine Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the microbial culprit behind HLB. (phys.org)
  • For instance, if the HLB pathogen were causing havoc with the trees' ability to create, use and recycle amino acids, scientists might be able to use that information as a starting point for a counterattack strategy. (phys.org)
  • An orange tree can convert this amino acid into cinnamic acid, a precursor to compounds thought to be important to the tree's defense system. (phys.org)
  • The amino acid profiles may have another use, as well. (unl.edu)
  • Trees need amino acids for growth, development, and defense. (unl.edu)
  • But what if the HLB pathogen were causing havoc with the trees' ability to create, use, and recycle these amino acids? (unl.edu)
  • These experiments revealed an uncharacteristic encoded sequence (21 amino acids in Citrus sinensis and 30 amino acids in Chenopodium album) located on the N-terminal that was absent from the mature protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies inspired by inconsistent data revealed that chlorophyllase in Citrus lacking the 21 amino sequence on the N-terminal results in extensive chlorophyll breakdown and the degreening effect that should occur in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • antioxidant
  • Administration of CCl 4 increased the serum ALT, AST, ALP enzymatic activities and lipid peroxidation products but decreased the cellular antioxidant activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in rats which were brought back to near normal levels by the treatment with Citrus macroptera . (springer.com)
  • The results of this study suggest that Citrus macroptera exerts hepatoprotective activity via promoting the antioxidant defense against CCl 4 -induced oxidative liver damage. (springer.com)
  • Total phenolics, organic acids, sugars and antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus clementina Hort. (gva.es)
  • Some organoleptic and nutritive parameters related to fruit quality (total soluble solids, total acidity, organic acids and sugars), the content of bioactive compounds (total phenolics) as well as the total antioxidant activity (TAA) due to hydrophilic (H-TAA) and lipophilic (L-TAA) compounds have been determined in Clementine juices. (gva.es)
  • Argon - propellant Rocket (Arugula) Asafoetida - Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) - antioxidant (water-soluble) Ascorbyl palmitate - antioxidant (fat soluble) Ascorbyl stearate - antioxidant (fat soluble) Aspartame - artificial sweetener Astaxanthin - color Avocado oil - used a substitute for olive oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • juices
  • Synephrine, although already known as a synthetic organic compound, was first isolated as a natural product from the leaves of various Citrus trees, and its presence noted in different Citrus juices, by Stewart and co-workers in the early 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • infants using feeding bottles containing fruit juices (especially when used as a comforter) are therefore at greater risk of acid erosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • peel
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of phenolic compounds in Citrus macroptera peel powder and the protective effect of Citrus macroptera against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver injury in rats. (springer.com)
  • acidic
  • A number of medications such as chewable vitamin C, aspirin and some iron preparations are acidic and may contribute towards acid erosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any frothing or swishing acidic drinks around the mouth before swallowing increases the risk of widespread acid erosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic. (wikipedia.org)
  • solids
  • As these examples show, acids (in the colloquial sense) can be solutions or pure substances, and can be derived from acids (in the strict sense) that are solids, liquids, or gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • dissolution
  • The enzymatic hydrolysis of the peels by cellulase, β-glucosidase, and pectinase enzymes resulted in 72% dissolution of the peels, including 18.7% galacturonic acid and 53.3% of a total of glucose, fructose, galactose, and arabinose. (chalmers.se)
  • It is defined as the irreversible loss of tooth structure due to chemical dissolution by acids not of bacterial origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • Plasma concentrations of perillic acid reached maximal levels at 1 h after the lemonade consumption and declined rapidly as a function of time with the terminal elimination half-life ranging from 0.82 to 1.84 h. (aacrjournals.org)
  • lemon
  • Citrus × depressa (Shikwasa, Hirami lemon) Jabara Molecular characterization and genetic diversity among Japanese acid citrus (Citrus spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • The butterfly is also known as the common lime butterfly, lemon butterfly, lime swallowtail, small citrus butterfly, chequered swallowtail, dingy swallowtail and citrus swallowtail. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially
  • Acid erosion begins initially in the enamel, causing it to become thin, and can progress into dentin, giving the tooth a dull yellow appearance and leading to dentin hypersensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • Citrus macroptera administration has also shown to decrease the necrotic zones, fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration in CCl 4 treated rats. (springer.com)
  • Both in vitro and in vivo data suggest that citrus flavonoids decrease macrophage uptake of oxidized LDL and macrophage CE accumulation and improve dyslipidemia. (hindawi.com)
  • chlorophyll
  • The double bond of the carbonyl forms again and the serine residue returns to chlorophyllase and the ester of the chlorophyll is now a carboxylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Citrus sinesis and Chenopodium album were the first plants from which the genes encoding chlorophyllase were isolated. (wikipedia.org)
  • defense
  • No one understands precisely how the pathogen overcomes the defense system a citrus tree can ordinarily mobilize when it's under siege," Breksa says. (unl.edu)
  • grown
  • A late-ripening variety that can develop more citrus and peach notes is grown in warmer climates (such as Alsace and parts of Austria). (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Acid erosion, also known as dental erosion, is a type of tooth wear. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the special case of aqueous solutions, proton donors form the hydronium ion H3O+ and are known as Arrhenius acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • oils
  • d-Limonene, a monoterpene, is widely distributed as a natural nonnutritive constituent of a variety of foods and volatile oils, particularly citrus oils. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pumpkin seed oil A number of citrus plants yield pressed oils. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • 1999. Effect of potassium, magnesium and calcium deficiencies on nitrogen constituents and chloroplast components in Citrus leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, hydrogen chloride, acetic acid, and most other Brønsted-Lowry acids cannot form a covalent bond with an electron pair and are therefore not Lewis acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • The current study is designed to determine the systemic availability of perillic acid, a major and biologically active metabolite of d-limonene, after a single dose administration of Mediterranean-style lemonade. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our study illustrates that the major metabolite of d-limonene is bioavailable after oral consumption of a citrus preparation rich in d-limonene content. (aacrjournals.org)
  • leaves
  • Citrus longispina is a very beautiful citrus tree, which has striking colors, with a background of dark colored twigs, pale green leaves and pale yellow fruit. (wikipedia.org)